מתני׳ הבית והעלייה של שנים שנפלו שניהם חולקין בעצים ובאבנים ובעפר ורואין אלו אבנים העשויות להשתבר אם היה אחד מהן מכיר מקצת אבניו נוטלן ועולות לו מן החשבון: MISHNA: In the case of the house and the upper story belonging to two people, i.e., the lower story was owned by one individual, while the upper story belonged to someone else, that collapsed, the two of them divide the timber and the stones and the earth of the collapsed structure. And the court considers which stones were likely to break, those of the lower or upper story, and gives those broken stones to the one who presumably owned them. If one of them recognized some of his stones he may take them for himself, and they count toward his amount of stones, and the other party takes other stones accordingly. They do not divide the remaining stones equally.
גמ׳ מדקתני רואין מכלל דאיכא למיקם עלייהו אי בחבסא נפיל אי בחבטא נפיל GEMARA: From the fact that the mishna teaches that the court considers which stones were likely to break, it can be understood by inference that the case is one in which it is possible to establish with regard to the stones, by looking at the debris, how the accident occurred: Whether it fell with pressure [ḥavasa], i.e., the lower story collapsed, and the upper story followed, or whether it fell with a blow, i.e., the upper story collapsed, and caused the lower story to follow suit. In the first instance, it is the stones of the lower story that were likely to break, in the latter instance, the stones of the upper story.
אי הכי רישא אמאי חולקין נחזי אי בחבטא נפיל עלייתא איתבור אי בחבסא נפיל תתייתא איתבור The Gemara asks: If that is so, that it is possible to ascertain how the collapse occurred, then why, in the first clause of the mishna, do they divide the stones without taking the circumstances into consideration? Let us see: If the house fell with a blow, it means that the stones of the upper story broke, and the owner of the lower story takes the unbroken stones. And if it fell with pressure, it means that the stones of the lower story broke, and the owner of the upper story takes the unbroken stones.
לא צריכא דנפיל בליליא וליחזינהו בצפרא דפנינהו וליחזי מאן פנינהו ולישייליה דפנינהו בני רשות הרבים ואזלו לעלמא The Gemara rejects this analysis: No, it is necessary to state the ruling of the mishna in a case when the house collapsed at night, and no one saw how it fell. The Gemara challenges: But in such a case, let them see the stones in the morning to ascertain how the house collapsed. The Gemara answers: The first clause of the mishna is referring to a case where they had cleared away the stones, and consequently there is no way to determine what occurred. The Gemara challenges: But even in such a case, let them see who cleared them away, and let them ask them what happened. The Gemara explains: The ruling of the first clause of the mishna is stated with regard to a case where the general public cleared them away and left, so that they cannot be asked.
וליחזי ברשות דמאן יתבן וליהוי אידך המוציא מחבירו עליו הראייה לא צריכא דייתבן בחצר דתרוייהו אי נמי ברשות הרבים ואיבעית אימא שותפין בכי האי גוונא לא קפדי אהדדי: The Gemara challenges: But even in such a case, let them see in whose domain the stones are situated. And once this is determined, the halakha will be that the burden of proof rests upon the claimant, i.e., the owner of the stones situated in the other’s domain. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary to state the ruling of the mishna in a case where the stones are situated in a courtyard that belongs to both of them, or alternatively, if the stones fell into the public domain. And if you wish, say that partners in cases like this are not particular with each other about dividing the courtyard in such a way that the one cannot leave his belongings on the other’s side of the courtyard, and therefore the presence of the stones in the area of the courtyard belonging to one of them does not substantiate a claim for the stones.
אם היה אחד מהן מכיר כו': והלה מה טוען אי דקאמר אין פשיטא ואי לא אמר אין למה נוטל אלא דא"ל איני יודע § The mishna teaches: If one of them recognized his stones he may take them. The Gemara asks: And the other, what does he claim? If he says: Yes, they belong to the other, this halakha is obvious, so why would the mishna need to state this? And if he does not say yes, why does the one that recognizes the stones take them? What proof does he have that they are his? Rather, it must be that the other says to him: I don’t know whose stones they are, and consequently, the one who stated a definitive claim is deemed credible.
