אמר אביי כפועל בטל של אותה מלאכה דבטל מינה Abaye says: It means that he is paid as a laborer who is idle from that typical labor of his from which he is kept idle. In other words, he must receive the amount of money that an individual would be willing to accept to refrain from his current occupation and engage in an easier task.
וצריכא דאי תנא חנוני חנוני הוא דסגי ליה כפועל בטל משום דלא נפיש טרחיה אבל מעות ליקח בהן פירות דנפיש טרחיה אימא לא סגי ליה כפועל בטל The Gemara comments: And it is necessary for the tanna to teach us both halakhot, that of a storekeeper who was given produce to sell as well as one who was given money to buy the produce. As had he taught only the halakha of a storekeeper who receives produce to sell, I would say that it is specifically a storekeeper for whom it is enough to receive his wages as an idle laborer, because his toil is not great, as the produce is already prepared and he merely has to sell it. But in the case of one who was given money with which to acquire produce, whose toil is great, as he must find the produce in the market and bring it back to his store, I might say that it is not sufficient for him to be paid as an idle laborer.
ואי תנא מעות ליקח בהן פירות הוה אמינא התם הוא דבעי כפועל בטל משום דנפיש טרחיה אבל חנוני דלא נפיש טרחיה אימא סגי ליה במשהו בעלמא דאפילו לא טבל עמו אלא בציר ולא אכל עמו אלא גרוגרת אחת זהו שכרו צריכא: And conversely, had the tanna taught only the halakha of one who receives money with which to acquire produce, I would say it is in the case there that he requires payment as an idle laborer, because his toil is great, but with regard to a storekeeper, whose toil is not great, I would say that any amount is enough for him; that, for example, even if the one providing the produce only immersed his bread in brine with the storekeeper, or only ate one dried fig with him, this is sufficient to count as his wages, i.e., providing the bit of brine or a fig is sufficient to account for the storekeeper’s labor. It was therefore necessary for this halakha to be stated with regard to both cases.
(כמה עיזי ותרנגולין מעלין סימן) § Parenthetically, the Gemara lists the terms: How many goats, and chickens, we add; this constitutes a mnemonic device for the following discussions.
תנו רבנן כמה הוא שכרו בין מרובה ובין מועט דברי ר' מאיר רבי יהודה אומר אפילו לא טבל עמו אלא בציר ולא אכל עמו אלא גרוגרת אחת זהו שכרו ר' שמעון בן יוחאי אומר נותן לו שכרו משלם The mishna teaches that one may not enter into a joint venture with a storekeeper unless he gives him his wages. The Sages taught in a baraita: How much is his wage? What is the minimum amount he must be paid to avoid the prohibition of interest? It is permitted whether it is a lot or a little, in accordance with the agreement between them; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even if he only immersed his bread in brine with him, or only ate one dried fig with him, this is sufficient for his wage. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: He must give him his full wage, i.e., as a laborer.
תנו רבנן אין שמין לא את העזים ולא את הרחלים ולא כל דבר שאינו עושה ואוכל למחצה The Sages taught: One may not appraise animals, i.e., one may not give his animals to someone else to raise after appraising their worth, in exchange for half the profits, neither goats, nor sheep, nor anything else that does not produce revenue while it eats. In other words, one may not enter into an agreement that any increase in value over and above the original appraisal of the animals will be shared between the owner and the one raising the animals. Since the animals do not produce revenue for the one raising them, his caring for the animal on behalf of the owner is tantamount to paying interest, as in the mishna.
ר' יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר שמין את העזים מפני שחולבות ואת הרחלים מפני שגוזזות ושוטפות ומורטות ואת התרנגולת מפני שהיא עושה ואוכלת Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: One may appraise goats for another to raise in this manner, because they produce milk, and one may appraise sheep for another to raise in this manner, because they are shorn for their wool, and they also have their wool removed when they are washed in water, and they are plucked of their wool by means of thorns, and the one who raises them can collect this wool. Consequently, the milk and wool generate revenue for the one raising them, and this can serve as a wage to avoid the prohibition of interest. And the same applies to a chicken, because it produces eggs while it eats.
ותנא קמא גיזה וחלב לא ספק לשכר עמלו ומזונו בגיזה וחלב כולי עלמא לא פליגי כי פליגי בנסיובי ותותרי The Gemara asks a question: And as for the first tanna, how does he respond to this claim? Does he claim that shearing and milk do not provide the payment of the wage for his toil and for the animal’s food? The Gemara answers: If the arrangement allows him to keep the sheared wool and milk, everyone agrees that this is sufficient to avoid the prohibition of interest. When they disagree, it is with regard to a case when he receives only the whey [benasyovi], i.e., the water left from the milk, and the pluckings [vetoteri] from the goats.
תנא קמא סבר לה כר' שמעון בן יוחי דאמר נותן לו שכרו משלם ר' יוסי ברבי יהודה סבר לה כאבוה דאמר אפילו לא טבל עמו אלא בציר ולא אכל עמו אלא גרוגרת אחת זהו שכרו The Gemara clarifies the dispute: The first tanna holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, who says that he gives him his full wage. Since the value of the whey and pluckings is less than a full wage, his receiving them does not suffice to replace his wage. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, holds in accordance with the opinion of his father, who says that even if he only immersed his bread in brine with him, or only ate one dried fig with him, this is his wage, as there is no demand that his wages be commensurate with his toil.
תנו רבנן משכרת אשה לחברתה תרנגולת בשני אפרוחין אשה שאמרה לחברתה תרנגולת שלי וביצים שליכי ואני ואת נחלוק באפרוחין רבי יהודה מתיר רבי שמעון אוסר The Sages taught: A woman may rent out to another woman a chicken to sit on the eggs belonging to the renter in exchange for two of the chicks hatched from the eggs. But with regard to a woman who said to another: The chicken is mine and the eggs are yours, and you and I shall share the chicks, i.e., my chicken will sit on your eggs until they hatch, Rabbi Yehuda permits this practice, and Rabbi Shimon prohibits it. He holds that since the owner of the chicken is responsible for half of the loss to the eggs, therefore part of this venture is a loan. As she is not being paid for her efforts, it is considered interest.
ורבי יהודה לא בעי שכר עמלו ומזונו איכא ביצים מוזרות The Gemara asks: And as for Rabbi Yehuda, does he not require one to pay at least a minimal amount of the wage for the toil of the one caring for the chicken and the chicken’s food? The Gemara answers: There are unfertilized eggs, from which no chicks will hatch. Such eggs are retained by the owner of the chicken, and therefore she does receive some benefit.
תנו רבנן מקום שנהגו להעלות שכר כתף למעות לבהמה מעלין ואין משנין ממנהג המדינה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר שמין עגל עם אמו וסיח עם אמו ואפילו במקום שנהגו להעלות שכר כתף למעות The Sages taught: In a place where people are accustomed to add the wages of a porter for carrying a young animal on his shoulders to the money paid, the owner of the animal must add it to the overall sum, and one may not deviate from the regional custom. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may appraise a calf that grows up with its mother for another to raise, and a foal that grows up with its mother for another to raise, as part of a single venture and split the profits, but one does not add to the wages for his toil, and this applies even in a place where they have the custom to add the wages of a porter to the money paid.
ורשב"ג לא בעי שכר עמלו ומזונו איכא גללים ואידך גללים אפקורי מפקיר להו: The Gemara asks: But as for Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, does he not require that one pay at least a minimal amount for the wage for the toil of the one caring for the animals and the animals’ food? The Gemara answers: There is the animals’ dung, which is of some benefit to the one who raises the animals. The Gemara asks: And how does the other Sage respond to this claim? The Gemara replies: He maintains that he declares the dung ownerless, as he does not consider this important enough to retain. Consequently, this does not qualify as compensation paid to the one raising the young animal.
אמר רב נחמן הלכה כרבי יהודה והלכה כרבי יוסי ברבי יהודה והלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל Rav Naḥman said: With regard to these joint ventures involving animals, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda; and the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda; and the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.
בני רב עיליש נפק עלייהו ההוא שטרא דהוה כתיב ביה פלגא באגר פלגא בהפסד אמר רבא רב עיליש גברא רבה הוא ואיסורא לאינשי לא הוי ספי מה נפשך אי פלגא באגר תרי תילתי בהפסד The Gemara relates: A business document emerged concerning the sons of Rav Ilish, as it was a venture entered into by their late father, in which it was written that Rav Ilish and his partner will share one-half of the profit and one-half of the loss. Rava said: Rav Ilish was a great man, and therefore he would not feed people with something forbidden. In other words, he certainly would not have involved himself in a joint venture through which someone would have earned money by means of interest, and an arrangement of this kind appears to constitute interest. Consequently, no matter what, there must have been some mistake with regard to this document. If the actual condition stated that one party would receive one-half of the profit, the other party must have agreed to accept upon himself two-thirds of the loss,