Beitzah 28aביצה כ״ח א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Beitzah 28a"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
28aכ״ח א

מתני׳ ר' יהודה אומר שוקל אדם בשר כנגד הכלי או כנגד הקופיץ וחכ"א אין משגיחין בכף מאזנים כל עיקר:

MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: A person selling meat on a Festival who wishes to know its weight in order to determine its price may not weigh it against regular weights in the ordinary weekday manner, but he may weigh the meat against a vessel or against a cleaver [kofitz] and then calculate the weight of the meat by weighing the vessel or cleaver later. And the Rabbis say: One may not look at the pans of a balance scale at all, meaning that they may not be used for weighing in any manner or for any other purpose.

גמ׳ מאי כל עיקר אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אפי' לשמרו מן העכברים אמר רב אידי בר אבין והוא דתליא בתריטא

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: One may not look at the pans of a scale at all? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Even if one has meat and he wishes to protect it from mice, he may not put it on a scale, since it would look as if he were weighing it. Rav Idi bar Avin said: And this ruling applies only where the scale is hanging on the ring used for balancing it. However, if the scale is hanging in such a manner that it is not fit for weighing, one may use it as he would use any other vessel.

ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל טבח אומן אסור לשקול בשר ביד ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל טבח אומן אסור לשקול בשר במים

And Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is prohibited for an expert butcher to weigh meat on a Festival even by hand because he can arrive at its precise weight using this method, and so it is prohibited like weighing with a scale. And likewise, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is prohibited for an expert butcher to weigh meat on a Festival even in water. Butchers would calculate the weight of a slab of meat by placing it into a tub of water and measuring the amount of water that it displaces with the help of markings on the container. Since this procedure enables the butcher to determine the precise weight of the meat, it may not be performed on a Festival.

ואמר רב חייא בר אשי אסור לעשות בית יד בבשר אמר רבינא ובידא שרי

And Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said: It is prohibited to make a hole to serve as a handle in meat on a Festival, since this is a weekday act. Ravina said: But it is permitted to make such a handle by hand, rather than with a knife or some other implement, since this is an atypical manner of making a hole.

אמר רב הונא מותר לעשות סימן בבשר כי הא דרבה בר רב הונא מחתך לה אתלת קרנתא

Rav Huna said: It is permitted to make a sign on meat even on a Festival, so that it not be mistaken for the meat of another person. This is like that which Rabba bar Rav Huna would do when he sent meat by means of a messenger to his house; he would cut it into triangles as a sign that the meat was his and it was fit to be eaten.

ר' חייא ור"ש ברבי שוקלין מנה כנגד מנה ביום טוב כמאן לא כרבי יהודה ולא כרבנן אי כר' יהודה האמר שוקל אדם בשר כנגד הכלי או כנגד הקופיץ כנגד הכלי אין כנגד מידי אחרינא לא אי כרבנן הא אמרי אין משגיחין בכף מאזנים כל עיקר

The Gemara relates an incident in connection to the basic halakha of the mishna: Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, would weigh one portion against another portion on a Festival in order to divide the meat between them. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion did they do so? This seems to be neither in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda nor in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis in the mishna. As, if it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, didn’t he say: A person may weigh meat against a vessel or against a cleaver, from which it may be inferred: Against a vessel or a cleaver, yes, one may do so; but against anything else, no, he may not. And if it is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, didn’t they say: One may not look at the pans of a scale at all?

אינהו דעבוד כר' יהושע דתניא ר' יהושע אומר שוקלין מנה כנגד מנה ביום טוב אמר רב יוסף הלכה כר' יהושע הואיל ותנן בבכורות כותיה

The Gemara explains: Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may weigh one portion against another portion on a Festival. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, since we learned in a mishna in tractate Bekhorot (31a) in accordance with his opinion.

דתנן פסולי המוקדשין הנאתן להקדש ושוקלין מנה כנגד מנה בבכור

As we learned there: With regard to consecrated animals that have become disqualified because of a blemish, all the benefit that accrues from their sale belongs to the Temple treasury of consecrated property. And one may weigh one portion of meat against another portion of meat in the case of a firstborn that developed a blemish. Although the meat of a firstborn may not be sold by weight in the manner of non-sacred meat, one may weigh one portion against another portion in order to determine its price. This indicates that even in a case where it is prohibited to weigh an item in the ordinary manner, one may still weigh one portion of it against another portion.

א"ל אביי ודלמא לא היא עד כאן לא קאמר ר' יהושע הכא אלא דליכא בזיון קדשים אבל התם דאיכא בזיון קדשים לא

Abaye said to him: Perhaps that is not so, and the two cases are not similar. It is possible that Rabbi Yehoshua stated his opinion that one may weigh one portion against another only here, on a Festival, where the action does not involve a show of degradation of sacred items; but there, in the case of a firstborn, where the weighing involves a display of degradation of sacred items, perhaps he did not permit weighing of any kind.

אי נמי עד כאן לא קאמרי רבנן התם אלא משום דלא מחזי כעובדין דחול אבל הכא דמחזי כעובדין דחול לא

Alternatively, it is possible that the Rabbis stated their opinion that one may weigh one portion against another only there, in the case of a firstborn, because it does not look like a weekday activity; but here, on a Festival, where it looks like a weekday activity, perhaps they would not have permitted it. It is therefore possible that even the Rabbis would prohibit this action on a Festival.

