Beitzah 19aביצה י״ט א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Beitzah 19a"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
19aי״ט א

ואיבעית אימא רבנן וכולה מתניתין בשבת:

And if you wish, say instead that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, and on a Festival one is permitted even to immerse an impure vessel on account of its water in order to purify the vessel. And the entire mishna is referring to Shabbat, when it is prohibited to immerse an impure vessel, but it is permitted to purify impure water by bringing it into contact with pure water in a stone vessel.

תנו רבנן כלי שנטמא מערב יום טוב אין מטבילין אותו בין השמשות

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a vessel that became ritually impure on the eve of a Festival, one may not immerse it during twilight, a time period of doubtful status whether it is a weekday or a Festival, due to the possibility of violating the prohibition against immersing vessels on a Festival.

רבי שמעון שזורי אומר אף בחול אין מטבילין אותו מפני שצריך הערב שמש

Rabbi Shimon Shezuri says: Even on a weekday one may not immerse an impure vessel during twilight because the vessel requires sunset. After an impure vessel is immersed, it remains ritually impure for certain purposes until the sun has set and the stars have come out. If one immerses an impure vessel during the twilight period, thenowing to the uncertainty as to whether it is day or night, he must wait another full day, until the next sunset, before using the vessel. It is therefore preferable not to put oneself in a situation where one might come to use a vessel before its purification process has been completed.

ותנא קמא לא בעי הערב שמש אמר רבא אשכחתינהו לרבנן דבי רב דיתבי וקא אמרי במחשבתו נכרת מתוך מעשיו קמפלגי והיכי דמי כגון דנקיט מנא בידיה ורהיט ואזיל בין השמשות לאטבוליה

The Gemara asks: And does the first tanna not require sunset? It is clear that this is required. Rava said: I found the Sages of the school of Rav sitting and saying with regard to this issue that they disagree about whether or not to accept the principle that one’s intention is evident from his actions. And what are the circumstances of this dispute? They are, for example, a case where one was holding a vessel in his hand and running along at the time of twilight to immerse it.

מר סבר האי דקא רהיט ואזיל מידע ידע דבעי הערב שמש

This Sage, i.e., the Rabbis, holds that the fact that he is running along indicates that he knows that the vessel requires sunset. If he arrives at the ritual bath late, he will realize that he must wait another day, and there is no concern that he might come to use the vessel on the same day. Consequently, it is prohibited to immerse the vessel during twilight on the eve of a Festival, as, since it may already be night and he will be unable to use the vessel until the next evening, immersing the vessel would be considered to be preparing something on a Festival for a weekday, which is prohibited. However, it is permitted to immerse a vessel during twilight on an ordinary weekday evening.

ומר סבר מחמת מלאכתו הוא דקרהיט

And this Sage, Rabbi Shimon Shezuri, holds that perhaps he is running due to his work that he has not finished on time, and not necessarily because he knows that the purification of his vessel requires sunset. He believes that he may use the vessel immediately upon immersion; therefore, the Sages decreed that one should never immerse vessels during twilight.

ואמינא להו אנא במחשבתו נכרת מתוך מעשיו דכולי עלמא לא פליגי כי פליגי כגון דאיטמי בפחות מכעדשה ואתא לקמיה דרבנן לשיולי בפחות מכעדשה איטמי אי לא מר סבר מדהא לא גמיר הערב שמש נמי לא גמיר ומר סבר הא הוא דלא גמיר הא הערב שמש גמיר:

Rava continues: And I said to them: With regard to the principle that one’s intention is evident from his actions, everyone agrees that this is accepted. Where they disagree is, for example, in a case where a vessel became impure through contact with a creeping animal less than a lentil-bulk in size, and the vessel’s owner came before the Sages to ask whether a vessel becomes impure through contact with less than a lentil-bulk or not. One Sage, Rabbi Shimon Shezuri, holds that since he does not know this matter that a creeping animal smaller than a lentil-bulk does not impart impurity, it stands to reason that he also does not know the halakha of sunset; therefore, there is reason to prohibit him from immersing vessels during twilight even on a weekday. And one Sage, the Rabbis, who permit such immersion on a weekday, hold that it is only this halakha with regard to the size of a creeping animal that he does not know, but the requirement of sunset he does know, as it is stated explicitly in the Torah.

ומטבילין מגב לגב: תנו רבנן כיצד מגב לגב הרוצה לעשות גתו על גב כדו

It was taught in the mishna that one may immerse on a Festival from one principle to another and from one group to another. The Gemara attempts to clarify the meaning of this statement: The Sages taught in a baraita: How does one immerse from one principle to another? One who wishes to make his winepress, meaning to immerse and purify vessels for the sake of his winepress, in addition to the purification of his ritually impure pitcher, may do so. In other words, if at first he merely intended to immerse his impure pitcher, but subsequently changed his mind and decided to use it for his winepress, and he wishes to immerse the pitcher a second time for the sake of the winepress, it is permitted to do so.

וכדו על גב גתו עושה

Similarly, one who wishes to make his pitcher in addition to the purification of his vessels for the sake of his winepress may do so. That is to say, if he originally intended to use the pitcher for his winepress, and after immersing it he decided not to use it for that purpose, and now he wishes to immerse his pitcher a second time, it is permitted to do so. Since the second immersion does not purify the vessel or fulfill any obligation, it is not considered a proper immersion and is not prohibited on a Festival.

