וְאִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא רַבָּנַן וְכוּלַּהּ מַתְנִיתִין בְּשַׁבָּת: And if you wish, say instead that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, and on a Festival one is permitted even to immerse an impure vessel on account of its water in order to purify the vessel. And the entire mishna is referring to Shabbat, when it is prohibited to immerse an impure vessel, but it is permitted to purify impure water by bringing it into contact with pure water in a stone vessel.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן כְּלִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אֵין מַטְבִּילִין אוֹתוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת § The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a vessel that became ritually impure on the eve of a Festival, one may not immerse it during twilight, a time period of doubtful status whether it is a weekday or a Festival, due to the possibility of violating the prohibition against immersing vessels on a Festival.
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן שֵׁזוּרִי אוֹמֵר אַף בַּחוֹל אֵין מַטְבִּילִין אוֹתוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ הֶעֱרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ Rabbi Shimon Shezuri says: Even on a weekday one may not immerse an impure vessel during twilight because the vessel requires sunset. After an impure vessel is immersed, it remains ritually impure for certain purposes until the sun has set and the stars have come out. If one immerses an impure vessel during the twilight period, thenowing to the uncertainty as to whether it is day or night, he must wait another full day, until the next sunset, before using the vessel. It is therefore preferable not to put oneself in a situation where one might come to use a vessel before its purification process has been completed.
וְתַנָּא קַמָּא לָא בָּעֵי הֶעֱרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ אֲמַר רָבָא אַשְׁכַּחְתִּינְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן דְּבֵי רַב דְּיָתְבִי וְקָא אָמְרִי בְּמַחְשַׁבְתּוֹ נִכֶּרֶת מִתּוֹךְ מַעֲשָׂיו קָמִפַּלְגִי וְהֵיכִי דָּמֵי כְּגוֹן דְּנָקֵיט מָנָא בִּידֵיהּ וְרָהֵיט וְאָזֵיל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת לְאַטְבּוֹלֵיהּ The Gemara asks: And does the first tanna not require sunset? It is clear that this is required. Rava said: I found the Sages of the school of Rav sitting and saying with regard to this issue that they disagree about whether or not to accept the principle that one’s intention is evident from his actions. And what are the circumstances of this dispute? They are, for example, a case where one was holding a vessel in his hand and running along at the time of twilight to immerse it.
מָר סָבַר הַאי דְּקָא רָהֵיט וְאָזֵיל מִידָּע יָדַע דְּבָעֵי הֶעֱרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ This Sage, i.e., the Rabbis, holds that the fact that he is running along indicates that he knows that the vessel requires sunset. If he arrives at the ritual bath late, he will realize that he must wait another day, and there is no concern that he might come to use the vessel on the same day. Consequently, it is prohibited to immerse the vessel during twilight on the eve of a Festival, as, since it may already be night and he will be unable to use the vessel until the next evening, immersing the vessel would be considered to be preparing something on a Festival for a weekday, which is prohibited. However, it is permitted to immerse a vessel during twilight on an ordinary weekday evening.
וּמָר סָבַר מֵחֲמַת מְלַאכְתּוֹ הוּא דְּקָרָהֵיט And this Sage, Rabbi Shimon Shezuri, holds that perhaps he is running due to his work that he has not finished on time, and not necessarily because he knows that the purification of his vessel requires sunset. He believes that he may use the vessel immediately upon immersion; therefore, the Sages decreed that one should never immerse vessels during twilight.
