מָנֶה מָאתָן וְאַרְבְּעִין הָווּ אֶלָּא שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ תְּלָת שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ מָנֶה שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ כָּפוּל הָיָה וּשְׁמַע מִינַּהּ מוֹסִיפִין עַל הַמִּדּוֹת וְאֵין מוֹסִיפִין יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁתוּת וּשְׁמַע מִינַּהּ שְׁתוּתָא מִלְּבַר This is problematic: How can a maneh consist of sixty shekels? Since each biblical shekel is equivalent to four dinars, if a maneh is equal to sixty shekels, a maneh is two hundred and forty dinars. But a maneh is actually equal to twenty-five shekels, which is one hundred dinars. Rather, one can learn from the verse three matters: Learn from it that the sacred maneh was doubled, so that it equaled fifty dinars, not twenty-five. And furthermore, as Ezekiel stated that the maneh will be sixty dinars, not fifty, learn from it that a community may increase measures, but they may not increase them by more than one-sixth. And learn from it that the one-sixth is calculated from the outside, i.e., it is one-sixth of the final sum, which is one-fifth of the previous sum.
רַב פָּפָּא בַּר שְׁמוּאֵל תַּקֵּין כְּיָילָא בַּר תְּלָתָא קְפִיזֵי אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ וְהָא אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵין מוֹסִיפִין עַל הַמִּדּוֹת יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁתוּת אֲמַר לְהוּ אֲנָא כְּיָילָא חַדְתָּא תַּקֵּינִי שַׁדְּרֵיהּ לְפוּמְבְּדִיתָא וְלָא קַבְּלוּהּ שַׁדְּרֵיהּ לְפַאפּוּנְיָא וְקַבְּלוּהּ וְקָרוּ לֵיהּ רוּז פָּפָּא The Gemara relates: Rav Pappa bar Shmuel instituted a new measure of three kefiza, which is equal to three log. The Sages said to him: But doesn’t Shmuel say that one may not increase the measures by more than one-sixth? You have added one-third, as there already exists a measure of a half-kav, which is the equivalent of two log. Rav Pappa bar Shmuel said to them: I instituted a new measure. He sent the measure to Pumbedita, and they did not accept it; he sent it to the city of Paphunya, and they accepted it and called it the measure of Pappa.
(סִימָן אוֹצְרֵי פֵירוֹת אֵין אוֹצְרִין וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין וְאֵין מִשְׂתַּכְּרִין פַּעֲמַיִם בְּבֵיצִים מַתְרִיעִין וְלֹא מוֹצִיאִין) § The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the ensuing discussions: Hoarders of produce; one may not hoard; and one may not export; and one may not earn a profit; twice from the sale of eggs; they sound the alarm; and one may not leave.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן אוֹצְרֵי פֵירוֹת וּמַלְוֵי בְּרִבִּית וּמַקְטִינֵי אֵיפָה וּמַפְקִיעֵי שְׁעָרִים עֲלֵיהֶן הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר לֵאמֹר מָתַי יַעֲבֹר הַחֹדֶשׁ וְנַשְׁבִּירָה שֶּׁבֶר וְהַשַּׁבָּת וְנִפְתְּחָה בָּר לְהַקְטִין אֵיפָה וּלְהַגְדִּיל שֶׁקֶל וּלְעַוֵּת מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה וּכְתִיב נִשְׁבַּע ה׳ בִּגְאוֹן יַעֲקֹב אִם אֶשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח כׇּל מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם The Sages taught: Hoarders of produce, who drive up prices by causing a shortage of available goods, and usurers, and those sellers who falsely reduce their measures, and those who raise market prices by selling for more than the accepted price, about them the verse states: “You that would swallow the needy and destroy the poor of the land, saying: When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell produce? And the Shabbat, that we may set forth grain? Making the measure small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances of deceit” (Amos 8:4–5). And it is written: “The Lord has sworn by the pride of Jacob: Surely I will never forget any of their works” (Amos 8:7).
אוֹצְרֵי פֵירוֹת כְּגוֹן מַאן אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כְּגוֹן שַׁבְּתַי אֹצֵר פֵּירוֹת The Gemara asks: Hoarders of produce, such as whom? Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Such as Shabbtai, the hoarder of produce, who would buy and hoard large amounts of produce and later sell it at a high price.
