Bava Metzia 66a:8בבא מציעא ס״ו א:ח
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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66aס״ו א

פטומי מילי בעלמא הוא אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר טעמא מאי כיון דלוקח בעי לאתנויי והכא מוכר קא מתני אמרת פטומי מילי בעלמא הוא

These are merely words of enticement [pittumei millei] designed to encourage the buyer, but they are not part of a legal contract and therefore do not obligate the seller. Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: What is the reason for this? Since the buyer is the one who needs to stipulate this condition but he neglected to do so, and here it was the seller who stipulated the condition, is that why you said that these are merely words of enticement?

אלא מתניתא דקתני לכשיהיו לך מעות אחזיר לך מותר דמוכר הוא דבעי לאתנויי מוכר לא אתני ולוקח קא מתני

But according to this reasoning, consider the baraita, as it teaches that if the buyer says: When you have money I will give the property back to you, this is permitted. Now in this case it is the seller who needs to stipulate this condition, but the seller did not stipulate it and it was the buyer who stipulated it. Accordingly, they should likewise be regarded as words of enticement.

ואמרינן מאי שנא רישא ומאי שנא סיפא ואמר רבא סיפא דאמר ליה מדעתיה טעמא דא"ל מדעתיה הא לא א"ל מדעתיה לא אמרינן פטומי מילי בעלמא הוא

And we said concerning the baraita: What is different in the first clause and what is different in the latter clause? And Rava says that the latter clause is referring to a situation where the buyer said he would return the field of his own accord. Rav Ashi infers: The reason the condition is invalid is that the buyer said to him that he would return the field of his own accord. But if he did not say to him that he would return the field of his own accord, we would not say that these are merely words of enticement, even though the statement was made by the buyer about himself, and not as a condition by the seller.

א"ל נעשה כמאן דא"ל מדעתיה אתמר:

Ameimar said to him: In fact, any condition stated by the wrong person is invalid, but it was stated in the baraita that whenever the buyer states such a condition, he is considered like one who said that he would return the field of his own accord.

ההוא שכיב מרע דכתב לה גיטא לדביתהו אנגיד ואתנח אמרה ליה אמאי קא מתנחת אי קיימת דידך אנא אמר רב זביד פטומי מילי בעלמא הוא

§ The Gemara relates: There was a certain person on his deathbed who wrote a bill of divorce for his wife in order to exempt her from the obligation of ḥalitza in the event of his death, and he moaned and sighed at the time, in distress over having to divorce her. She said to him: Why do you sigh? If you recover from this illness, I am yours, as I will marry you again. The Gemara discusses the legal validity of this promise. Rav Zevid said: These are merely words of enticement designed to encourage him to grant the divorce, but they do not actually obligate the wife to remarry him if he lives.

א"ל רב אחא מדפתי לרבינא ואי לאו פטומי מילי מאי בדידה קיימא למישדי תנאה בגיטא בדידיה קיימא למשדי תנאה מהו דתימא הוא גופיה אדעתא דידה קא גמיר ויהיב גיטא קא משמע לן:

Rav Aḥa of Difti said to Ravina: And even if they were not merely words of enticement, but she had made an actual condition upheld by an oath or an act of acquisition, what of it? Is it her prerogative to stipulate a condition concerning her bill of divorce? It is not in her power to do so, as it is his right to establish such a condition, and since he failed to do so explicitly, any condition she accepts upon herself is of no consequence. The Gemara answers: This statement of Rav Zevid is necessary, lest you say that he himself relied upon her condition when he decided to give her the bill of divorce, and therefore it is as though he stipulated the condition. Rav Zevid therefore teaches us that this is not the case.

הלוהו על שדהו: אמר רב הונא בשעת מתן מעות קנה הכל לאחר מתן מעות לא קנה אלא כנגד מעותיו ורב נחמן אמר אפילו לאחר מתן מעות קנה הכל

§ The mishna teaches: If one lent money to another on the basis of his field serving as a guarantee, and he said to borrower: If you do not give me the money from now until three years have passed, your field is mine, then if his money is not returned within three years, the field is his. Rav Huna says: If the lender stated the condition at the time of the giving of the money, he has acquired it all, meaning that if the borrower fails to pay the debt, the entire field is transferred to the lender. But if the lender stated his condition at some point after the giving of the money, he has acquired only a portion of the field corresponding to the money that he lent. And Rav Naḥman says: Even if the lender stated his condition after the giving of the money, he has acquired it all.

עבד רב נחמן עובדא גבי ריש גלותא כשמעתיה קרעיה רב יהודה לשטריה אמר ליה ריש גלותא רב יהודה קרע לשטרך אמר ליה דרדקא קרעיה גברא רבה קרעיה חזא ביה טעמא וקרעיה

The Gemara relates: Rav Naḥman performed an action in the court of the Exilarch in accordance with his statement that even if the lender states his condition after the loan is granted, the lender acquires the entire field if the loan isn’t repaid within the specified time period. The case then came before Rav Yehuda, who tore up the lender’s deed of ownership of the field, claiming it was invalid. The Exilarch said to Rav Naḥman: Rav Yehuda tore up your document, i.e., he overruled your decision. Rav Naḥman said to him: Did a child tear it up? A great man tore it up; he must have seen in it some reason to invalidate it, and that is why he tore it up.

איכא דאמרי אמר ליה דרדקא קרעיה דכולי עלמא לגבי דידי בדינא דרדקי נינהו

There are those who say a different version of this exchange, according to which Rav Naḥman said to him: A child tore it up, i.e., there is no need to take his opinion into consideration, as everyone is like a child relative to me with regard to monetary laws. Rav Naḥman was the greatest expert of his generation with regard to monetary matters, and therefore he could discount the opinions of others.

הדר אמר רב נחמן אפילו בשעת מתן מעות לא קנה ולא כלום איתיביה רבא לרב נחמן אם אי אתה נותן לי מכאן ועד שלש שנים הרי היא שלי הרי היא שלו

After examining the matter again, Rav Naḥman retracted his words and then said the opposite of his initial ruling: Even if the lender stated his condition at the time of the giving of the money, he has not acquired anything. Rava raised an objection to Rav Naḥman from the mishna, which teaches: If one lent money to another on the basis of the borrower’s field serving as a guarantee, and said to him: If you do not give me the money now and instead delay your payment from now until three years have passed, the field is mine, then after three years, the field is his. Evidently, a condition of this kind is valid.

אמר ליה אני אומר אסמכתא קניא ומניומי אמר אסמכתא לא קניא

Rav Naḥman said to him: I used to say that a transaction with inconclusive consent [asmakhta] effects acquisition, meaning that any obligation one accepts to serve as a penalty over and above the value of what he actually owes is nevertheless binding. But Minyumi said that an asmakhta does not effect acquisition, and the transaction under discussion is an asmakhta. Now that he convinced me that his opinion is correct, I have retracted my previous opinion.

ולמניומי קשיא מתני' איבעית אימא מתני' רבי יוסי היא דאמר אסמכתא קניא

The Gemara asks: But if so, the mishna is difficult according to Minyumi. The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who said that an asmakhta effects acquisition, but his is a minority opinion.