וְאָמֵינָא לְהוּ אֲנָא בְּמַחְשַׁבְתּוֹ נִכֶּרֶת מִתּוֹךְ מַעֲשָׂיו דְּכוּלֵּי עָלְמָא לָא פְּלִיגִי כִּי פְּלִיגִי כְּגוֹן דְּאִיטַּמִּי בְּפָחוֹת מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה וַאֲתָא לְקַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבָּנַן לְשַׁיּוֹלֵי בְּפָחוֹת מִכַּעֲדָשָׁה אִיטַּמִּי אִי לָא מָר סָבַר מִדְּהָא לָא גְּמִיר הֶעֱרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ נָמֵי לָא גְּמִיר וּמָר סָבַר הָא הוּא דְּלָא גְּמִיר הָא הֶעֱרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ גְּמִיר: Rava continues: And I said to them: With regard to the principle that one’s intention is evident from his actions, everyone agrees that this is accepted. Where they disagree is, for example, in a case where a vessel became impure through contact with a creeping animal less than a lentil-bulk in size, and the vessel’s owner came before the Sages to ask whether a vessel becomes impure through contact with less than a lentil-bulk or not. One Sage, Rabbi Shimon Shezuri, holds that since he does not know this matter that a creeping animal smaller than a lentil-bulk does not impart impurity, it stands to reason that he also does not know the halakha of sunset; therefore, there is reason to prohibit him from immersing vessels during twilight even on a weekday. And one Sage, the Rabbis, who permit such immersion on a weekday, hold that it is only this halakha with regard to the size of a creeping animal that he does not know, but the requirement of sunset he does know, as it is stated explicitly in the Torah.
וּמַטְבִּילִין מִגַּב לְגַב תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן כֵּיצַד מִגַּב לְגַב הָרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת גִּתּוֹ עַל גַּב כַּדּוֹ It was taught in the mishna that one may immerse on a Festival from one principle to another and from one group to another. The Gemara attempts to clarify the meaning of this statement: The Sages taught in a baraita: How does one immerse from one principle to another? One who wishes to make his winepress, meaning to immerse and purify vessels for the sake of his winepress, in addition to the purification of his ritually impure pitcher, may do so. In other words, if at first he merely intended to immerse his impure pitcher, but subsequently changed his mind and decided to use it for his winepress, and he wishes to immerse the pitcher a second time for the sake of the winepress, it is permitted to do so.
וְכַדּוֹ עַל גַּב גִּתּוֹ עוֹשֶׂה Similarly, one who wishes to make his pitcher in addition to the purification of his vessels for the sake of his winepress may do so. That is to say, if he originally intended to use the pitcher for his winepress, and after immersing it he decided not to use it for that purpose, and now he wishes to immerse his pitcher a second time, it is permitted to do so. Since the second immersion does not purify the vessel or fulfill any obligation, it is not considered a proper immersion and is not prohibited on a Festival.
כֵּיצַד מֵחֲבוּרָה לַחֲבוּרָה הָיָה אוֹכֵל בַּחֲבוּרָה זוֹ וְרוֹצֶה לֶאֱכוֹל בַּחֲבוּרָה אַחֶרֶת הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ: Similarly, how does one immerse from one group to another? If one was planning to eat the Paschal offering with this group, and he immersed himself or his ritually impure vessels for that purpose; and now he has reconsidered and wishes to eat the offering with a different group, and he wants to immerse himself or his vessels a second time for the second group, in such a case he has permission to do so even on a Festival, for the same reason: Since this immersion is not obligatory, it is not viewed as an immersion at all.
מַתְנִי׳ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים מְבִיאִין שְׁלָמִים וְאֵין סוֹמְכִין עֲלֵיהֶן אֲבָל לֹא עוֹלוֹת וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים מְבִיאִין שְׁלָמִים וְעוֹלוֹת וְסוֹמְכִין עֲלֵיהֶן: MISHNA: Beit Shammai say: One may bring peace-offerings on a Festival, but one may not place his hands on them, as this is considered using animals, which is prohibited on a Festival by rabbinic decree. However, one may not bring burnt-offerings, apart from the obligatory daily and additional offerings of the day, because burnt-offerings are consumed entirely on the altar and not by people, and slaughter is permitted on a Festival only for the purpose of human consumption. And Beit Hillel say: One may bring both peace-offerings and burnt-offerings, and one may even place his hands on them.
גְּמָ׳ אָמַר עוּלָּא מַחְלוֹקֶת בְּשַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה לִסְמוֹךְ וְעוֹלַת רְאִיָּיה לִיקְרַב דְּבֵית שַׁמַּאי סָבְרִי וְחַגֹּתֶם אוֹתוֹ חַג לַה׳ חֲגִיגָה אִין עוֹלַת רְאִיָּיה לָא וּבֵית הִלֵּל סָבְרִי לַה׳ כֹּל דְּלַה׳ GEMARA: Ulla said: The dispute applies only to Festival peace-offerings, an obligation of the Festival, with respect to placing hands on them, and to burnt-offerings of appearance, which must be brought over the course of the Festival, with respect to sacrificing them. As Beit Shammai hold that the verse “You shall observe [vaḥaggotem] it as a Festival to the Lord seven days in the year” (Leviticus 23:41) indicates: Festival peace-offerings [ḥagiga], yes, they may be sacrificed even on a Festival day, but burnt-offerings of appearance, no, they may not. And Beit Hillel hold: “To the Lord” means that anything brought as an offering to the Lord may be sacrificed throughout the seven days of the holiday, even on the actual Festival day.
