מדאמר בכל מקום ש"מ אסיפא קאי ולקולא ש"מ:
From the fact that he stated that four or five animals may always be purchased, conclude from it that Rabbi Yehuda’s statement is referring to the latter clause, and his statement is a leniency. The Gemara affirms: Conclude from it that Rabbi Yehuda intended his statement as a leniency.
ולא משומרי פירות כו': רב זבין שבישתא מאריסא א"ל אביי והא תנן ולא משומרי פירות עצים ופירות א"ל ה"מ בשומר דלית ליה בגופא דארעא מידי אבל אריס דאית ליה בגוויה אימא מדנפשיה קא מזבין
§ The mishna teaches: And similarly, one may not purchase wood and produce from produce watchmen. The Gemara relates that Rav purchased grapevine branches from a sharecropper. Abaye said to him: But didn’t we learn in the mishna: And similarly, one may not purchase wood and produce from produce watchmen? The same halakha should apply with regard to a sharecropper, who, like a watchman, is not the owner of the produce. Rav said to him: This statement applies only with regard to a watchman, as he has no share at all in the land itself. But with regard to a sharecropper, who does have a share in it, say: He is selling merchandise from his own share of the land. Since it is plausible that the sharecropper is selling his own property, it is permitted to buy it from him.
ת"ר שומרי פירות לוקחין מהן כשהן יושבין ומוכרין והסלין לפניהם וטורטני לפניהם וכולן שאמרו הטמן אסור לוקחין מהן מפתח הגינה אבל לא מאחורי הגינה
The Gemara cites a baraita which discusses purchasing items from watchmen: The Sages taught (Tosefta 11:8): With regard to produce watchmen, one may purchase produce from them when they are sitting and selling the produce, and the baskets are before them and the scales [veturtanei] are before them, as in these circumstances it is reasonable to assume that they are not selling stolen merchandise. But in all cases where they said to the buyer: Conceal your purchase, it is prohibited to purchase from them, as there is good reason to suspect that the merchandise is stolen. The baraita adds: One may purchase from a watchman from the entrance of the garden, but not from the back of the garden, because if the produce is being sold inconspicuously, there is a concern that it might have been stolen.
איתמר גזלן מאימת מותר לקנות הימנו רב אמר עד שתהא רוב משלו ושמואל אמר אפילו מיעוט שלו
§ Having discussed the halakha pertaining to suspected theft, the Gemara proceeds to examine the halakha pertaining to purchasing items from a known robber. It was stated: With regard to a robber, from when is it permitted to purchase items from him? Rav says: It is prohibited until the majority of his possessions are from his own property, i.e., property that he obtained legally. And Shmuel says: It is permitted to purchase items from a known robber even if only a minority of his possessions are from his own property.
אורי ליה רב יהודה לאדא דיילא כדברי האומר אפילו מיעוט שלו
The Gemara notes that Rav Yehuda instructed Adda, his attendant, in accordance with the statement of the one who says: It is permitted to purchase items from a known robber even if only a minority of his possessions are from his own property, i.e., in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel.
ממון מסור רב הונא ורב יהודה חד אמר מותר לאבדו ביד וח"א אסור לאבדו ביד
With regard to the property of an informer, i.e., one who informs gentiles of the whereabouts of another’s property, facilitating its theft or misuse, there is a dispute between Rav Huna and Rav Yehuda. One says: It is permitted to physically destroy it, and one says: It is prohibited to physically destroy it.
מ"ד מותר לאבדו ביד לא יהא ממונו חמור מגופו ומ"ד אסור לאבדו דלמא הוה ליה זרעא מעליא וכתיב (איוב כז, יז) יכין רשע וצדיק ילבש:
The Gemara elaborates: The rationale of the one who says that it is permitted to physically destroy it is that an informer’s property should not be subject to a more stringent halakha than his body. Since it is permitted to physically harm or even kill an informer, it would be unreasonable to prohibit the destruction of his property. And the rationale of the one who says that it is prohibited to physically destroy it is that perhaps he will have good children, and it is written: The wicked may prepare it, but the just shall put it on (see Job 27:17).
רב חסדא הוה ליה ההוא אריסא דהוה תקיל ויהיב תקיל ושקיל סלקיה קרא אנפשיה (משלי יג, כב) וצפון לצדיק חיל חוטא
The Gemara relates that Rav Ḥisda had a certain sharecropper who would weigh the field’s produce and give Rav Ḥisda his portion, and weigh the produce and take his own portion. Rav Ḥisda dismissed him, and read the following verse about him: “A good man leaves an inheritance to his children’s chil-dren; and the wealth of the sinner is laid up for the righteous” (Proverbs 13:22).
(איוב כז, ח) כי מה תקות חנף כי יבצע כי ישל אלוה נפשו רב הונא ורב חסדא חד אמר נפשו דנגזל וח"א נפשו של גזלן
§ The Gemara examines various verses pertaining to robbers. “For what is the hope of the godless, though he profits, when God takes away his soul?” (Job 27:8). This verse is the subject of a dispute between Rav Huna and Rav Ḥisda. One says that the phrase “God takes away his soul” is referring to the soul of the robbed, and one says that it is referring to the soul of the robber.
