אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֶיסְתְּרֵיהּ אֲנָא וְאֶבְנְיֵיהּ אֲמַר לֵית לִי דּוּכְתָּא לְמֵידַר בַּהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא אוֹגַר לָךְ דּוּכְתָּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא טָרַחְנָא לָא קָא מִתְּדַר לִי שׁוּף אַכְּרֵיסָךְ וְעוּל וָשׁוּף אַכְּרֵיסָךְ וּפוֹק The owner of the lower story said to him: I will dismantle the structure and rebuild it. The owner of the upper story said: But then I will have no place to live while you are renovating. The owner of the lower story said to him: I will rent a place for you to live for the duration. The owner of the upper story said to him: I do not want to bother with moving. The owner of the lower story said to him: But I cannot live in my apartment in this condition, as the walls have sunk into the ground. The owner of the upper story said to him: That is not my problem. Crawl on your stomach to go in, and crawl on your stomach to go out.
אָמַר רַב חָמָא בְּדִינָא קָא מְעַכֵּב וְהָנֵי מִילֵּי דְּלָא מָטוּ כְּשׁוּרֵי לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה אֲבָל מָטוּ כְּשׁוּרֵי לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה מָצֵי אָמַר לֵיהּ לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה רְשׁוּתָא דִידִי הוּא וְלָא מְשַׁעְבַּד לָךְ Rav Ḥama said: By law, the owner of the upper story can prevent his downstairs neighbor from rebuilding. The Gemara comments: And this statement applies only when the beams supporting the second story have not reached lower than ten handbreadths from the ground. But if those beams have reached lower than ten handbreadths from the ground, the owner of the lower story can say to the owner of the upper story: Below ten handbreadths is my domain and my domain is not bound to you to support your residence.
וְהָנֵי מִילֵּי דְּלָא אַתְנוֹ גַּבֵּי הֲדָדֵי אֲבָל אַתְנוֹ גַּבֵּי הֲדָדֵי סָתְרִי וּבָנוּ The Gemara further comments: And this statement, that the owner of the upper story can prevent his downstairs neighbor from rebuilding, applies only when they did not stipulate with each other that if the house sinks they will rebuild the house anew. But if they made such a stipulation with each other, they must dismantle the house and rebuild it.
וְכִי אַתְנוֹ בַּהֲדֵי הֲדָדֵי עַד כַּמָּה אָמְרוּ רַבָּנַן קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבָּה מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּמָר זוּטְרָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב נַחְמָן דְּאָמַר מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב נַחְמָן כְּאוֹתָהּ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ רוּמוֹ כַּחֲצִי אׇרְכּוֹ וְכַחֲצִי רׇחְבּוֹ אֲמַר לְהוּ רַבָּה לָאו אָמֵינָא לְכוּ לָא תִּיתְלוֹ בֵּיהּ בּוּקֵי סְרִיקֵי בְּרַב נַחְמָן הָכִי אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן כִּי דְּדָיְירִי אִינָשֵׁי וְכַמָּה אָמַר רַב הוּנָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי הֵיכִי דְּעָיְילִי אִיסּוּרְיָתָא דְמָחוֹזָא וְהָדַר The Gemara asks: And if they made such a stipulation with each other, to what extent must the ceiling of the lower story drop before they implement the stipulation? The Sages said before Rabba in the name of Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, who said in the name of Rav Naḥman: Like that which we learned in a mishna (98b): If one takes upon himself to build a house for another person, without stipulating its dimensions, its height must be equal to the sum of half its length and half its width. Rabba said to them: Did I not tell you not to hang empty pitchers on Rav Naḥman, meaning not to attribute foolish opinions to him? Rather, this is what Rav Naḥman said: As people normally live, and no more. And how much space is that? Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: The ceiling of the lower story must be high enough so that one could bring in bundles of reeds of the type made in Meḥoza and be able to turn around.