לימא תהוי תיובתא דר"נ דאיתמר מנה לי בידך והלה אומר איני יודע רב הונא ורב יהודה אמרי חייב ר"נ ור' יוחנן אמרי פטור The Gemara suggests: Shall we say that it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Naḥman? As it was stated that the amora’im disagreed about the following case: With regard to one who approaches another and says: I have one hundred dinars in your possession, and the other says: I don’t know, Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda say: The respondent is liable to pay, because he did not deny the claim. Rav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥanan say: He is exempt from payment. It appears from the mishna that the response: I don’t know, is tantamount to an admission.
כדאמר ר"נ כגון שיש עסק שבועה ביניהן הכא נמי כגון שיש עסק שבועה ביניהן The Gemara refutes this contention: Just as Rav Naḥman says in that context: He is liable to pay only in a case where there is a matter of an oath between them, here too, it is a case where there is a matter of an oath between them. In that case, Rav Naḥman rules that he is liable to pay only if he is already liable to take an oath concerning his denial of part of the claim. Since he does not know if he owes this sum, and he is therefore unable to take the oath he is liable to take, he must pay. In this case as well, the mishna is discussing a case where the one who says he does not know is liable to take an oath.
היכי דמי עסק שבועה כדרבא דאמר רבא מנה לי בידך והלה אומר אין לך בידי אלא חמשים והשאר איני יודע מתוך שאינו יכול לישבע ישלם: The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of a matter of an oath? The Gemara explains: This in accordance with the statement of Rava, as Rava says: One who approaches another and says: I have one hundred dinars in your possession, and the other says: You have in my possession only fifty dinars that I am sure about, and as for the rest, I don’t know. As one who admitted to part of a claim, he is liable, by Torah law, to take an oath that he does not owe the other fifty dinars. Since he cannot take an oath to that effect, as he is unsure if he owes it, he must pay.
ועולות לו מן החשבון: סבר רבא למימר לפי חשבון שבורות אלמא כיון דאמר איני יודע ריע טפי § The mishna teaches: If one of them recognized some of his stones he may take them for himself, and they count toward his amount of stones, and the other party takes other stones accordingly. Rava thought to say that this means they count toward his amount of his broken stones. In other words, the first party takes the unbroken stones he recognized, in place of a similar amount of broken stones, and the other party takes an amount of broken stones correspond-ing to the amount of unbroken stones claimed by the first person. Apparently, since he said: I don’t know, his legal status is worse.
א"ל אביי אדרבה הא ריע טפי מדהני ידע טפי לא ידע תו לית ליה ואידך כולהו דהיאך נינהו Abaye said to him: On the contrary, this one, the one who recognizes some of his stones, is worse off. He is worse off because since he knows and recognizes these stones, he evidently does not know anything about any more stones, and therefore he has no rights to any more unbroken stones, and all the others are the property of the other party.
אלא אמר אביי לפי חשבון שלימות אי הכי מאי קמהני ליה למלבנא רווחא אי נמי טינא דמעבדא: Rather, Abaye said that it means they count toward his amount of his unbroken stones. In other words, the first party takes the unbroken stones he recognized, in place of a similar amount of unbroken stones, and the other party takes an amount of unbroken stones corresponding to the amount of unbroken stones claimed by the first person. The Gemara asks: If so, what did the first party gain from recognizing his own stones? The Gemara answers: He gains with regard to bricks from the structure made in a wide brick mold. If his bricks were constructed from a wider mold, he is entitled to these slightly larger ones. Alternatively, if the clay from which his bricks were formed was processed better, he gains by obtaining superior bricks.