למימרא דקפדי אהדדי והא הנהו שב בניתא דאתו לבי רבי ואשתכח חמש מנייהו בי ר' חייא ולא קפיד ר"ש ברבי

With regard to the incident involving Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the Gemara asks: Is this to say that they were particular with each other with regard to such matters, to the extent that they had to weigh one portion against another so that their portions would be exactly equal? But wasn’t there the incident of the seven fish that were brought to the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and five of them were later found in the house of Rabbi Ḥiyya, who had taken them from Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi; and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, was not particular about this, as they treated each other like family?

אמר רב פפא שדי גברא בינייהו אי ר' חייא ור' ישמעאל בר' יוסי אי ר"ש ברבי ובר קפרא:

Rav Pappa said: Cast a person between them. In other words, a third party must have been involved in the incident. How so? Either the two who divided the meat between themselves were Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, or else they were Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and bar Kappara. Although these pairs of scholars were colleagues, they were exacting with each other in monetary matters. Consequently, they weighed one portion of meat against the other to ensure that they would each receive the same amount.

מתני׳ אין משחיזין את הסכין ביום טוב אבל משיאה על גבי חברתה:

MISHNA: One may not sharpen a knife on a Festival in the ordinary weekday manner. However, one may do so in an unusual fashion, e.g., to run one knife over another, thereby sharpening the blade.

גמ׳ אמר רב הונא לא שנו אלא במשחזת של אבן אבל במשחזת של עץ מותר אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הא דאמרת של אבן אסור לא אמרן אלא לחדדה אבל להעביר שמנוניתה מותר מכלל דבשל עץ אפילו לחדדה נמי מותר

GEMARA: Rav Huna said: They taught that one may not sharpen a knife on a Festival only if he does so in the typical manner, with a stone knife sharpener, but if he does so with a wooden knife sharpener, it is permitted, as this is an unusual way of sharpening knives. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to that which you said, that a stone sharpener is prohibited, we said this only where one’s intention is to sharpen the knife, but if he merely means to remove the accumulated fat by scraping it off with the stone, it is permitted. This proves by inference that with a sharpener made of wood, even if his intention is to sharpen the knife, it is permitted.

איכא דמתני לה אסיפא בשל עץ מותר אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הא דאמרת בשל עץ מותר לא אמרן אלא להעביר שמנוניתה אבל לחדדה אסור מכלל דבשל אבן אפילו להעביר שמנוניתה אסור

Some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the latter clause of Rav Huna’s statement, where he says: But if he uses a sharpener made of wood, it is permitted. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to that which you said, that with a wooden sharpener it is permitted, we said this only where one’s intention is to remove its fat, but if he does so in order to sharpen it, it is prohibited. This proves by inference that with a sharpener made of stone, even if he intended merely to remove its fat, it is prohibited.

איכא דמתני לה אמתניתין אין משחיזין את הסכין ביו"ט אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לא שנו אלא לחדדה אבל להעביר שמנוניתה מותר מכלל דע"ג חברתה אפילו לחדדה נמי מותר

Some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the mishna itself, which teaches: One may not sharpen a knife on a Festival. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They taught that this is prohibited only where one’s intention is to sharpen the knife, but if his aim is merely to remove its fat, it is permitted. This proves by inference that running one knife over another is permitted even if his intention is to sharpen the knife.

ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא אבל משיאה על גבי חברתה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לא שנו אלא להעביר שמנוניתה אבל לחדדה אסור מכלל דבמשחזת אפילו להעביר שמנוניתה אסור

And some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the latter clause of the mishna, which teaches: However, one may run one knife over another. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They taught this only where one’s intention is to remove its fat, but if he does so to sharpen it, it is prohibited. This proves by inference that with a sharpener, it is prohibited even to remove its fat.

מאן תנא דבמשחזת אסור אמר רב חסדא דלא כר' יהודה דתניא אין בין יו"ט לשבת אלא אוכל נפש בלבד ר' יהודה מתיר אף מכשירי אוכל נפש

The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who holds that with a sharpener it is entirely prohibited? Rav Ḥisda said: This tanna does not hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita: The difference between a Festival and Shabbat is only with regard to the preparation of food, as it is permitted to perform labor for the purpose of food preparation on a Festival, but not on Shabbat; Rabbi Yehuda permits even actions that facilitate preparation of food on a Festival, e.g., repairing utensils with which food is prepared on the Festival.

א"ל רבא לרב חסדא דרשינן משמך הלכה כרבי יהודה אמר ליה יהא רעוא דכל כי הני מילי מעלייתא תדרשון משמאי

Rava said to Rav Ḥisda: We teach in your name that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. He said to him: May it be God’s will that you teach in my name all outstanding matters like this. In other words, Rav Ḥisda was pleased that this teaching was attributed to him, as he too agreed with it.

אמר רב נחמיה בריה דרב יוסף הוה קאימנא קמיה דרבא והוה קא

The Gemara relates that Rav Neḥemya, son of Rav Yosef, said: I was once standing before Rava, and he was