מעבר לסכינא אפומא דדקולא ואמרי ליה לחדדה קא עביד מר או להעביר שמנוניתה ואמר לי להעביר שמנוניתה וחזיתי לדעתיה דלחדדה קא עביד וקסבר הלכה ואין מורין כן
running a knife over the rim of a basket on a Festival. And I said to him: Is the Master doing so in order to sharpen it or in order to remove its fat? And he said to me: To remove its fat. And I nevertheless perceived his intention, that he did so in order to sharpen it. He concealed this from me, however, because he holds that Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion is the halakha but a public ruling is not issued to that effect; therefore he did not wish to permit the practice explicitly.
ואמר אביי הוה קאימנא קמיה דמר והוה קא מעבר סכינא אשפתא דרחיא ואמרי ליה לחדדה קא בעי מר או להעביר שמנוניתה ואמר לי להעביר שמנוניתה וחזיתי לדעתיה דלחדדה קא עביד וקסבר הלכה ואין מורין כן
Similarly, Abaye said: I was standing before my Master and teacher, Rabba, and he was running a knife over the edge of a millstone on a Festival. And I said to him: Does the Master wish to sharpen it, or is he doing this in order to remove its fat? And he said to me: To remove its fat. And I perceived his intention, that he did so in order to sharpen it, but he holds: This is the halakha, but a public ruling is not issued to that effect.
איבעיא להו מהו להראות סכין לחכם ביום טוב רב מרי בריה דרב ביזנא שרי ורבנן אסרי ורב יוסף אמר תלמיד חכם רואה לעצמו ומשאילה לאחרים
A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to showing a slaughtering knife to a Sage on a Festival so that he may examine it for nicks and imperfections that would render it unfit to be used for slaughtering? Rav Mari, son of Rav Bizna, permitted it, whereas the Rabbis prohibited it, as this is somewhat similar to a weekday activity. And Rav Yosef said: A Torah scholar may examine a knife for himself in his own home and then lend it to others, who may also slaughter with it. Since the examination is not performed in public, it does not appear similar to a weekday activity.
ואמר רב יוסף סכין שעמדה מותר לחדדה ביום טוב והני מילי הוא דפסקא אגב דוחקא
§ And Rav Yosef said: With regard to a knife that became blunt without being nicked, it is permitted to sharpen it on a Festival. And this applies only if the knife still cuts, albeit with difficulty, so that when he sharpens it he is seen not as making a new utensil but merely as improving an old one. However, if the knife no longer cuts at all, it is prohibited to sharpen it.
דרש רב חסדא ואיתימא רב יוסף אחד סכין שנפגמה ואחד שפוד שנרצם ואחד גריפת תנור וכירים ביום טוב באנו למחלוקת ר' יהודה ורבנן דתניא אין בין יו"ט לשבת אלא אוכל נפש בלבד ר' יהודה מתיר אף מכשירי אוכל נפש
Rav Ḥisda taught, and some say it was Rav Yosef who taught: A knife that became nicked on a Festival, a roasting skewer [shappud] that was crushed on a Festival and its point broke off, and the sweeping of the coals in an oven and a stove on a Festival to prepare them for baking, with regard to all of these we have arrived at the dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis. As it is taught in a baraita: The difference between a Festival and Shabbat is only with regard to the preparation of food. Rabbi Yehuda permits even actions that facilitate preparation of food on a Festival.
מ"ט דת"ק אמר קרא (שמות יב, טז) הוא לבדו יעשה לכם הוא ולא מכשיריו ור' יהודה אמר קרא לכם לכם לכל צרכיכם
The Gemara explains: What is the reason of the first tanna for prohibiting actions that facilitate food preparation? The verse states: “Save that which every person must eat, that alone may be done for you” (Exodus 12:16), from which it may be inferred: “That” may be done on a Festival, but not actions that facilitate it. And Rabbi Yehuda adduces proof for his view from the fact that the verse states: “For you,” indicating: For you, for all your needs, and that which facilitates food preparation is also a need.
ות"ק הא כתיב לכם אמר לך ההוא לכם ולא לנכרים
The Gemara asks: And according to the first tanna, is it not written “for you”? What does he learn from this phrase? The Gemara answers: That tanna could have said to you that that phrase comes to teach: For you, but not for gentiles.
ואידך נמי הא כתיב הוא אמר לך כתיב הוא וכתיב לכם ולא קשיא כאן במכשירין שאפשר לעשותן מערב יו"ט כאן במכשירין שאי אפשר לעשותן מערב יו"ט
The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna, Rabbi Yehuda, too, isn’t it written: “That,” which indicates a limitation? The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda could have said to you: The limiting word “that” is written, and the expansive phrase “for you,” indicating all your needs, is written as well, but this is not difficult and no contradiction is involved. One can say that here, it is referring to actions that facilitate food preparation that can be performed on the eve of the Festival; the Torah prohibits these on a Festival. There, it is referring to actions that facilitate food preparation that cannot be performed on the eve of the Festival. The latter may be performed even on the Festival itself, as they too are part of the preparation of food, similar to cooking.
אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שפוד שנרצף אסור לתקנו ביו"ט פשיטא לא צריכא דאע"ג דמפשיט בידיה
Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a roasting skewer that became bent, it is prohibited to repair it on a Festival. The Gemara asks: This is obvious; it is clear that one may not fix a utensil on a Festival. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary to state this halakha with regard to a particular case: Although the skewer can be straightened by hand and no special tool is needed for this task, it is nevertheless prohibited.
אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שפוד שצלו בו בשר אסור לטלטלו ביו"ט רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב מלכיו שומטו ומניחו בקרן זוית
And Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a skewer upon which one roasted meat, it is prohibited to move it on a Festival, as it has already served its purpose on the Festival, and it is not fit for any other use. Rav Adda bar Ahava said that Rav Malkiyu said: He may pull the skewer out and place it in a corner so that it will not endanger anyone, as it could if it were left in the middle of the house.
אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב הונא והוא שיש עליו כזית בשר רבינא אמר אף על פי שאין עליו בשר מותר לטלטלו מידי דהוה אקוץ ברשות הרבים
Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav Huna said: And this ruling applies only where the skewer has an olive-bulk of meat on it; in such a case he may move the skewer on account of the meat and drag it into the corner in an unusual manner. However, if it does not have an olive-bulk of meat on it, he may not move it at all. Ravina said: Although it does not have an olive-bulk of meat on it, it is permitted to move it in the regular manner and place it in a corner, just as in the case of a thorn lying in the public domain. For the sake of public safety, it is permitted to remove such a thorn by moving it in increments, each less than four cubits. The same applies to this skewer; since it might harm someone where it is, it may be moved to a corner.
אמר רב חיננא בריה דרב איקא שפוד שפחות וגומות רב מלכיו
Apropos Rav Malkiyu, to whom only a few halakhot are attributed, the Gemara mentions that Rav Ḥinnana, son of Rav Ika, said: The halakha with regard to a skewer that had been used for roasting meat but no longer has an olive-bulk of meat on it, that it may be moved to a corner; and likewise, the halakha concerning maidservants, that even if a woman brought one hundred maidservants into the marriage as her dowry, her husband may nevertheless compel her to perform some sort of work so that her boredom not bring her to sin (Ketubot 61b); and finally, the halakha with regard to follicles, that if a girl has two hair follicles in her pubic region, even if there are no hairs growing from them, she is considered to have reached majority and may perform ḥalitza; these three halakhot were all stated by Rav Malkiyu.
בלורית אפר מקלה וגבינה רב מלכיא
However, the halakha concerning a forelock, that a Jew who cuts the hair of a Samaritan must stop before he reaches his forelock at a distance of three fingerbreadths on every side, as the Samaritans would grow their forelocks for idolatry, and the Jew must not appear as if he were dressing the forelock for idolatrous purposes; and likewise, the halakha concerning burnt ashes, that one may not place them on a wound, as it looks like a tattoo; and finally, the halakha with regard to cheese made by a gentile, that it is forbidden because gentiles smooth the surface of their cheese with lard; these three halakhot were all stated by a different Sage named Rav Malkiya.
רב פפא אמר מתניתין ומתניתא רב מלכיא שמעתתא רב מלכיו וסימניך מתניתין מלכתא מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו שפחות:
Rav Pappa said a different principle: The teachings mentioned above that relate to a mishna or a baraita were stated by Rav Malkiya, whereas halakhot that are not related to a mishna or baraita were taught by Rav Malkiyu. And your mnemonic to remember this is: The mishna is a queen [malketa]; the comments that are referring to a mishna were made by Rav Malkiya, whose name is similar to the Aramaic term for queen. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between Rav Ḥinnana and Rav Pappa? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them with regard to the halakha concerning maidservants. According to Rav Ḥinnana, this halakha was stated by Rav Malkiyu, whereas Rav Pappa holds that it was taught by Rav Malkiya, since it is referring to a dispute in a mishna.
מתני׳ לא יאמר אדם לטבח שקול לי בדינר בשר אבל שוחט ומחלק ביניהם:
MISHNA: A person may not say to a butcher on a Festival: Weigh for me a dinar’s worth of meat, since if he mentions a sum of money, it looks like a commercial transaction. But the butcher may slaughter an animal and apportion it among his customers without stipulating a price.
גמ׳ היכי עביד כי הא
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What should one do if he wishes to take part of an animal on a Festival, but is barred from mentioning its price? The Gemara answers: As