מ"ד נפשו של נגזל דכתיב (משלי א, יט) כן ארחות כל בוצע בצע את נפש בעליו יקח מ"ד נפשו של גזלן דכתיב (משלי כב, כב) אל תגזול דל כי דל הוא ואל תדכא עני בשער כי ה' יריב ריבם וקבע את קובעיהם נפש
The Gemara elaborates: The rationale of the one who says that the verse is referring to the soul of the robbed is as it is written: “So are the ways of every one that is greedy for profit; it takes away the life of the owner thereof” (Proverbs 1:19), which teaches that one who robs another of his property is considered as one who robbed him of his soul. And the rationale of the one who says that it is referring to the soul of the robber is as it is written: “Rob not the weak, because he is weak, neither crush the poor in the gate; for the Lord will plead their cause, and despoil of life those that despoil them” (Proverbs 22:22–23).
ואידך נמי הכתיב נפש בעליו יקח מאי בעליו בעליו דהשתא
The Gemara questions each opinion: And according to the other opinion, i.e., the latter one, isn’t it also written: “It takes away the life of the owner thereof,” which indicates that the soul of the robbed is taken? The Gemara answers: What is the meaning of the phrase “the owner thereof”? It is referring to its current owner, i.e., the robber, who has acquired the stolen item.
ואידך נמי הכתיב וקבע את קובעיהם נפש מה טעם קאמר מה טעם וקבע את קובעיהם משום דקבעי נפש
And according to the other opinion, who said that the life of the robbed is taken, isn’t it also written: “And despoil of life those that despoil them,” which indicates that the soul of the robber is taken? The Gemara answers that the verse is saying: What is the reason. The verse teaches: What is the reason that God will despoil the life of those who despoil them? It is because they despoiled the soul of their victims.
א"ר יוחנן כל הגוזל את חבירו שוה פרוטה כאילו נוטל נשמתו ממנו שנאמר כן ארחות כל בוצע בצע את נפש בעליו יקח ואומר (ירמיהו ה, יז) ואכל קצירך ולחמך בניך ובנותיך
Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Anyone who robs another of an item worth one peruta is considered as though he takes his soul from him, as it is stated: “So are the ways of every one that is greedy for profit; it takes away the life of the owner thereof” (Proverbs 1:19). And it states: “And they shall consume your harvest, and your bread, they shall consume your sons and your daughters” (Jeremiah 5:17). Since they will consume the harvest and bread, it is as though they consume one’s children as well because there will be no food to feed them.
ואומר (יואל ד, יט) מחמס בני יהודה אשר שפכו דם נקי בארצם ואומר (שמואל ב כא, א) אל שאול ואל בית הדמים על אשר המית את הגבעונים
And it states: “Egypt shall be a desolation, and Edom shall be a desolate wilderness, for the extortion of the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land” (Joel 4:19). The verse here considers extortion like the shedding of innocent blood. And it states with regard to a famine: “And the Lord said: It is for Saul, and for his bloody house, because he put to death the Gibeonites” (II Samuel 21:1).
מאי ואומר וכ"ת נפש דידיה אבל נפש בניו ובנותיו לא ת"ש בשר בניו ובנותיו
The Gemara asks: Since Rabbi Yoḥanan’s point was proven by the first verse, what was the purpose of adding each subsequent verse by saying: And it states? The Gemara answers: And if you would say that the robber takes only his, i.e., the victim’s, life, but the lives of his sons and daughters are not taken, come and hear the second verse, which mentions the flesh of his sons and daughters.
וכ"ת הני מילי היכא דלא יהיב דמי אבל היכא דיהיב דמי לא ת"ש מחמס בני יהודה אשר שפכו דם נקי (בארצכם) [בארצם]
And if you would say: This matter applies only where the robber does not give his victim compensation for the stolen item, but where he gave compensation for the stolen item, it is not comparable to murder, come and hear the verse: “For the extortion of the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land.” Extortion is referring to coercing someone to sell an item that he does not want to sell. It is a form of robbery, and the verse equates it with murder.
וכ"ת ה"מ היכא דקעביד בידים אבל גרמא לא ת"ש אל שאול ואל בית הדמים [על] אשר המית את הגבעונים וכי היכן מצינו שהרג שאול את הגבעונים אלא מתוך שהרג נוב עיר הכהנים שהיו מספיקין להן מים ומזון מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו הרגן:
And if you would say: This matter applies only where he committed the robbery by direct action, but if he committed it through indirect action, the transgression is not as severe, come and hear the verse: “It is for Saul, and for his bloody house, because he put to death the Gibeonites.” And where did we ever find that Saul killed the Gibeonites? He did not do so. Rather, due to the fact that he killed the residents of Nob, the city of the priests, who would provide the Gibeonites with water (see I Samuel, chapter 22) and food, the verse ascribes him blame for their death as though he had killed the Gibeonites himself.
