Beitzah 31aביצה ל״א א
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31aל״א א

מתני׳ מביאין עצים מן השדה מן המכונס ומן הקרפף אפי' מן המפוזר איזהו קרפף כל שסמוך לעיר דברי ר' יהודה ר' יוסי אומר כל שנכנסין לו בפותחת ואפילו בתוך תחום שבת:

MISHNA: One may bring wood chopped from a tree the previous day from an unfenced field, but only from that which has been gathered into a pile before the Festival for the purpose of using it for kindling. However, scattered wood is muktze and may not be handled. And if one brings wood from a karpef used for storage, he may bring even from the scattered wood, as it is considered a guarded courtyard rather than a field, and one does not remove even scattered items from his mind if they are stored inside such an enclosure. The mishna explains: What is a karpef? It is any enclosure that is near a city, but if it is far from a city, it is considered a field; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: Any fenced place into which one can enter only with a key is a karpef, even if it is located at a distance from a city, provided that it is within the Shabbat limit.

גמ׳ אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אין מביאין עצים אלא מן המכונסין שבקרפף והא אנן תנן מן הקרפף ואפילו מן המפוזרים מתניתין יחידאה היא

GEMARA: Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: One may not bring wood except from the wood that was gathered in a karpef. The Gemara challenges: But didn’t we learn in the mishna: And from a karpef, even from scattered wood? The Gemara answers: The mishna follows an individual opinion.

דתניא א"ר שמעון בן אלעזר לא נחלקו בית שמאי ובית הלל על המפוזרים שבשדות שאין מביאין ועל המכונסין שבקרפף שמביאין על מה נחלקו על המפוזרין שבקרפף ועל המכונסין שבשדות שבית שמאי אומרים לא יביא ובית הלל אומרים

One may not rely on it, as is clear from a different source that the majority view is otherwise, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree with regard to wood scattered in fields that one may not bring it on a Festival to one’s house for kindling, nor with regard to wood gathered in a karpef that one may bring it. With regard to what did they disagree? It is with regard to scattered wood in a karpef and gathered wood in fields, as Beit Shammai say: He may not bring it, and Beit Hillel say: He may bring it. Although the lenient opinion with regard to gathered wood in a field is attributed to Beit Hillel, this is only according to the minority view of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. However, most Sages disagree and say that one may not bring wood from a field at all, even according to Beit Hillel.

יביא אמר רבא עלי קנים ועלי גפנים אף על גב דמכנפי להו ומותבי כיון דאי מדלי זיקא מבדר להו כמפוזרים דמו ואסורין ואי אתנח מנא מאתמול עלייהו שפיר דמי:

Rava said: With regard to reed leaves and vine leaves, although they are gathered together and placed in the same spot, since if a wind comes it will scatter them, they are already considered scattered and are therefore prohibited. Given that they are likely to be scattered in the wind, one does not intend to use them. However, if one placed a vessel on them the day before to prevent their being scattered in the wind, it seems well and is permitted.

איזהו קרפף וכו': אבעיא להו היכי קאמר כל שסמוך לעיר והוא דאית ליה פותחת ואתא ר' יוסי למימר כיון דאית ליה פותחת אפילו בתוך תחום שבת נמי

The mishna discussed the question: What is a karpef? Rabbi Yehuda states that it is any enclosure that is near a city, while in Rabbi Yosei’s opinion it is any fenced place into which one can enter only with a key, provided that it is within the Shabbat limit of a city. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to what case is the mishna speaking? Does Rabbi Yehuda mean to say that a karpef is any place that is near a city, provided that it has a key, otherwise it is not a karpef at all; and Rabbi Yosei comes to say: Since it has a key, even if it is not near a city, as long as it is within the Shabbat limit it is also considered a karpef? According to this understanding, Rabbi Yosei’s view is more lenient than that of Rabbi Yehuda.

או דלמא הכי קאמר כל שסמוך לעיר בין דאית ליה פותחת בין דלית ליה פותחת ואתא ר' יוסי למימר אפי' בתוך תחום שבת ודוקא דאית ליה פותחת אבל לית ליה פותחת אפילו סמוך לעיר נמי לא

Or perhaps this is what Rabbi Yehuda is saying: Any enclosure that is near a city is a karpef, whether it has a key or does not have a key, and Rabbi Yosei comes to say: With regard to the distance, it is a karpef even if it is not near a city, provided that it is within the Shabbat limit, but specifically if it has a key. However, if it does not have a key, even if it is near a city it is also not considered a karpef. According to this understanding, the opinion of Rabbi Yosei is not necessarily the more lenient one; rather, for him the defining issue is whether or not there is a key, regardless of distance.

ת"ש מדקתני ר' יוסי אומר כל שנכנסין לו בפותחת ואפילו בתוך תחום שבת ש"מ רבי יוסי תרתי לקולא קאמר ש"מ אמר רב סלא אמר רבי ירמיה הלכה כרבי יוסי להקל:

The Gemara answers: Come and hear from the fact that it is taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yosei says: Any place into which one enters with a key, even within the Shabbat limit, and he does not say: If one enters, but rather: Any place into which one enters, it shows that the key is not the determining factor. One may learn from this that Rabbi Yosei stated two conditions as leniencies. In other words, he is not more stringent than Rabbi Yehuda in any situation; he is lenient in all cases. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is the case. Rav Salla said that Rabbi Yirmeya said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei as a leniency; Rabbi Yosei should be understood in this manner, and one should rule accordingly.

מתני׳ אין מבקעין עצים לא מן הקורות ולא מן הקורה שנשברה ביו"ט ואין מבקעין לא בקרדום ולא במגרה ולא במגל אלא בקופיץ: גמ׳

MISHNA: One may not chop wood on a Festival neither from beams intended for construction nor from a beam that broke on a Festival, although it no longer serves any purpose. And one may not chop wood on a Festival, neither with an ax, nor with a saw, nor with a sickle, as these are clearly craftsman’s tools used on weekdays. Rather, one may chop only with a cleaver. Using this tool differs greatly from the weekday manner in which wood is chopped.