מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּבֵיצָה! which is not so with regard to an egg. With regard to an egg laid on a Festival, the two days of Rosh HaShana are considered one long day and a single period of sanctity. It was only in deference to the dead that the Sages were lenient with regard to burial on the second day of Rosh HaShana, but with regard to all other matters, the two days of Rosh HaShana are viewed as one day and are governed by the same halakha.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אֲנָא כִּנְהַרְדָּעֵי סְבִירָא לִי, דְּאָמְרִי אַף בְּבֵיצָה. וּמַאי דַּעְתָּיךְ — דִּלְמָא מְעַבְּרִי לֵיהּ לֶאֱלוּל? הָאָמַר רַב חִינָּנָא בַּר כָּהֲנָא: מִימוֹת עֶזְרָא וְאֵילָךְ לֹא מָצִינוּ אֱלוּל מְעוּבָּר. Ameimar said to him: I hold in accordance with the opinion of the Sages of Neharde’a, who state this halakha even with regard to an egg laid on the Festival and other matters, as there is no difference between the two days of Rosh HaShana and the two days of other Festivals. And what is your reasoning that you are concerned? Is it that perhaps they will extend the month of Elul and declare it a thirty-day month, which would mean that the second day of the Festival is the first of Tishrei, the true date of Rosh HaShana? But didn’t Rav Ḥinnana bar Kahana say: From the days of Ezra and onward we have not found that the month of Elul was made a full, thirty-day month, and therefore there is no cause for this concern.
וְאֵין אוֹפִין פִּתִּין גְּרִיצִין אֶלָּא רְקִיקִין. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים: אֵין אוֹפִין פַּת עָבָה בְּפֶסַח, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין. וְכַמָּה פַּת עָבָה — אָמַר רַב הוּנָא: טֶפַח. שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, טֶפַח. § It is taught in the mishna: And one may not bake thick loaves on a Festival but only thin ones. The Sages taught the following baraita: Beit Shammai say that one may not bake thick bread on Passover, as it might become leavened before it has a chance to bake, whereas Beit Hillel permit it. And how much thickness renders a loaf thick bread that is permitted by Beit Hillel? Rav Huna said: It is up to a thickness of one handbreadth, as we find likewise with regard to the shewbread in the Temple, which must also be unleavened and which was one handbreadth thick.
מַתְקֵיף לַהּ רַב יוֹסֵף: אִם אָמְרוּ בִּזְרִיזִין — יֹאמְרוּ בְּשֶׁאֵינָן זְרִיזִין? אִם אָמְרוּ בְּפַת עֲמִלָה — יֹאמְרוּ בְּפַת שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲמִלָה? Rav Yosef strongly objects to this argument of Rav Huna: If the Sages stated this leniency with regard to the shewbread that is prepared by priests, who are vigilant about the mitzvot and ensure that the dough is not leavened, would they say the same with regard to bread that is prepared by ordinary people, who are not as vigilant? Furthermore, if they said this with regard to the shewbread, which is well-kneaded [amela] bread, would they say the same with regard to bread that is not as well kneaded?
אִם אָמְרוּ בְּעֵצִים יְבֵשִׁים — יֹאמְרוּ בְּעֵצִים לַחִים? אִם אָמְרוּ בַּתַּנּוּר חַם — יֹאמְרוּ בְּתַנּוּר צוֹנֵן? אִם אָמְרוּ בְּתַנּוּר שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת — יֹאמְרוּ בְּתַנּוּר שֶׁל חֶרֶס? Rav Yosef continues: If they stated this leniency in the case of dry wood, which was used in the Temple, as it would burn well and bake the bread quickly, would they say the same in the case of moist wood, which is what most people use to heat their ovens? Furthermore, if they said this with regard to the hot oven found in the Temple, would they say the same with regard to a standard oven, which is typically cold in comparison to that of the Temple? And lastly, if they said this with regard to the Temple’s metal oven, which warms up quickly, would they say the same with regard to the earthenware oven that most people use to bake their bread?
אָמַר רַב יִרְמְיָה בַּר אַבָּא: שְׁאֵלִית אֶת רַבִּי בְּיִחוּד, וּמַנּוּ — רַב: מַאי פַּת עָבָה? פַּת מְרוּבָּה. Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said: I asked my teacher in private, and who is this teacher? It is Rav. Rav Yirmeya asked him: What is the meaning of thick bread? Rav explained that it means a large quantity of bread, a large amount of dough prepared in a single session. The concern here is not that the bread might become leavened, but that its preparation involves unnecessary exertion on the Festival.
אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי, אָמַר רַב יִרְמְיָה בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב: שְׁאֵלִית אֶת רַבִּי בְּיִחוּד, וּמַנּוּ — רַבֵּינוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ: מַאי פַּת עָבָה? פַּת מְרוּבָּה. וְאַמַּאי קָרוּ לֵיהּ פַּת עָבָה? מִשּׁוּם דִּנְפִישָׁא בְּלִישָׁה. אִי נָמֵי, בְּאַתְרֵיהּ דְּהַאי תַּנָּא, פַּת מְרוּבָּה — פַּת עָבָה קָרוּ לֵיהּ Some say that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rav said: I asked this of my teacher in private; and who is Rav’s teacher? It is our holy Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And he explained the matter as follows: What is the meaning of thick bread? It means a large quantity of bread. And why do they call it thick bread? It is because it is greatly expanded at the time of kneading and therefore looks very thick. Alternatively, in the place where this tanna of the mishna lived, a large quantity of bread was called thick bread.
מִכְּדִי מִשּׁוּם דְּקָטָרַח טִרְחָא דְּלָא צְרִיךְ הוּא, מַאי אִרְיָא פֶּסַח? אֲפִילּוּ בִּשְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים נָמֵי! אִין הָכִי נָמֵי. וְתַנָּא, בְּיוֹם טוֹב דְּפֶסַח קָאֵי. תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים: אֵין אוֹפִין פַּת מְרוּבָּה בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין. The Gemara asks: Now, since the prohibition here is because he exerts himself unnecessarily, then why did the baraita teach this halakha specifically with respect to Passover? The same halakha should apply with regard to the other Festivals as well. The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so; the halakha is not limited to Passover. But the tanna who taught this halakha was dealing at the time with the festival of Passover and therefore mentioned this halakha in relation to that Festival, even though it applies in equal fashion to the other Festivals. The Gemara comments that this is also taught in a baraita: Beit Shammai say: One may not bake a large quantity of bread on any Festival, whereas Beit Hillel permit it.
מַתְנִי׳ אַף הוּא אָמַר שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים לְהָקֵל: מְכַבְּדִין בֵּית הַמִּטּוֹת, וּמַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמּוּגְמָר בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וְעוֹשִׂין גְּדִי מְקוּלָּס בְּלֵילֵי פְסָחִים. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין. MISHNA: Rabban Gamliel also said three things as leniencies, in opposition to the view of most of the Sages: One may sweep the room of the couches on a Festival, i.e., the dining room, where they would recline on couches to eat, as there is no concern that by sweeping the room one might come to fill in the holes and level the ground. And one may place incense consisting of fragrant herbs on burning coals in order to perfume one’s house on a Festival. And one may prepare a whole kid goat, meaning a kid goat roasted whole, with its entrails over its head, on the night of Passover, as was the custom when they roasted the Paschal lamb in the Temple. However, the Rabbis prohibit all three practices: It is prohibited to sweep lest one come to level the ground, it is prohibited to burn incense because it does not meet the criteria of permitted food preparation, and it is prohibited to eat a kid that was roasted whole on the night of Passover because it would appear as if he were eating consecrated food outside the Temple.
גְּמָ׳ אָמַר רַב אַסִּי: מַחְלוֹקֶת לְגַמֵּר, אֲבָל לְהָרִיחַ — דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל מוּתָּר. GEMARA: Rav Asi said: The dispute with regard to incense applies only to a case where one wishes to burn the incense in order to perfume his garments. However, if he burns the incense in order to enjoy the smell, all agree that this is like other bodily pleasures, the satisfaction of which has the same status as food preparation, and it is therefore permitted.
