ואין צריך לומר חדשים בישנים And needless to say, one may not intermingle new produce with old produce, in the event that the old produce is superior, as with grains, since intermingling lowers its value.
באמת אמרו ביין התירו לערב קשה ברך מפני שהוא משביחו אין מערבין שמרי יין ביין אבל נותן לו את שמריו Actually, they said: With regard to wine, they permitted one to mix strong wine with weak wine, because one thereby enhances it. One may not intentionally mix wine sediment with the wine, but one may give the buyer wine with its sediment; the seller is not required to filter the wine.
מי שנתערב מים ביינו לא ימכרנו בחנות אלא א"כ הודיעו ולא לתגר אע"פ שהודיעו שאינו אלא לרמות בו מקום שנהגו להטיל מים ביין יטילו One who had water mix with his wine may not sell it in the store, unless he informs the buyer that it contains water. And he may not sell it to a merchant, even if he informs him of the mixture, as, although he is aware that there is water mixed with the wine, it will be used for nothing other than deceit because the merchant will likely not inform the buyer that it is diluted. In a place where they are accustomed to place water into the wine to dilute it and everyone is aware of that fact, one may place water in the wine.
התגר נוטל מה' גרנות ונותן לתוך מגורה אחת מה' גיתות ונותן לתוך פיטום אחד ובלבד שלא יהא מתכוין לערב: The prohibition against mixing different types of produce applies only to an individual selling the produce of his field. By contrast, a merchant may take grain from five threshing floors belonging to different people, and place the produce in one warehouse. He may also take wine from five winepresses and place the wine in one large cask [pitom], provided that he does not intend to mix low-quality merchandise with high-quality merchandise.
גמ׳ ת"ר אין צ"ל חדשות מארבע וישנות משלש דאין מערבין אלא אפילו חדשות משלש וישנות מארבע אין מערבין מפני. שאדם רוצה לישנן: GEMARA: The Sages taught: Needless to say, if the price of the new produce is four se’a for a sela and the price of the old produce is three se’a for a sela, one may not intermingle them together. That is full-fledged deceit, as one is selling inexpensive produce at the price of expensive produce. Rather, even if the price of the new produce is three se’a for a sela and the price of the old produce is four se’a for a sela, one may not intermingle them. This is because in this case the price of the new produce is higher, as people want to age the produce, i.e., new produce is more valuable to those who seek to place it in storage for a lengthy period, although it may be of inferior quality compared to old produce.
באמת אמרו ביין התירו לערב קשה ברך מפני שהוא משביחו (וכו'): א"ר אלעזר עדא אמרה כל באמת אמרו הלכה היא The mishna teaches: Actually, they said: With regard to wine, they permitted one to mix strong wine with weak wine because mixing the wine enhances it. Rabbi Elazar said: That is to say, every time a halakha is introduced with the phrase: Actually they said, it is an established halakha with regard to which there is no uncertainty.
אמר ר"נ ובין הגיתות שנו Rav Naḥman says: And it is with regard to the period when the wine is among the winepresses, i.e., before the wine ferments, that they taught this halakha. When the wine is still in the process of fermentation, if different wines are mixed and ferment together, this enhances their flavor. By contrast, if they are mixed at a later stage, this will harm their flavor.
והאידנא דקא מערבי שלא בין הגיתות אמר רב פפא דידעי וקא מחלי רב אחא בריה דרב איקא אמר הא מני רבי אחא היא דתניא רבי אחא מתיר בדבר הנטעם: The Gemara asks: And today, when people mix old and new wine even when the wine is not among the winepresses, on what basis is mixing permitted? Rav Pappa said: It is because buyers are aware of the potential loss and waive it. Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Ika, said: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is the opinion of Rabbi Aḥa, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Aḥa permits mixing in a case where the product will be tasted before its purchase. Then there is no deceit, as when the buyer tastes it, he is immediately aware that it is a mixture, and the choice of whether or not to purchase the product is his.
ואין מערבין שמרי יין ביין אבל נותן לו את שמריו (וכו'): והא אמרת רישא אין מערבין כלל וכי תימא מאי נותן לו את שמריו דקא מודע ליה הא מדקתני סיפא לא ימכרנו בחנות אלא א"כ מודיעו ולא לתגר אע"פ שמודיעו מכלל דרישא אע"ג דלא מודע ליה The mishna teaches: And one may not intentionally mix wine sediment with the wine, but one may give the buyer wine with its sediment. The Gemara asks: But didn’t you say in the former clause of the mishna that one may not mix sediment at all? And lest you say: What is the meaning of: He may give the buyer wine with its sediment; it means that he informs the buyer that the wine contains sediment, this suggestion is not tenable. From the fact that the latter clause teaches: One may not sell it in the store unless he informs the buyer and he may not sell it to a merchant even if he informs him, it may be inferred that the former clause is speaking of a situation where one may sell it in the store even if he does not inform the buyer.