אֲבוּהּ דִּשְׁמוּאֵל מְזַבֵּין לְהוּ לְפֵירֵי בְּתַרְעָא חָרְפָא כְּתַרְעָא חָרְפָא שְׁמוּאֵל בְּרֵיהּ מַשְׁהֵי לְפֵירֵי וּמְזַבֵּין לְהוּ בְּתַרְעָא אַפְלָא כְּתַרְעָא חָרְפָא שְׁלַחוּ מִתָּם טָבָא דְּאַבָּא מִדִּבְרָא מַאי טַעְמָא תַּרְעָא דְּרָוַוח רָוַוח The Gemara relates: Shmuel’s father would sell produce during the period of the early market price, when produce is cheap, for the early market price. His son Shmuel acted differently, and would keep the produce and sell it during the period of the late market price, when produce is expensive, for the early market price. They sent a message from there, Eretz Yisrael: The practice of the father is better than that of the son. What is the reason for this? A market price that has been eased and starts out low will remain eased, with little increase over the course of the year. Therefore, one who makes produce available at the beginning of the season, like Shmuel’s father, aids people during the entire year. By contrast, a market price that starts out high, because people are not making their produce available at the market, is not easily lowered.
אָמַר רַב עוֹשֶׂה אָדָם אֶת קַבּוֹ אוֹצָר תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי אֵין אוֹצְרִין פֵּירוֹת דְּבָרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חַיֵּי נֶפֶשׁ כְּגוֹן יֵינוֹת שְׁמָנִין וּסְלָתוֹת אֲבָל תַּבְלִין כַּמּוֹן וּפִלְפְּלִין מוּתָּר בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּלוֹקֵחַ מִן הַשּׁוּק אֲבָל בְּמַכְנִיס מִשֶּׁלּוֹ מוּתָּר Rav says: A person may turn his own kav into a storeroom, i.e., he may hoard the produce of his own field and sell it only at a later stage, without violating the prohibition of hoarding produce. This is also taught in a baraita: One may not hoard produce of items that contain an element of basic sustenance, such as wines, oils, and flours, but in the case of spices, such as cumin and pepper, it is permitted. In what case is this statement said? It is with regard to one who buys that produce from the market to resell later; but with regard to one who brings in produce from his own field, it is permitted for any type of produce.
וּמוּתָּר לָאָדָם לֶאֱצוֹר פֵּירוֹת בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים עֶרֶב שְׁבִיעִית וּשְׁבִיעִית וּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית The baraita continues: And it is permitted for a person to hoard produce in Eretz Yisrael for these three years: The year preceding the Sabbatical Year, the Sabbatical Year, and the year that follows the Sabbatical Year, because the land lies fallow during the seventh year, the Sabbatical Year, and the produce of the sixth year must last through these three years, until near the end of the eighth year.
וּבִשְׁנֵי בַצּוֹרֶת אֲפִילּוּ קַב חָרוּבִין לֹא יֶאֱצוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּכְנִיס מְאֵרָה בַּשְּׁעָרִים אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא לְפוּגָא שַׁמָּעֵיהּ פּוּק אֱצַר לִי פֵּירֵי שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים עֶרֶב שְׁבִיעִית וּשְׁבִיעִית וּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית And in years of drought one may not hoard even a kav of carobs, because he thereby brings a curse on market prices, as everyone is fearful of selling and even a small fluctuation in supply can cause a significant rise in prices. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who was living in Eretz Yisrael, said to his servant Fuga: Go and hoard produce for me for the coming three years: The year preceding the Sabbatical Year, the Sabbatical Year, and the year that follows the Sabbatical Year.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן אֵין מוֹצִיאִין פֵּירוֹת מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל דְּבָרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חַיֵּי נֶפֶשׁ כְּגוֹן יֵינוֹת שְׁמָנִים וּסְלָתוֹת רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתֵירָא מַתִּיר בַּיַּיִן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּמַעֵט אֶת הַתִּיפְלָה וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין מוֹצִיאִין מֵאֶרֶץ לְחוּץ לָאָרֶץ כָּךְ אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְסוּרְיָא וְרַבִּי מַתִּיר § The Sages taught: One may not export produce from Eretz Yisrael if it consists of items that contain an element of basic sustenance, such as wines, oils, and flours, because this causes them to become more expensive in Eretz Yisrael. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira permits export in the case of wine, because this lessens licentiousness in Eretz Yisrael. And just as one may not export these types of produce from Eretz Yisrael to outside of Eretz Yisrael, so too one may not export them from Eretz Yisrael to Syria, as Syria is not considered part of Eretz Yisrael in this context. And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi permits the export of produce