אֲבָל נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין קְרֵיבִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְכֵן אָמַר רַב אַדָּא בַּר אַהֲבָה נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת אֵין קְרֵיבִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב But with regard to vow-offerings and gift-offerings, which are not part of the obligations of the day, all agree, even Beit Hillel, that they may not be sacrificed on a Festival. And likewise, Rav Adda bar Ahava said: Vow-offerings and gift-offerings may not be sacrificed on a Festival.
מֵתִיבִי אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל עַל עוֹלָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאֵינָהּ קְרֵבָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְעַל שְׁלָמִים שֶׁהֵן שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁקְּרֵיבִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב The Gemara raises an objection against Ulla’s statement from the following baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree with regard to a burnt-offering that is not part of the requirements of the Festival, such as a vow-offering or a gift-offering, that it may not be sacrificed on a Festival, or with regard to peace-offerings that are part of the Festival obligations, such as Festival peace-offerings or peace-offerings of rejoicing, that they may be sacrificed on a Festival, as the Festival is their designated time, and if one fails to bring them then he will be unable to sacrifice them later.
עַל מָה נֶחְלְקוּ עַל עוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב וְעַל שְׁלָמִים שֶׁאֵינָן שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁבֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים לֹא יָבִיא ובֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים יָבִיא The baraita continues: With regard to what, then, did they disagree? It is with regard to a burnt-offering that is part of the Festival requirements, such as the burnt-offering of appearance, and with regard to peace-offerings that are not part of the Festival obligations, such as vow-offerings and gift-offerings. As Beit Shammai say: He may not bring them, and Beit Hillel say: He may bring them. This baraita contradicts Ulla’s opinion that all agree that vow-offerings and gift-offerings may not be sacrificed on a Festival.
תָּרֵיץ וְאֵימָא הָכִי אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל עַל עוֹלָה וּשְׁלָמִים שֶׁאֵינָן שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאֵין קְרֵיבִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְעַל שְׁלָמִים שֶׁהֵן שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁקְּרֵיבִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַל מָה נֶחְלְקוּ עַל עוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁבֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים לֹא יָבִיא ובֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים יָבִיא The Gemara answers: Resolve the contradiction by emending the text, and say as follows: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree with regard to burnt-offerings and peace-offerings that are not part of the requirements of the Festival, such as vow-offerings and gift-offerings, that they are certainly not sacrificed on a Festival, or with regard to peace-offerings that are part of the Festival obligations, such as Festival peace-offerings or peace-offerings of rejoicing, that they may be sacrificed on a Festival. With regard to what did they disagree? It is with regard to a burnt-offering that is part of the Festival requirements, such as the burnt-offering of appearance, as Beit Shammai say: He may not bring it, and Beit Hillel say: He may bring it.
רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר תַּנָּאֵי שָׁקְלַתְּ מֵעָלְמָא תַּנָּאֵי הִיא דְּתַנְיָא שְׁלָמִים הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת יוֹם טוֹב בְּיוֹם טוֹב בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים סוֹמֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְשׁוֹחֲטָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים סוֹמֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְשׁוֹחֲטָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב Rav Yosef said: There were never any grounds for objection from the outset, as have you removed all the tanna’im from the world? This is the subject of a dispute among tanna’im, and Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar’s opinion was not unanimously accepted. As it is taught in a different baraita: With regard to peace-offerings that come on account of a Festival on the Festival, e.g., Festival peace-offerings or peace-offerings of rejoicing, Beit Shammai say: One places his hands on them on the eve of the Festival and slaughters them on the Festival, and Beit Hillel say: One places his hands on them on the Festival itself and slaughters them on the Festival.