מִוְּהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע וְעַד לְעׇבְדָם וְקִלְּלָן בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם מִוְּהָיָה אִם לֹא תִשְׁמַע עַד וְאֵין קֹנֶה: from the letter vav that begins the verse: “And it shall come to pass [vehaya], if you shall hearken diligently” (Deuteronomy 28:1), until: “To serve them [le’ovdam]” (Deuteronomy 28:14), which ends with the letter mem. And he cursed them with twenty-two letters, from the letter vav that begins the verse: “But it shall come to pass [vehaya], if you will not hearken to the voice of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 28:15), until: “And no man shall buy [koneh]” (Deuteronomy 28:68). This verse ends with a letter heh, which comes just before vav in the alphabet. Starting with a vav and ending with a heh encompasses the twenty-two letters of the alphabet.
מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לָמוֹד בְּגַסָּה כּוּ׳ (סִימָן אֵין מְעַיְּינִין וְאֵין גּוֹדְשִׁין בַּאֲגַרְדְּמִין וּבְלִיטְרָא שְׁלֹשָׁה וָעֶשֶׂר נֶפֶשׁ מִשְׁקָלוֹת מִמֶּחָק עָבֶה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה) § The mishna teaches that in a place where they were accustomed to measure with one large measuring vessel, one may not measure with several small measuring vessels. In a place where the custom is to level the top of the measuring vessel to remove substances heaped above its edges, one may not heap it; and where they are accustomed to heap it, one may not level it. The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the ensuing halakhot: One may not balance with precision; and one may not heap it; with market inspectors [ba’agardamin]; and with a litra; three; and ten; fulcrum; weights; a thick leveler; you may not do; one may not do.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין מוֹחֲקִין בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁגּוֹדְשִׁין וְאֵין גּוֹדְשִׁין בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁמּוֹחֲקִין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר אֵיפָה שְׁלֵמָה The Sages taught: From where is it derived that one may not level a measuring vessel in a place where they are accustomed to heap it and that one may not heap it in a place where they are accustomed to level it? The verse states: “A perfect weight” (Deuteronomy 25:15), which indicates that one must use whatever is considered a perfect measuring vessel in that locale, as this ensures that there is no deception or trickery.
וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאִם אָמַר הֲרֵינִי מוֹחֵק בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁגּוֹדְשִׁין וְלִפְחוֹת לוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים וַהֲרֵינִי גּוֹדֵשׁ בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁמּוֹחֲקִין וּלְהוֹסִיף לוֹ עַל הַדָּמִים שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר אֵיפָה שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָּךְ And from where is it derived that if the seller said in a place where they heap: I am hereby leveling and am willing in exchange to reduce the price for you, or said, in a place where they level: I am hereby heaping and am willing to increase the price for you, that the court does not listen to him? The verse states: “A perfect and just weight you shall have” (Deuteronomy 25:15). The addition of the term “just,” beyond the requirement that the weight be “perfect,” teaches that one must keep his weights in a just manner, i.e., that employed by the people of that locale.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין מְעַיְּינִין בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁמַּכְרִיעִין וְאֵין מַכְרִיעִין בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁמְּעַיְּינִין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר אֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה The Sages taught: From where is it derived that one may not balance a scale so that it will balance with precision [me’ayyenin] in a place where they are accustomed to let the scales tilt a handbreadth for the benefit of the buyer, and that one may not let the scales tilt a handbreadth in a place where they are accustomed to balance with precision? The verse states: “A perfect weight” (Deuteronomy 25:15), which teaches that the weight must be considered perfect in that locale.
וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאִם אָמַר הֲרֵינִי מְעַיֵּין בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁמַּכְרִיעִין וְלִפְחוֹת לוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים וַהֲרֵינִי מַכְרִיעַ בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁמְּעַיְּינִין וּלְהוֹסִיף לוֹ עַל הַדָּמִים שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר אֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק And from where is it derived that if a seller said, in a place where it is the custom to let the scales tilt a handbreadth: I am hereby balancing with precision and am willing to reduce the price for the buyer; or, in a place where it is the custom to balance with precision: I am hereby letting the scales tilt a handbreadth and am willing to increase the price for the buyer, that the court does not listen to him? The verse states: “A perfect and just weight” (Deuteronomy 25:15), which teaches that the just way of acting is to weigh in accordance with the practice in that locale.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה מִסּוּרָא לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּבֵיתְךָ מָה טַעַם מִשּׁוּם אֵיפָה וְאֵיפָה Rav Yehuda of Sura says a homiletic interpretation of the phrase: “You shall not have in your house diverse measures” (Deuteronomy 25:14): “You shall not have in your house” means that you will become a pauper, who has nothing in his house. What is the reason for this? It is due to the fact that you used diverse measures, buying with a large vessel and selling with a small one.
לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּכִיסְךָ מָה טַעַם מִשּׁוּם אֶבֶן וָאָבֶן אֲבָל אֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָּךְ אֵיפָה שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָּךְ The phrase: “You shall not have in your purse diverse weights” (Deuteronomy 25:13), is interpreted in a similar fashion: “You shall not have in your purse,” i.e., you will become a pauper, who has nothing in his purse. What is the reason for this? It is due to the fact that you used diverse weights. But if you possess only “a perfect and just weight,” then “you shall have” wealth. Likewise, if you possess only “a perfect and just measure,” then “you shall have” wealth.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן (לֹא) יִהְיֶה לְךָ מְלַמֵּד שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין אֲגַרְדְּמִין לַמִּדּוֹת וְאֵין מַעֲמִידִין אֲגַרְדְּמִין לַשְּׁעָרִים דְּבֵי נְשִׂיאָה אוֹקִימוּ אֲגַרְדְּמִין בֵּין לַמִּדּוֹת בֵּין לַשְּׁעָרִים אֲמַר לֵיהּ שְׁמוּאֵל לְקַרְנָא פּוֹק תְּנִי לְהוּ מַעֲמִידִין אֲגַרְדְּמִין לַמִּדּוֹת וְאֵין מַעֲמִידִין אֲגַרְדְּמִין לַשְּׁעָרִים § The Sages taught that the phrase: “You shall not have,” teaches that the court appoints market inspectors to supervise the accuracy of measures. The Gemara infers: But the court does not appoint market inspectors for supervising market prices. The Gemara relates: The house of the Nasi appointed market inspectors for supervising both measures and prices. Shmuel said to his student, the Sage Karna: Go out and teach them that one appoints market inspectors for supervising measures but one does not appoint market inspectors for prices.
נְפַק דְּרַשׁ לְהוּ מַעֲמִידִין אֲגַרְדְּמִין בֵּין לַמִּדּוֹת בֵּין לַשְּׁעָרִים אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה שְׁמָךְ קַרְנָא תִּיפּוֹק לֵיהּ קַרְנָא בְּעֵינֵיהּ נְפַקָא לֵיהּ קַרְנָא בְּעֵינֵיהּ וְאִיהוּ כְּמַאן סָבַר כִּי הָא דְּאָמַר רָמֵי בַּר חָמָא אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מַעֲמִידִין אֲגַרְדְּמִין בֵּין לַמִּדּוֹת בֵּין לַשְּׁעָרִים מִפְּנֵי הָרַמָּאִין Karna went out and taught them that one appoints market inspectors for supervising both measures and prices. Shmuel, hearing what he had done, said to him: What is your name? He replied: Karna. Shmuel said: Let a horn [karna] emerge in his eye. A horn, i.e., a growth of flesh, emerged in his eye. The Gemara asks: And Karna, in accordance with whose opinion did he hold, which led him to disregard his teacher’s statement? He held in accordance with that which Rami bar Ḥama says that Rabbi Yitzḥak says: One appoints market inspectors for supervising both measures and prices, due to swindlers, to prevent people from using smaller measures or from selling at a steep price while falsely claiming that they are selling superior-quality merchandise.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן הָיָה מְבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ לִיטְרָא שׁוֹקֵל לוֹ לִיטְרָא חֲצִי לִיטְרָא שׁוֹקֵל לוֹ חֲצִי לִיטְרָא רְבִיעַ לִיטְרָא שׁוֹקֵל לוֹ רְבִיעַ לִיטְרָא מַאי קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן דִּמְתַקְּנִינַן מַתְקָלֵי עַד הָכִי The Gemara discusses several halakhot related to the cases of the mishna. The Sages taught: If the buyer requested from the seller a litra of a specific item, he weighs for him using a litra weight. If he asks for half a litra, he weighs for him using a half-litra weight. If he wants one-quarter of a litra, he weighs for him using a quarter-litra weight. The Gemara asks: Isn’t this obvious? What is this baraita teaching us? The Gemara explains: It teaches that one sets weights until this amount, one-quarter of a litra, but not less. If a buyer asks the seller to weigh a smaller amount for him, his request is not granted.