הָהוּא גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה בָּנֵי אֲשִׁיתָא אֲחוֹרֵי כַּוֵּוי דְּחַבְרֵיהּ אָמַר לֵיהּ קָא מַאַפְלַתְּ עֲלַי אֲמַר לֵיהּ סָכַרְנָא לָךְ הָכָא וְעָבֵידְנָא לָךְ כַּוֵּוי לְעֵיל מֵאֲשִׁיתַאי אֲמַר לֵיהּ קָא מַרַעְתְּ לֵיהּ לַאֲשִׁיתַאי אֲמַר לֵיהּ סָתַרְנָא לָךְ לַאֲשִׁיתָךְ עַד דּוּכְתָּא דְכַוֵּוי וּבָנֵינָא לַהּ וְעָבֵידְנָא לָךְ כַּוֵּוי בְּבִנְיָנָא לְעֵיל מֵאֲשִׁיתַאי אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲשִׁיתָא מִתַּתָּאָה עַתִּיקָא וּמִלְּעֵיל חַדְתָּא לָא קָיְימָא It is further related that a certain man built a wall outside the windows of his neighbor. The neighbor said to him: You are blocking the light with your wall and darkening my house. The one who built the wall said to him: I will seal your windows here and make new windows for you in your wall above the wall that I am building. The neighbor said to him: By doing so you will damage my wall. The one who built the wall said to him: I will demolish your wall until the level of the windows and rebuild it, and then I will make windows for you in the new part of the building above my wall. The neighbor said to him: A wall that is old at the bottom and new at the top will not endure.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ סָתַרְנָא לַהּ עַד לְאַרְעָא וּבָנֵינָא לַהּ וְעָבֵידְנָא לָךְ כַּוֵּוי בְּגַוַּהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲדָא אֲשִׁיתָא חַדְתָּא בְּכוּלֵּיהּ בֵּיתָא עַתִּיקָא לָא קָיְימָא אָמַר לֵיהּ סָתַרְנָא לַהּ לְכוּלֵּיהּ בֵּיתָא וּבָנֵינָא לָךְ כַּוֵּוי בְּבִנְיָנָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית לִי דּוּכְתָּא לְמֵידַר בַּהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ אָגַירְנָא לָךְ דּוּכְתָּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא טָרַחְנָא אָמַר רַב חָמָא בְּדִין קָא מְעַכֵּב The one who built the wall said to him: I will demolish the wall until the ground and entirely rebuild it, and then I will make windows for you in it above my wall. The neighbor said to him: One new wall in an old house will not endure. The one who built the wall said to him: I will demolish your entire house and put windows in the new building that I will erect in its place. The neighbor said to him: But in the meantime I will have no place to live. The one who built the wall said to him: I will rent a place for you to live. The neighbor said to him: I do not want to bother with moving. Rav Ḥama said: By law, the neighbor can prevent him from building the wall.
הַיְינוּ הָךְ וְהָא תּוּ לְמָה לִי הָא קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן דְּאַף עַל גַּב דְּלָא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ אֶלָּא תִּיבְנָא וּבֵי צִיבֵי בְּעָלְמָא The Gemara asks: This case is identical to that case; this case is very similar to the previous case of the owner of the upper story who can prevent the owner of the lower story from rebuilding. Why do I need this additional case? The Gemara answers: This teaches us that even if he uses the house only for storing straw and wood, he can still maintain that blocking the light causes him damage and can prevent the neighbor from erecting the wall.
הָנְהוּ בֵּי תְרֵי אַחֵי דְּפָלְגִי בַּהֲדֵי הֲדָדֵי חַד מַטְיֵיהּ אִסְפְּלִידָא וְחַד מַטְיֵיהּ תַּרְבִּיצָא אֲזַל הָהוּא דְּמַטְיֵיהּ תַּרְבִּיצָא וְקָא בָנֵי אֲשִׁיתָא אַפּוּמָּא דְאִסְפְּלִידָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ קָא מַאַפְלַתְּ עֲלַי אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּדִידִי קָא בָנֵינָא אָמַר רַב חָמָא בְּדִין קָאָמַר לֵיהּ The Gemara further relates: There were two brothers who divided their father’s estate between them. One received a hall [aspelida] in his share and one received a garden. The one who received the garden went and built a wall in front of the opening of the hall. His brother said to him: You are blocking the light with your wall and darkening my house. The one who received the garden said to him: I am building on my property. Rav Ḥama said: By right he said that to him, as it is permitted for him to build there.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבִינָא לְרַב אָשֵׁי מַאי שְׁנָא מֵהָא דְּתַנְיָא שְׁנֵי אַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ אֶחָד מֵהֶן נָטַל שְׂדֵה כֶרֶם וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן נָטַל שְׂדֵה לָבָן יֵשׁ לוֹ לְבַעַל הַכֶּרֶם אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּשְׂדֵה לָבָן שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן חָלְקוּ Ravina said to Rav Ashi: In what way is this different from that which is taught in a baraita: If two brothers divided their father’s estate between them, one of them taking a vineyard and the other one taking a grain field, the owner of the vineyard has the right to an area four cubits wide in the grain field for the purpose of working the vineyard, since it was on that condition that they divided the estate. Why in this case does the owner of the hall not have the right to make use of the light coming in from the garden?