אבל לוקחין מן הנשים: ת"ר לוקחין מן הנשים כלי צמר ביהודה וכלי פשתן בגליל אבל לא יינות ושמנים וסלתות ולא מן העבדים ולא מן התינוקות אבא שאול אומר מוכרת אשה בארבעה וחמשה דינר כדי לעשות כפה לראשה וכולן שאמרו להטמין אסור
§ The mishna teaches: But one may purchase specific goods from women in certain places. The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:5): One may purchase from women woolen goods in Judea, and linen goods in the Galilee, but not wines, oils, and flours, as these are not usually sold by women and there is a concern that perhaps the women stole them from their husbands. And no items may be purchased from slaves, or from children. Abba Shaul says: A woman may sell items for up to four and five dinars in order to make a cap [kippa] for her head, as it is assumed that her husband allows her to sell these items in order to purchase additional articles of clothing. And with regard to all of those cases, where they told the buyer to conceal his purchase, it is prohibited to enter into the transaction.
גבאי צדקה לוקחין מהן דבר מועט אבל לא דבר מרובה
Charity collectors may take something worth a small amount from women, but not something worth a large amount, as it is possible that they do not have permission to give away expensive items.
והבדדין לוקחין מהן זיתים במידה ושמן במידה אבל לא זיתים במועט ושמן במועט רשב"ג אומר לוקחין מנשים זיתים במועד בגליל העליון שפעמים אדם בוש למכור על פתח ביתו ונותן לאשתו ומוכרת
And with regard to olive pressers, one may purchase from them olives in a substantial measure, and oil in a substantial measure, as there is no concern that they would steal such a large amount, but not olives in a small amount, and not oil in a small amount. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may purchase olives in small amounts from women in the Upper Galilee, where olives are exceptionally expensive, as at times, a person is embarrassed to sell olives at the entrance of his house, and so he gives some olives to his wife, and she sells them. Since there is a reason to presume that the women have been given the right to sell the olives by their husbands, and it is unlikely that the women would sell them without permission, as even a small amount missing would be noticed due to their great value, it may be assumed that the olives are being sold with permission.
רבינא איקלע לבי מחוזא אתו נשי דבי מחוזא רמו קמיה כבלי ושירי קביל מינייהו א"ל רבה תוספאה לרבינא והתניא גבאי צדקה מקבלין מהן דבר מועט אבל לא דבר מרובה א"ל הני לבני מחוזא דבר מועט נינהו:
The Gemara relates: When Ravina arrived at Bei Meḥoza, the women of Bei Meḥoza came and tossed chains and bracelets before him so that he could distribute the jewelry as charity, and he accepted it from them. Rabba Tosfa’a said to Ravina: But isn’t it taught in the baraita: Charity collectors may accept something worth a small amount from women, but not something worth a large amount? How can you accept jewelry, which is worth a significant sum? Ravina said to him: For the residents of Meḥoza, these chains and bracelets are considered something small, and it is therefore permitted for me to accept them.
מתני׳ מוכין שהכובס מוציא הרי אלו שלו והסורק מוציא הרי אלו של בעה"ב כובס נוטל ג' חוטין והן שלו יתר מכן הרי אלו של בעה"ב אם היה שחור ע"ג הלבן נוטל את הכל והן שלו
MISHNA: Strands of wool that the launderer removes from the garment belong to him, as it can be assumed that the customer is uninterested in them, but strands that the carder, i.e., one who prepares wool for use as a textile, removes belong to the customer, as it is assumed that the customer would want them, since the carder often removes a significant number of strands. A launderer takes three threads that were inserted at the edge of a garment, and they are his, but with regard to more threads than this, these additional threads belong to the customer. If these were black threads on a white garment, he takes all of them and they are his. As the removal of the threads improves the appearance of the garment, the customer does not want them.
החייט ששייר את החוט כדי לתפור בו ומטלית שהיא ג' על ג' הרי אלו של בעה"ב מה שהחרש מוציא במעצד הרי אלו שלו ובכשיל של בעל הבית ואם היה עושה אצל בעה"ב אף הנסרים של בעה"ב:
In the case of a tailor who left enough thread attached to the cloth that it could be used in order to sew with it, or if there was a patch of cloth that is three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths left from the cloth given to the tailor by the customer, these items belong to the customer. That which a carpenter removes with an adze belongs to him, because an adze removes only small shavings of wood, which the customer is uninterested in; but what he removes with an ax [uvakashil] belongs to the customer. And if he was doing his work in the domain of the customer, then even the sawdust belongs to the customer.
גמ׳ ת"ר לוקחין מוכין מן הכובס מפני שהן שלו הכובס נוטל שני חוטין העליונים והן שלו
GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:13): One may purchase strands of wool from a launderer, because they are assumed to be his. A launderer may take the two upper threads of a garment, and they are his.