מתני׳ הבית והעלייה נפחתה העלייה ואין בעל הבית רוצה לתקן הרי בעל העלייה יורד ודר למטה עד שיתקן לו את העלייה MISHNA: If there was a house and an upper story owned by one person, and the upper story was rented out to another, if the floor of the upper story was broken, i.e., it fell in or collapsed, and the owner of the house does not want to repair it, the resident of the upper story can go down and live in the house below until the owner repairs the upper story for him.
ר' יוסי אומר התחתון נותן את התקרה והעליון את המעזיבה: Rabbi Yosei says: With regard to a house of two stories owned by two people, i.e., the lower level was owned by one and the upper level by the other, in which the ceiling collapsed; the owner of the lower story provides the ceiling of beams or stones, and the owner of the upper story provides the plaster.
גמ׳ נפחתה בכמה רב אמר ברובה ושמואל אמר בארבעה GEMARA: The Gemara asks: In the case of the floor of an upper story that was broken, to what extent did it break? What is the extent of damage that permits the upper resident to say that he is no longer able to live there? Rav says: Most of it was damaged, and Shmuel says: A break of four handbreadths occurred.
רב אמר ברובה אבל בארבעה לא אדם דר חציו למטה וחציו למעלה ושמואל אמר בארבעה אין אדם דר חציו למטה וחציו למעלה The Gemara analyzes their opinions. Rav says: Most of it was damaged, but if the break is only of four handbreadths, this halakha does not apply, since the owner of the upper story can use the lower story to place the item that would normally be placed in the area of the hole, and a person can reside partially on a level below and partially on a level above. In other words, the upper story remains inhabitable even if he must use the lower story to house some of his belongings. And Shmuel says a break of four handbreadths is sufficient for the halakha to apply, since a person cannot reside partially on a level below and partially on a level above.
ה"ד אי דאמר עלייה זו אזדא אלא דאמר ליה עלייה סתם לוגר ליה אחריתי The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of the case in the mishna? If the owner said at the time of the rental that he is renting this upper story to the tenant, the tenant has rights only to this upper story, and he has lost the ability to live there. Rather, the owner said to him that he wants to rent an upper story to him, without specifying which one. If so, the renter is certainly entitled to functional living quarters, and the owner must rent him an upper story in a different house belonging to this owner where he can live.
אמר רבא לא צריכא דא"ל עלייה זו שאני משכיר לך כי סלקא סליק בהדה וכי נחית חות בהדה אי הכי מאי למימרא The Gemara answers: Rava says: No, it is necessary to state the ruling of the mishna in a case where the owner said to him: This upper story that I am renting to you, when it is up, i.e., functional, live up there in it, and when it descends, i.e., it is no longer functional, descend with it and live in the lower story. The Gemara asks: If so, what is the purpose of the mishna stating this ruling, as there was an explicit condition to this effect?
אלא אמר רב אשי דא"ל עלייה זו שעל גבי בית זה אני משכיר לך דהא שעביד בית לעלייה The Gemara answers: Rather, Rav Ashi said: This is a case where the owner said to him: I am renting to you this particular upper story, which is on top of this particular house. As by emphasizing that the upper story is above that particular house, the owner thereby rendered the house as liened with regard to the upper story, although he did not explicitly state that the renter will have the right to live in the house were the upper story to become non-functional.
וכי הא דאמר רבין בר רב אדא אמר ר' יצחק מעשה באחד שאמר לחבירו דלית שעל גבי פרסק זה אני מוכר לך ונעקר הפרסק ובא מעשה לפני רבי חייא ואמר חייב אתה להעמיד לו פרסק כל זמן שהדלית קיימא The Gemara adds: And this is in accordance with that which Ravin bar Rav Adda said that Rabbi Yitzḥak said: There was an incident involving one who said to another: I am selling to you the vine that is on top of this peach tree [parsek], and then the peach tree was uprooted. And the incident came before Rabbi Ḥiyya, and he said: You are obligated to erect for him a peach tree to support the vine, as long as the vine exists.
בעי ר' אבא בר ממל § Rabbi Abba bar Memel raised a dilemma: