אחאי בריבי ראה חזיר שכרוך אחר רחל מהו מאי קמיבעיא ליה אילימא לבכורה וקמיבעיא ליה אי הלכתא כרשב"ג אי הלכתא כרבנן תיבעי ליה טלה by Aḥai the Distinguished [beribbi]: If one saw an animal with the appearance of a pig that was trailing after a ewe, what is the halakha? The Gemara asks: What is the dilemma he is raising? If we say he is inquiring with regard to the firstborn status of the future offspring, and he is therefore essentially asking if the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel or if the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, then let the dilemma be raised with respect to the more common case of a lamb, rather than the irregular case of a pig-like animal.
כי קמיבעיא ליה לבכורה ואליבא דרבנן לאכילה ואליבא דרשב"ג The Gemara answers: Actually, when Aḥai the Distinguished raised the dilemma it was with respect to the ramifications of each opinion: He inquired with regard to the future offspring’s firstborn status, and this aspect of the dilemma was raised under the assumption that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. He also inquired with regard to whether or not the pig-like animal is permitted for consumption, and this aspect of the dilemma was raised under the assumption that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.
לבכורה ואפי' לרבנן דאמרי מרחמא כי מרחמא דמינה דלא מינה לא או דלמא דלא מינה נמי מרחמא The Gemara elaborates: He inquired with regard to the offspring’s firstborn status, and this question applies even according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who say that an animal might be merciful toward other young animals. The Gemara explains the dilemma: One can say that when an animal is merciful this applies only toward an animal that is of its own species, but to a young animal that is not of its own species a mother animal certainly does not show mercy. Therefore, the fact that it nursed proves that it is its offspring. Or perhaps an animal might also be merciful toward an offspring that is not of its own species. If it is merciful only to its own species, the ewe is exempt from having its future offspring counted a firstborn; if its mercy extends to other species then it is not exempt.
לאכילה ואפי' לרשב"ג אם תמצא לומר סבר יולדת מרחמא דמינה דלאו מינה לא או דלמא דלאו מינה נמי מרחמא תיקו: And Aḥai the Distinguished also inquired with regard to whether the pig-like animal is permitted for consumption, and this question applies even according to the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: If you say he holds that an animal that has given birth might be merciful and nurse another mother’s offspring, perhaps that is so only with regard to an animal that is of its own species, but to an animal that is not of its own species it is not merciful, which means the pig-like animal is kosher. Or perhaps a mother might also be merciful toward an offspring that is not of its own species, in which case the pig-like animal might not be kosher and therefore may not be eaten. After explaining the dilemma of Aḥai the Distinguished, the Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.
מתני׳ רבי יוסי בן המשולם אומר השוחט את הבכור עושה מקום בקופיץ מיכן ומיכן ותולש את השער ובלבד שלא יזיזנו ממקומו וכן תולש את השער לראות מקום מום: MISHNA: Rabbi Yosei ben HaMeshullam says: Since it is prohibited by Torah law to shear a firstborn, as it states: “And you shall not shear the firstborn of your flock” (Deuteronomy 15:19), one who is slaughtering a firstborn, and must clear hair or wool from the area of the neck in order to facilitate proper slaughter, clears space by uprooting the hair with a cleaver [bekofitz] from here and from there, on either side of the neck, although he thereby plucks out the hair. He may clear space in this manner provided that he does not move the plucked hair from its place; it must remain intermingled with the rest of the hair so it will appear that he did not shear the animal. And likewise, one plucks the hair to enable one of the Sages to examine the place of a blemish and thereby determine whether it is permitted to slaughter the firstborn outside the Temple.
גמ׳ אמר רב הלכה כרבי יוסי בן המשולם בעו מיניה מרב הונא כנגדו ביו"ט מהו טעמא דרבי יוסי בן המשולם משום דקסבר תולש לאו היינו גוזז וביום טוב אסור דהוה ליה עוקר דבר מגידולו GEMARA: Rav says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben HaMeshullam. The Sages raised a dilemma before Rav Huna: What is the halakha in the parallel case of one who wishes to slaughter a non-sacred animal on a Festival? The resolution depends on the reason for the ruling of Rabbi Yosei ben HaMeshullam: Does he permit clearing hair with a cleaver because he holds that plucking is not the same as shearing, and as opposed to plucking the hair of a firstborn, it is prohibited to pluck hair on the Festival, as this is considered uprooting an item from its place of growth?
או דלמא בעלמא סבר רבי יוסי בן המשולם תולש היינו גוזז והיינו טעמא דשרי דהוה ליה דבר שאין מתכוין וביו"ט דבר שאין מתכוין מותר Or perhaps in general Rabbi Yosei ben HaMeshullam holds that plucking is considered a form of shearing. And this is the reason that it is permitted to clear space with a cleaver in the case of the firstborn, as it is an unintentional act, i.e., an action performed for a permitted purpose from which a prohibited labor may inadvertently ensue, since he does not intend to pluck out the hair; and on a Festival an unintentional act is permitted.
אמר להו זילו שיילוה לרב חננאל אי אמר הלכה כרבי יוסי בן המשולם איפשוט לכו אתו שיילוה אמר להו הכי אמר רב הלכה כרבי יוסי בן המשולם אתו לקמיה דרב הונא אמר להו כנגדו ביום טוב מותר איתמר נמי אמר רב חנניה בר שלמיא משמיה דרב כנגדו ביום טוב Rav Huna said to them: Go and ask Rav’s disciple, Rav Ḥananel, and if Rav in fact said the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben HaMeshullam, I will explain to you the resolution of your dilemma. They went and asked Rav Ḥananel, and he said to them that this is what Rav says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei ben HaMeshullam. They came before Rav Huna, and he said to them: In the parallel case of one who wishes to slaughter a non-sacred animal on a Festival, it is permitted to pluck the hair in order to facilitate proper slaughter. It was also stated that Rav Ḥananya bar Shelamya says in the name of Rav: In the parallel case of one who wishes to slaughter a non-sacred animal on a Festival,