אֲמַר לֵיהּ הָתָם דְּעַלּוּ לַהֲדָדֵי אֲבָל הָכָא מַאי דְּלָא עַלּוּ לַהֲדָדֵי וְכִי בְּשׁוּפְטָנֵי עָסְקִינַן דְּהַאי שָׁקֵיל אִסְפְּלִידָא וְהַאי שָׁקֵיל תַּרְבִּיצָא וְלָא עַלּוּ לַהֲדָדֵי אֲמַר לֵיהּ נְהִי דְּעַלּוּ לַהֲדָדֵי דְּמֵי לִיבְנֵי כְּשׁוּרֵי וְהוּדְרֵי דְּמֵי אַוֵּירָא לָא עַלּוּ לַהֲדָדֵי Rav Ashi said to him: There, the reason is that they made an assessment with each other with regard to the value of the fields, arranging for compensation if one received more than the other, and they took the work area into account. Ravina asked: But what did they do here? Did they not make an assessment with each other? Are we dealing with fools, that this one took the valuable hall and the other one took the much less valuable garden without making an assessment with each other? Rav Ashi said to him: Although they assessed with each other the value of the bricks, the beams, and the boards, they did not assess with each other the value of the airspace. With regard to that, each one retained full rights to his respective airspace.
וְלֵימָא לֵיהּ מֵעִיקָּרָא אִסְפְּלִידָא פְּלַגְתְּ לִי הַשְׁתָּא מְשַׁוֵּית לִי אִידְּרוֹנָא אָמַר רַב שִׁימִי בַּר אָשֵׁי שְׁמָא בְּעָלְמָא פְּלַג לֵיהּ The Gemara says: And let the one who received the hall say to the other: Initially, you gave me a well-lit hall; now you are making it into a small dark room [idrona]. Rav Shimi bar Ashi said: He gave him only a place that is called a hall by name, that is, a place that is called a hall even though it is no longer used that way.
מִי לָא תַּנְיָא הָאוֹמֵר בֵּית כּוֹר עָפָר אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לֶתֶךְ הִגִּיעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מָכַר לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁמָא וְהוּא דְּמִיתְקְרֵי בֵּית כּוֹר פַּרְדֵּס אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ רִמּוֹנִים הִגִּיעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מָכַר לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁמָא וְהוּא דְּמִיתְקְרֵי פַּרְדֵּס כֶּרֶם אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ גְּפָנִים הִגִּיעוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מָכַר לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁמָא וְהוּא דְּמִיתְקְרֵי כַּרְמָא Rav Ashi continues: Isn’t it taught in a baraita: In the case of one who says to another: I am selling you a beit kor of dirt, it becomes his even if it is only a letekh, i.e., a half-kor, and the sale is not void, because he sold him only a place that is called a beit kor by name. The Gemara comments: And this ruling applies only as long as the land he is selling him is actually called a beit kor. Similarly, if he says to him: I am selling you an orchard, it becomes his even if it lacks pomegranates, because he sold him only a place that is called an orchard by name. The Gemara comments: And this applies only as long as the land he is selling is actually called an orchard. And similarly, if he says to him: I am selling you a vineyard, it becomes his even if it lacks grapevines, because he sold him only a place that is called a vineyard by name. The Gemara comments: And this applies only as long as the land he is selling is actually called a vineyard.
מִי דָּמֵי הָתָם מָצֵי אֲמַר לֵיהּ מוֹכֵר לְלוֹקֵחַ שְׁמָא זַבֵּינִי לָךְ הָכָא מָצֵי אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַדַּעְתָּא דְּהָכִי פְּלַגִי דְּדָאֵירְנָא בֵּיהּ כִּי הֵיכִי דְּדָרוּ אֲבָהָתַן The Gemara rejects this argument: Are these cases comparable? There, the seller can say to the buyer: I sold you only a place that is called that by name; here, the one who received the hall can say to his brother: I took this portion as my share on condition that I would live there the way our fathers lived there, and that you would not change that by blocking the light entering through the windows.
אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ With regard to Rav Ḥama’s ruling that it is permitted for the brother who received the garden to build a wall in front of the hall, they said to him,