Bava Kamma 82aבבא קמא פ״ב א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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82aפ״ב א

והא כי אתא ר' אבין א"ר יוחנן אחד אילן הנוטה לתוך שדה חבירו ואחד אילן הסמוך למצר מביא וקורא שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ

The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua’s stipulations: But when Rabbi Avin came from Eretz Yisrael he said that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: With regard to both a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundary with another field, the owner of the tree brings the first fruits of the tree and recites the accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5–10, as it was on this condition that Joshua apportioned Eretz Yisrael to the Jewish people. This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.

אלא מאן תנא עשרה תנאין שהתנה יהושע ר' יהושע בן לוי הוא רב גביהה מבי כתיל מתני לה בהדיא ר' תנחום ור' ברייס אמרי משום זקן אחד ומנו ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה תנאין התנה יהושע:

The Gemara answers: Rather, who is the one who taught the baraita that deals with the ten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, an amora. Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥanan, another amora, can disagree with it. Rav Geviha from Bei Katil teaches this explicitly in his version of the baraita: Rabbi Tanḥum and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is that elder? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions.

עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא שקורין במנחה בשבת וקורין בשני ובחמישי ודנין בשני ובחמישי ומכבסים בחמישי בשבת ואוכלין שום בערב שבת ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת ושיהו רוכלין מחזירין בעיירות ותיקן טבילה לבעלי קריין:

§ The Sages taught that Ezra the Scribe instituted ten ordinances: He instituted that communities read the Torah on Shabbat in the afternoon; and they also read the Torah on every Monday and Thursday; and the courts convene and judge every Monday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. And Ezra further instituted that a woman should rise early and bake bread on those days when she wants to bake; and that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman should first comb her hair and only then immerse in a ritual bath after being ritually impure; and that peddlers of cosmetics and perfumes should travel around through all the towns. And Ezra further instituted the requirement of immersion for those who experienced a seminal emission.

שיהו קוראין במנחה בשבת משום יושבי קרנות:

The Gemara analyzes these ordinances, the first of which is that communities shall read the Torah on Shabbat afternoon. This Gemara explains that this ordinance was instituted due to those who sit idly on street corners, who do not attend the synagogue during the week.

ושיהו קוראין בשני ובחמישי עזרא תיקן והא מעיקרא הוה מיתקנא דתניא (שמות טו, כב) וילכו שלשת ימים במדבר ולא מצאו מים דורשי רשומות אמרו אין מים אלא תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים

The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra’s ordinances: And that they should read the Torah on every Monday and Thursday. The Gemara asks: Did Ezra institute this practice? But it was instituted from the beginning, i.e., long before his time. As it is taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water” (Exodus 15:22). Those who interpret verses metaphorically said that water here is referring to nothing other than Torah, as it is stated metaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water” (Isaiah 55:1).

כיון שהלכו שלשת ימים בלא תורה נלאו עמדו נביאים שביניהם ותיקנו להם שיהו קורין בשבת ומפסיקין באחד בשבת וקורין בשני ומפסיקין שלישי ורביעי וקורין בחמישי ומפסיקין ערב שבת כדי שלא ילינו ג' ימים בלא תורה

The baraita continues: The verse means that since the Jews traveled for three days without hearing any Torah they became weary, and therefore the prophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should read from the Torah each Shabbat, and pause on Sunday, and read again on Monday, and pause on Tuesday and Wednesday, and read again on Thursday, and pause on Shabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days without hearing the Torah. Evidently this practice predates Ezra.

מעיקרא תקנו חד גברא תלתא פסוקי אי נמי תלתא גברי תלתא פסוקי כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אתא הוא תיקן תלתא גברי ועשרה פסוקי כנגד עשרה בטלנין:

The Gemara answers: Initially they instituted that one man read three verses; or alternatively, that three men read three verses. Either way, the number three corresponds to the three types of Jews: Priests, Levites, and Israelites. Ezra later came and instituted that three men always read, and that ten verses altogether be read by them, corresponding to the ten idlers in a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.

ודנין בשני ובחמישי דשכיחי דאתו למקרא בסיפרא:

The next ordinance of Ezra is: And the courts convene and judge every Monday and Thursday. The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordinance is that many people are found in a city on these days, as they come from the countryside for the reading of the holy book, the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.

ושיהו מכבסין בחמישי בשבת משום כבוד שבת:

The baraita teaches: And that one should do laundry on Thursday. This was instituted due to the need to have clean garments in deference to Shabbat.

ושיהו אוכלין שום בע"ש משום עונה דכתיב (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו וא"ר יהודה ואיתימא רב נחמן ואיתימא רב כהנא ואיתימא ר' יוחנן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש

The Gemara explains the next listed ordinance: And that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve. This is due to the fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for conjugal relations. As it is written concerning the righteous: “And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, who brings forth his fruit in his season” (Psalms 1:3); and Rabbi Yehuda says, and some say it was Rav Naḥman, and some say it was Rav Kahana, and some say it was Rabbi Yoḥanan who said: This is referring to one who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve.

ת"ר חמשה דברים נאמרו בשום משביע ומשחין ומצהיל פנים ומרבה הזרע והורג כנים שבבני מעיים וי"א מכניס אהבה ומוציא את הקנאה:

The Sages taught in a baraita that five matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warms the body; it causes one’s countenance to shine; it increases one’s sperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some say that it also instills love into those who eat it and removes jealousy from them.

ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה כדי שתהא פת מצויה לעניים:

The next ordinance is: And that a woman should rise early and bake bread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted so that bread should be available for poor people, who go begging for bread in the mornings.

ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר משום צניעותא:

The baraita further teaches: And that a woman should don a breechcloth [sinar]. This ordinance was instituted due to reasons of modesty.

ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת דאורייתא היא

The baraita adds: And that a woman should first comb her hair and only then immerse in a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: This is required by Torah law, Ezra did not institute this.

דתניא (ויקרא יד, ט) ורחץ את בשרו במים שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין בשרו למים את בשרו את הטפל לבשרו ומאי ניהו שער

As it is taught in a baraita, concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: “And he shall bathe his flesh [et besaro] in water” (Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches that no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water. When the verse states this in the expanded form of et his flesh,” using the term “et,” this teaches that the water must come into contact even with that which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that? It is one’s hair. Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?

אמרי דאורייתא לעיוני דלמא מיקטר אי נמי מאוס מידי משום חציצה

The Sages say in response: By Torah law one is required to inspect his or her hair before immersion, as perhaps some hairs are knotted together, preventing contact with water at that spot, or perhaps there is some repulsive substance in his hair. One must perform this inspection because these would constitute an interposition.