שְׁמוּאֵל — הֲלָכָה לְמַעֲשֶׂה אֲתָא לְאַשְׁמוֹעִינַן. it is reasonable to conclude that Shmuel came to teach us the practical halakha. Knowing that a baraita permits the practice, Shmuel found it necessary to state that the halakha is otherwise.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: אֵין שׁוֹנִין קֶמַח בְּיוֹם טוֹב. מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי פַּפְּיָיס וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתִירָא אָמְרוּ: שׁוֹנִין. וְשָׁוִין שֶׁאִם נָפַל לְתוֹכָן צְרוֹר אוֹ קֵיסָם, שֶׁשּׁוֹנִין. § The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not sift flour a second time on a Festival, as this involves unnecessary extra effort. They said in the name of Rabbi Papeyyas and Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira: One may sift flour a second time. However, they all agree that if a pebble or a wood chip fell into the flour after it had been sifted the previous day, one may sift it a second time in order to remove the items.
תָּנֵי תַּנָּא קַמֵּיהּ דְּרָבִינָא: אֵין שׁוֹנִין קֶמַח בְּיוֹם טוֹב, אֲבָל נָפַל צְרוֹר אוֹ קֵיסָם — בּוֹרֵר בְּיָדוֹ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: כׇּל שֶׁכֵּן דְּאָסוּר, דְּהָוֵה לֵיהּ כְּבוֹרֵר. A tanna taught the following baraita before Ravina: One may not sift flour a second time on a Festival, but if a pebble or a wood chip fell into the flour after the first sifting, he may remove it with his hand. Ravina said to him: All the more so is the latter procedure prohibited, as it is similar to the prohibited labor of selecting. It is therefore preferable to sift the flour with a sieve, and the unwanted items will thereby be removed.
דָּרֵשׁ רָבָא בַּר רַב הוּנָא זוּטֵי אַפִּתְחָא דִנְהַרְדְּעָא: שׁוֹנִין קֶמַח בְּיוֹם טוֹב. אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב נַחְמָן: פּוּקוּ וֶאֱמַרוּ לֵיהּ לְאַבָּא: שְׁקִילָא טֵיבוּתָךְ וְשַׁדְיָ[א] אַחִזְרֵי, פּוֹק חֲזִי כַּמָּה מַהוֹלָתָא הַדְרָן בִּנְהַרְדְּעָא. Rava bar Rav Huna the Short taught at the entrance to Neharde’a: One may sift flour a second time on a Festival. Rav Naḥman said to the students standing before him: Go out and say to Abba, i.e., to Rava bar Rav Huna, as Rava is a shortened form of Rav Abba: Your good has been removed and cast upon thorns, meaning that your teachings are not needed. Go out and see how many sieves circulate in Neharde’a, as all the women already know that this is permitted.
דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּרַב יוֹסֵף נָהֲלָא קִמְחָא אַגַּבָּא דְּמַהוֹלְתָּא. אֲמַר לַהּ: חֲזַי, דַּאֲנָא רִפְתָּא מְעַלַּיְתָא בָּעֵינָא. דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּרַב אָשֵׁי נָהֲלָא קִמְחָא אַגַּבָּא דְּפָתוּרָא. אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: הָא דִּידַן, בְּרַתֵּיה דְּרָמֵי בַּר חָמָא, וְרָמֵי בַּר חָמָא מָרָא דְעוֹבָדָא הֲוָה, וְאִי לָאו דַּחֲזַאי מִבֵּי נָשָׁא לָא הֲוָה עָבְדָא. The Gemara relates that Rav Yosef’s wife was once sifting flour in an unusual manner on the reverse side of a sieve. He said to her: Look, I want good-quality bread, hinting that she need not invert the sieve but may sift the flour in her regular fashion. The Gemara likewise relates that Rav Ashi’s wife was once sifting flour onto a table, rather than into a bowl in the usual manner. Rav Ashi said: This one of ours, my wife, is the daughter of Rami bar Ḥama, and Rami bar Ḥama is a master of good deeds who is meticulous in his performance of mitzvot. Had my wife not observed this practice in her father’s house, she would not have acted in this manner. Therefore, one can learn the halakha in practice from her actions.