כיצד מחבורה לחבורה היה אוכל בחבורה זו ורוצה לאכול בחבורה אחרת הרשות בידו:

Similarly, how does one immerse from one group to another? If one was planning to eat the Paschal offering with this group, and he immersed himself or his ritually impure vessels for that purpose; and now he has reconsidered and wishes to eat the offering with a different group, and he wants to immerse himself or his vessels a second time for the second group, in such a case he has permission to do so even on a Festival, for the same reason: Since this immersion is not obligatory, it is not viewed as an immersion at all.

מתני׳ ב"ש אומרים מביאין שלמים ואין סומכין עליהן אבל לא עולות ובית הלל אומרים מביאין שלמים ועולות וסומכין עליהן:

MISHNA: Beit Shammai say: One may bring peace-offerings on a Festival, but one may not place his hands on them, as this is considered using animals, which is prohibited on a Festival by rabbinic decree. However, one may not bring burnt-offerings, apart from the obligatory daily and additional offerings of the day, because burnt-offerings are consumed entirely on the altar and not by people, and slaughter is permitted on a Festival only for the purpose of human consumption. And Beit Hillel say: One may bring both peace-offerings and burnt-offerings, and one may even place his hands on them.

גמ׳ אמר עולא מחלוקת בשלמי חגיגה לסמוך ועולת ראייה ליקרב דבית שמאי סברי (ויקרא כג, מא) וחגותם אותו חג לה' חגיגה אין עולת ראייה לא וב"ה סברי לה' כל דלה'

GEMARA: Ulla said: The dispute applies only to Festival peace-offerings, an obligation of the Festival, with respect to placing hands on them, and to burnt-offerings of appearance, which must be brought over the course of the Festival, with respect to sacrificing them. As Beit Shammai hold that the verse “You shall observe [vaḥaggotem] it as a Festival to the Lord seven days in the year” (Leviticus 23:41) indicates: Festival peace-offerings [ḥagiga], yes, they may be sacrificed even on a Festival day, but burnt-offerings of appearance, no, they may not. And Beit Hillel hold: “To the Lord” means that anything brought as an offering to the Lord may be sacrificed throughout the seven days of the holiday, even on the actual Festival day.

אבל נדרים ונדבות דברי הכל אין קריבין ביו"ט וכן אמר רב אדא בר אהבה נדרים ונדבות אין קריבין ביו"ט

But with regard to vow-offerings and gift-offerings, which are not part of the obligations of the day, all agree, even Beit Hillel, that they may not be sacrificed on a Festival. And likewise, Rav Adda bar Ahava said: Vow-offerings and gift-offerings may not be sacrificed on a Festival.

מתיבי אמר רבי שמעון בן אלעזר לא נחלקו בית שמאי ובית הלל על עולה שאינה של יו"ט שאינה קרבה ביום טוב ועל שלמים שהן של יום טוב שקריבין ביו"ט

The Gemara raises an objection against Ulla’s statement from the following baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree with regard to a burnt-offering that is not part of the requirements of the Festival, such as a vow-offering or a gift-offering, that it may not be sacrificed on a Festival, or with regard to peace-offerings that are part of the Festival obligations, such as Festival peace-offerings or peace-offerings of rejoicing, that they may be sacrificed on a Festival, as the Festival is their designated time, and if one fails to bring them then he will be unable to sacrifice them later.

על מה נחלקו על עולה שהיא של יום טוב ועל שלמים שאינן של יו"ט שבית שמאי אומרים לא יביא ובית הלל אומרים יביא

The baraita continues: With regard to what, then, did they disagree? It is with regard to a burnt-offering that is part of the Festival requirements, such as the burnt-offering of appearance, and with regard to peace-offerings that are not part of the Festival obligations, such as vow-offerings and gift-offerings. As Beit Shammai say: He may not bring them, and Beit Hillel say: He may bring them. This baraita contradicts Ulla’s opinion that all agree that vow-offerings and gift-offerings may not be sacrificed on a Festival.

תריץ ואימא הכי אמר ר' שמעון בן אלעזר לא נחלקו בית שמאי ובית הלל על עולה ושלמים שאינן של יו"ט שאין קריבין ביום טוב ועל שלמים שהן של יום טוב שקריבין ביו"ט על מה נחלקו על עולה שהיא של יו"ט שבית שמאי אומרים לא יביא ובית הלל אומרים יביא

The Gemara answers: Resolve the contradiction by emending the text, and say as follows: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree with regard to burnt-offerings and peace-offerings that are not part of the requirements of the Festival, such as vow-offerings and gift-offerings, that they are certainly not sacrificed on a Festival, or with regard to peace-offerings that are part of the Festival obligations, such as Festival peace-offerings or peace-offerings of rejoicing, that they may be sacrificed on a Festival. With regard to what did they disagree? It is with regard to a burnt-offering that is part of the Festival requirements, such as the burnt-offering of appearance, as Beit Shammai say: He may not bring it, and Beit Hillel say: He may bring it.

רב יוסף אמר תנאי שקלת מעלמא תנאי היא דתני' שלמים הבאים מחמת יו"ט ביום טוב בית שמאי אומרים סומך עליהן מערב יו"ט ושוחטן ביו"ט ובית הלל אומרים סומך עליהן ביום טוב ושוחטן ביום טוב

Rav Yosef said: There were never any grounds for objection from the outset, as have you removed all the tanna’im from the world? This is the subject of a dispute among tanna’im, and Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar’s opinion was not unanimously accepted. As it is taught in a different baraita: With regard to peace-offerings that come on account of a Festival on the Festival, e.g., Festival peace-offerings or peace-offerings of rejoicing, Beit Shammai say: One places his hands on them on the eve of the Festival and slaughters them on the Festival, and Beit Hillel say: One places his hands on them on the Festival itself and slaughters them on the Festival.