מֵיתִיבִי: אֵין מְכַבְּדִין בֵּית הַמִּטּוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וְשֶׁל בֵּית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מְכַבְּדִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בַּר צָדוֹק: פְּעָמִים הַרְבֵּה נִכְנַסְתִּי אַחַר אַבָּא, לְבֵית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְלֹא הָיוּ מְכַבְּדִין בֵּית הַמִּטּוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב, אֶלָּא מְכַבְּדִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וּפוֹרְסִין עֲלֵיהֶם סְדִינִין. לְמָחָר, כְּשֶׁאוֹרְחִים נִכְנָסִין, מְסַלְּקִין אֶת הַסְּדִינִין וְנִמְצָא הַבַּיִת מִתְכַּבֵּד מֵאֵלָיו. אָמְרוּ לוֹ: אִם כֵּן, אַף בַּשַּׁבָּת מוּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן. The Gemara raises an objection against Rav Asi’s understanding of the mishna from the following Tosefta: One may not sweep the room of the couches on a Festival lest he fill in holes and level the ground, but in the house of Rabban Gamliel they did sweep, as they did not share this concern. Rabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok said: On many occasions I followed Father, Rabbi Tzadok, into Rabban Gamliel’s house, and I observed that they would not actually sweep the room of the couches on a Festival, but rather they would do the following: They would sweep the room on the eve of the Festival and spread sheets over it so that it would not become dirty, and on the following day, when the guests entered, they removed the sheets, and it turned out that the house was cleaned on its own. The other Sages said to him: If so, it is permitted to do so on Shabbat as well, and there is no dispute in that case.
וְאֵין מַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמּוּגְמָר בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וְשֶׁל בֵּית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מַנִּיחִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בַּר צָדוֹק: פְּעָמִים הַרְבֵּה נִכְנַסְתִּי אַחַר אַבָּא לְבֵית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְלֹא הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמּוּגְמָר בְּיוֹם טוֹב, אֶלָּא מְבִיאִין עַרְדַּסְקָאוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל וּמְעַשְּׁנִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וּפוֹקְקִין נִקְבֵיהֶן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב. לְמָחָר, כְּשֶׁאוֹרְחִים נִכְנָסִין, פּוֹתְחִין אֶת נִקְבֵיהֶן וְנִמְצָא הַבַּיִת מִתְגַּמֵּר מֵאֵלָיו. The Tosefta continues: Similarly, one may not place incense on burning coals on a Festival, but in the house of Rabban Gamliel they did place incense. Rabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok said: On many occasions I followed Father into Rabban Gamliel’s house, and I noticed that they would not actually place incense on burning coals on a Festival, but rather they would bring perforated coal pans [ardaska’ot] made of iron, filled them with fragrant smoke on the eve of the Festival, and plugged their holes on the Festival eve so that their fragrant smell would not escape. On the following day, when the guests entered, they opened the holes, releasing the smell throughout the house, and it turned out that the house was perfumed on its own.
אָמְרוּ לוֹ: אִם כֵּן, אַף בַּשַּׁבָּת מוּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן. The other Sages said to him: If so, it is permitted to do so on Shabbat as well. This shows that the issue was not the perfuming of clothes but rather the burning of incense for the smell in the house. It follows that the Sages prohibit the practice even when the incense is burned for the enjoyment of the smell, against the opinion of Rav Asi.
אֶלָּא, אִי אִתְּמַר הָכִי אִתְּמַר, אָמַר רַב אַסִּי: מַחְלוֹקֶת לְהָרִיחַ, אֲבָל לְגַמֵּר — אָסוּר. Rather, the Gemara retracts its previous statement and says that if this was stated, it was stated as follows: Rav Asi said that the dispute with regard to incense applies only to a case where one burns the incense in order to enjoy the smell. However, if he burns the incense in order to perfume his garments, all agree that it is prohibited.
אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ: מַהוּ לְעַשֵּׁן? רַב יִרְמְיָה בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב: אָסוּר. וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר: מוּתָּר. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר: אָסוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּכַבֶּה. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב נַחְמָן: וְנֵימָא מָר — מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּבְעִיר? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: תְּחִלָּתוֹ מְכַבֶּה וְסוֹפוֹ מַבְעִיר. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to smoking fruit on a Festival with incense in order to enhance its aroma? Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rav said: It is prohibited, as it is not included in the category of permitted food preparation. And Shmuel said: It is permitted. Rav Huna said: It is prohibited because he extinguishes some of the coals when he sprinkles the aromatic powder on them. Rav Naḥman said to him: And let the Master say that it is prohibited because he kindles the coals, as afterward the fragrant spices cause the coals to burn even more strongly; why are you not concerned about this? Rav Huna said to him: Two prohibitions are indeed violated: Its beginning involves extinguishing, and its end involves kindling.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: עַל גַּבֵּי גַּחֶלֶת — אָסוּר. Rav Yehuda said: Sprinkling the aromatic spices on the coals themselves is in fact prohibited for the aforementioned reasons.