אמר רב יהודה ה"ק אין מערבין שמרים של אמש בשל יום ולא של יום בשל אמש אבל נותן לו את שמריו תניא נמי הכי רבי יהודה אומר השופה יין לחבירו ה"ז לא יערב של אמש בשל יום ולא של יום בשל אמש אבל מערב של אמש בשל אמש ושל יום בשל יום: Rav Yehuda said: This is what the tanna is saying: One may neither mix sediment remaining from wine that he poured the night before with the wine of the next day, nor the sediment of the next day with the wine of the night before. But he may give the buyer sediment of that wine itself. That is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to one who pours wine for another, attempting to pour the liquid while leaving the sediment in the cask, that person may neither mix sediment remaining from wine that he poured the night before with the wine of the next day, nor the sediment of the next day with the wine of the night before. But he may mix the sediment of the night before with the wine poured the night before, and the sediment of the next day with the wine of the next day.
מי שנתערב מים ביינו ה"ז לא ימכרנו בחנות אלא א"כ מודיעו וכו': רבא אייתו ליה חמרא מחנותא מזגיה טעמיה לא הוה בסים שדריה לחנותא א"ל אביי והא אנן תנן ולא לתגר אע"פ שהודיעו א"ל מזגא דידי מידע ידיע וכי תימא דטפי ומחייליה ומזבין ליה א"כ אין לדבר סוף: The mishna teaches: One who had water mix with his wine may not sell it in the store, unless he informs the buyer that it contains water. The Gemara relates: They brought wine to Rava from a store. He diluted it with water, tasted it, and it was not tasty. He sent it back to the store, so they could sell it there. Abaye said to him: But didn’t we learn in the mishna: And he may not sell it to a merchant, even if he informs him? Rava said to him: My dilution of the wine is evident to all, as I add more water than is typically added. And lest you say that the storekeeper will add wine, and sweeten the mixture, and sell it again, when the dilution is no longer evident, if this is a concern, there is no end to the matter. It should be prohibited to sell any wine to a merchant due to the concern lest he engage in deceit in its resale.
מקום שנהגו להטיל מים ביין יטילו וכו': תנא למחצה לשליש ולרביע אמר רב ובין הגיתות שנו: The mishna teaches: In a place where they are accustomed to place water into the wine to dilute it and everyone is aware of that fact, one may place water in the wine. It was taught: One may dilute the wine by adding water that will constitute one-half, one-third, or one-fourth of the mixture, in accordance with the local custom. Rav says: And it is with regard to the period when the wine is among the winepresses, before the wine ferments, that they taught this halakha. If wine is diluted at a later stage, the dilution will cause the wine to spoil.
מתני׳ רבי יהודה אומר לא יחלק החנוני קליות ואגוזין לתינוקות מפני שהוא מרגילן לבא אצלו וחכמים מתירין ולא יפחות את השער וחכ"א זכור לטוב MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: A storekeeper may not hand out toasted grain and nuts to children who patronize his store, due to the fact that he thereby accustoms them to come to him at the expense of competing storekeepers. And the Rabbis permit doing so. And one may not reduce the price of sale items below the market rate. And the Rabbis say: If he wishes to do so, he should be remembered positively.
לא יבור את הגריסין דברי אבא שאול וחכמים מתירין ומודים שלא יבור מעל פי מגורה שאינו אלא כגונב את העין אין מפרכסין לא את האדם ולא את הבהמה ולא את הכלים: One may not sift ground beans to remove the waste, lest he charge an inappropriately high price for the sifted meal, beyond its actual value; this is the statement of Abba Shaul. And the Rabbis permit doing so. And the Rabbis concede that one may not sift the meal only from the beans that are close to the opening of the bin to create the impression that the contents of the entire bin were sifted, as this is nothing other than deception. One may neither adorn a person before selling him on the slave market, nor an animal nor vessels that he seeks to sell. Rather, they must be sold unembellished, to avoid deceiving the buyer.
גמ׳ מאי טעמייהו דרבנן דאמר ליה אנא מפליגנא אמגוזי ואת פליג שיסקי: GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis, who permit the free distribution of toasted grain and nuts? It is because the storekeeper can say to his competitors: I hand out nuts; and you hand out jujubes [shiskei]. All merchants are able to hand out goods that will attract children, and consequently this is not unfair competition.
ולא יפחות את השער וחכ"א זכור לטוב וכו': מאי טעמא דרבנן The mishna teaches: And one may not reduce the price of items below the market rate. And the Rabbis say: If he wishes to do so, he should be remembered positively. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis, who not only condone the practice but even praise the person, saying that he should be remembered positively?