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן הָיָה מְבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה רִבְעֵי לִיטְרָא לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ שְׁקוֹל לִי שְׁלֹשָׁה רִבְעֵי לִיטְרָא אַחַת אַחַת אֶלָּא שׁוֹקֵל לִיטְרָא וּמַנִּיחַ רְבִיעַ לִיטְרָא עִם הַבָּשָׂר Furthermore, the Sages taught: If the buyer requested from him three-quarters of a litra, and there is no weight equal to this amount, the buyer may not say to him: Weigh for me three units using a quarter-litra weight, one by one, so that the seller lets the scales tilt by a handbreadth as he measures each quarter-litra weight. Rather, he weighs the merchandise all at once, as he places a litra weight on one pan of the scale, and places on the other pan of the scale a quarter-litra weight together with the meat that is being sold.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן הָיָה מְבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ עֶשֶׂר לִיטְרִין לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ שְׁקוֹל לִי אַחַת אַחַת וְהַכְרִיעָהּ אֶלָּא שׁוֹקֵל לוֹ כּוּלָּן בְּבַת אַחַת וְנוֹתֵן הֶכְרֵעַ אֶחָד לְכוּלָּן The Sages likewise taught: In a case where the buyer requested from the seller ten litra of merchandise, the buyer may not say to him: Weigh for me each litra one by one, and let the scales tilt each time, as on every occasion that the seller does this the buyer receives more than that for which he paid. Rather, he weighs all the merchandise at the same time and lets the scales tilt once for all the merchandise.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן נֶפֶשׁ מֹאזְנַיִם תְּלוּיָה בָּאֲוִיר שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים וּגְבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים וְקָנֶה וּמִתְנָא שֶׁלָּהּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר טְפָחִים וְשֶׁל צַמָּרִים וְשֶׁל זַגָּגִין תְּלוּיָה בָּאֲוִיר שְׁנֵי טְפָחִים וּגְבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ שְׁנֵי טְפָחִים וְקָנֶה וּמִתְנָא שֶׁלָּהּ תִּשְׁעָה טְפָחִים § The Sages taught: The fulcrum of a scale must be suspen-ded in the air so that the point the lever goes through it is at a distance of three handbreadths from the ceiling, and the pans of the scale must be three handbreadths above the ground. And the scale’s lever and cord, from which each pan is suspended, must be twelve handbreadths long. And the fulcrum of a scale of wool-weavers and glassmakers must be suspended in the air at a distance of two handbreadths from the ceiling, and the pans of the scale must be two handbreadths above the ground. And its lever and cord must be nine handbreadths long.
וְשֶׁל חֶנְווֹנִי וְשֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת תְּלוּיָה בָּאֲוִיר טֶפַח וּגְבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח וְקָנֶה וּמִתְנָא שֶׁלָּהּ שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים וְשֶׁל טוּרְטָנִי תְּלוּיָה בָּאֲוִיר שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת וּגְבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת וְקָנֶה וּמִתְנָא שֶׁלָּהּ אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ And the fulcrum of a scale of a storekeeper and of a homeowner must be suspended in the air at a distance of one handbreadth from the ceiling, and the pans of the scale must be one handbreadth above the ground. And its lever and cord must be six handbreadths long. And the fulcrums of small scales [turtanei] used for weighing gold and silver must be suspended in the air at a distance of three fingerbreadths from the ceiling, and the pans of the scales must be three fingerbreadths above the ground. The tanna continues: But with regard to its lever and cord, I do not know their required length.
וְאֶלָּא הָךְ קַמַּיְיתָא דְּמַאי Since the function of each type of balance scale is mentioned with the exception of the first type, the Gemara asks: And that large balance scale, which is mentioned first, for what is it used?