מַתְנִי׳ הוֹלֵךְ אָדָם אֵצֶל חֶנְוָנִי הָרָגִיל אֶצְלוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: תֵּן לִי בֵּיצִים וֶאֱגוֹזִים בְּמִנְיָן, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לִהְיוֹת מוֹנֶה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. MISHNA: A person may go on a Festival to a grocer from whom he is accustomed to buy and say to him: Give me eggs and nuts of such-and-such a number, as it is the manner of a homeowner to count this way in his own house. Counting eggs or nuts is not considered a commercial activity, as people regularly mention the number of eggs and nuts that they need.
גְּמָ׳ תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הוֹלֵךְ אָדָם אֵצֶל רוֹעֶה הָרָגִיל אֶצְלוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: תֵּן לִי גְּדִי אֶחָד אוֹ טָלֶה אֶחָד. אֵצֶל טַבָּח הָרָגִיל אֶצְלוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: תֵּן לִי כַּף אַחַת אוֹ יָרֵךְ אַחַת. אֵצֶל פַּטָּם הָרָגִיל אֶצְלוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: תֵּן לִי תּוֹר אֶחָד אוֹ גּוֹזָל אֶחָד. אֵצֶל נַחְתּוֹם הָרָגִיל אֶצְלוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: תֵּן לִי כִּכָּר אֶחָד אוֹ גְּלוּסְקָא אַחַת. GEMARA: The Sages taught in the Tosefta: A person may go on a Festival to a shepherd with whom he is accustomed to deal and say to him: Give me one kid, or one lamb. Similarly, one may go on a Festival to a butcher from whom he is accustomed to buy and say to him: Give me one foreleg of an animal, or one thigh. Likewise, one may approach one who deals in fattened fowl from whom he is accustomed to buy and say to him: Give me one dove or one pigeon. He may also visit a baker from whom he is accustomed to buy and say to him: Give me one loaf or one cake [geluska].
וְאֵצֶל חֶנְוָנִי הָרָגִיל אֶצְלוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: תֵּן לִי עֶשְׂרִים בֵּיצִים, אוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים אֱגוֹזִים, עֲשָׂרָה אֲפַרְסְקִין, וַחֲמִשָּׁה רִמּוֹנִים וְאֶתְרוֹג אֶחָד. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַזְכִּיר לוֹ סְכוּם מִדָּה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר: וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַזְכִּיר לוֹ סְכוּם מִקָּח. And one may go on a Festival to a grocer from whom he is accustomed to buy and say to him: Give me twenty eggs, or fifty nuts, or ten peaches, or five pomegranates, or one etrog, provided that he does not mention any measure. In other words, he must not specify a unit of measurement, e.g., a kav; rather, he must state a number, which is not the usual manner of making a purchase. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: This is permitted, provided that he does not mention the amount of the purchase, meaning that he must not mention the sum of money that he is spending, but rather he must take what he needs and after the Festival they will calculate how much he owes.
הֲדַרַן עֲלָךְ אֵין צָדִין
הַמֵּבִיא כַּדֵּי יַיִן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם — לֹא יְבִיאֵם בְּסַל וּבְקוּפָּה, אֲבָל מֵבִיא הוּא עַל כְּתֵפוֹ אוֹ לְפָנָיו. וְכֵן הַמּוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַתֶּבֶן — לֹא יַפְשִׁיל אֶת הַקּוּפָּה לַאֲחוֹרָיו, אֲבָל מְבִיאָהּ הוּא בְּיָדוֹ. וּמַתְחִילִין MISHNA: One who brings wine jugs from one place to another place may not bring a large number of them in a basket or in a tub in the usual weekday manner on a Festival, as this is disrespectful of the Festival; but he may bring one or two barrels on his shoulder or carry them in front of himself. Similarly, one who brings straw for kindling or for feeding animals may not place the tub behind him while carrying it, as this is the usual weekday manner; but he may transport it in front of him in his hand, in an unusual fashion. And one may begin taking straw for kindling