ושמואל אמר חמרא אכתפא דמאריה שוואר
And Shmuel said: Even if the wine sours shortly after the purchase, the seller does not bear responsibility, as the wine is agitated as it is carried upon the shoulders of its new owner, causing it to sour quickly.
עבד רב יוסף עובדא כוותיה דרב בשיכרא וכוותיה דשמואל בחמרא והלכתא כוותיה דשמואל:
Rav Yosef ruled in an actual case in accordance with the opinion of Rav, in which beer spoiled shortly after it was sold, and in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel in a similar case involving wine. And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel.
ת"ר אחד שכר תמרים ואחד שכר שעורים ואחד שמרי יין מברכין עליהם שהכל נהיה בדברו אחרים אומרים שמרים שיש בהם טעם יין מברך עליהן בורא פרי הגפן רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו אין הלכה כאחרים
§ The Sages taught in a baraita: Whether one drinks date beer, or barley beer, or a beverage made from soaking pomace from the production of wine in water, known as tamad, one recites over them the blessing: By Whose word all things came to be. Aḥerim say: Over wine made from pomace that has the taste of wine one recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the vine. Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Aḥerim.
אמר רבא דכולי עלמא רמא תלתא ואתא ארבעה חמרא הוא רבא לטעמיה דאמר רבא כל חמרא דלא דרי על חד תלת מיא לאו חמרא הוא
Rava said: According to the opinions of everyone mentioned in the baraita, if one poured three jugs of water over grape pomace and then, after removing the pomace, the volume of the resulting beverage came to four jugs, then that beverage is regarded as wine. Evidently, a quarter of the resulting beverage is from juice that was contained in the pomace, which is pure wine, and that is a sufficient ratio for the beverage as a whole to be regarded as wine. The Gemara interjects Rava’s comments: With this statement, Rava conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as Rava said: Any wine that does not contain three parts water to one part pure wine is not regarded as wine, as it is excessively strong.
רמא תלתא ואתא תלתא ולא כלום הוא כי פליגי דרמא תלתא ואתא תלתא ופלגא דרבנן סברי תלתא עייל תלתא נפיק פש ליה פלגא ופלגא בשיתא פלגי מיא ולא כלום הוא
Rava continues: If one poured three jugs of water over pomace, and the volume of the resulting beverage still came to three jugs, then it is nothing, i.e., it is not regarded as wine. When the tanna’im in the baraita disagree is in a case where one poured three jugs of water over pomace and the volume of the resulting beverage came to three and a half jugs, as the Rabbis, i.e., the first tanna, hold that three jugs of water were absorbed into the pomace and then the same three jugs of water seeped out of the pomace; therefore, there remains half a jug of the resulting beverage that was originally pure wine contained in the pomace. But half a jug of pure wine mixed into six half-jugs of water is nothing, i.e., the mixture is too weak to be regarded as wine.
ואחרים סברי תלתא עול תרין ופלגא נפיק פש ליה כוזא וכוזא בתרי ופלגא חמרא מעליא הוא
And Aḥerim hold that three jugs of water were absorbed into the pomace but only two and a half jugs of water seeped out of the pomace, as one jug of water replaced the one jug of pure wine contained in the pomace. Therefore, there remains one jug of the resulting beverage that is pure wine that was previously contained in the pomace. And one jug of pure wine mixed into two and a half jugs of water is regarded as full-fledged wine.
וביותר מכדי מדתו מי פליגי והא תנן
The Gemara asks: And where the volume of the resulting beverage is greater than the amount of water that was poured over the pomace, do the Sages ever disagree? But didn’t we learn in a mishna (Ma’asrot 5:6):