וְקָנַסְתִּי מִיתָה עַל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן and I decreed death on Adam the first man, to demonstrate that he was human and not a god.
מַאי וְעַל מִקְרָאֶהָ אָמַר רַבָּה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לֹא כִּירוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַזֶּה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַבָּא יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַזֶּה כָּל הָרוֹצֶה לַעֲלוֹת עוֹלֶה שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַבָּא אֵין עוֹלִין אֶלָּא הַמְזוּמָּנִין לָהּ § The Gemara returns to the aforementioned verse: “And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of Mount Zion, and over those who are invited to it, a cloud and smoke by day” (Isaiah 4:5). What is the meaning of the phrase: “And over those who are invited to it”? Rabba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Jerusalem of the World-to-Come is not like Jerusalem of this world. With regard to Jerusalem of this world, anyone who wants to ascend there can ascend. With regard to Jerusalem of the World-to-Come, only those who are invited to it can ascend.
וְאָמַר רַבָּה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן עֲתִידִין צַדִּיקִים שֶׁנִּקְרָאִין עַל שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כֹּל הַנִּקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וְלִכְבוֹדִי בְּרָאתִיו יְצַרְתִּיו אַף עֲשִׂיתִיו וְאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שְׁלֹשָׁה נִקְרְאוּ עַל שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאֵלּוּ הֵן צַדִּיקִים וּמָשִׁיחַ וִירוּשָׁלִַים And Rabba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: In the future, the righteous will be called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He; as it is stated: “Every one that is called by My name, and whom I have created for My glory, I have formed him, yea, I have made him” (Isaiah 43:7). This indicates that one who was created by God and causes Him glory is called by His name. And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Three were called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and they are: The righteous, and the Messiah, and Jerusalem.
צַדִּיקִים הָא דַּאֲמַרַן מָשִׁיחַ דִּכְתִיב וְזֶה שְּׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִקְרְאוֹ ה׳ צִדְקֵנוּ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם דִּכְתִיב סָבִיב שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר אָלֶף וְשֵׁם הָעִיר מִיּוֹם ה׳ שָׁמָּה אַל תִּקְרֵי שָׁמָּה אֶלָּא שְׁמָהּ אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר עֲתִידִין צַדִּיקִים שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לִפְנֵיהֶן קָדוֹשׁ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהָיָה הַנִּשְׁאָר בְּצִיּוֹן וְהַנּוֹתָר בִּירוּשָׁלִַם קָדוֹשׁ יֵאָמֶר לוֹ With regard to the righteous, this is as we have just said. With regard to the Messiah, this is as it is written: “And this is his name whereby he shall be called, the Lord is our righteousness” (Jeremiah 23:6). With regard to Jerusalem, this is as it is writ-ten: “It shall be eighteen thousand reeds round about. And the name of the city from that day shall be, the Lord is there [shamma]” (Ezekiel 48:35). Do not read the word as “there” [shamma]; rather, read it as: The Lord is its name [shemah]. Rabbi Elazar says: In the future, the righteous will have the name: Holy, recited before them, as one recites before the Holy One, Blessed be He; as it is stated: “And it shall come to pass, that he who is left in Zion, and he who remains in Jerusalem, shall be called holy” (Isaiah 4:3).
וְאָמַר רַבָּה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שָׁלֹשׁ פַּרְסָאוֹת לְמַעְלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְרָאֲמָה וְיָשְׁבָה תַחְתֶּיהָ מַאי תַּחְתֶּיהָ כְּתַחְתֶּיהָ וּמִמַּאי דְּהַאי תַּחְתֶּיהָ תְּלָתָא פַּרְסֵי הָוְיָא אָמַר רַבָּה אֲמַר לִי הָהוּא סָבָא לְדִידִי חֲזֵי לִי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם קַמַּיְיתָא וּתְלָתָא פַּרְסֵי הָוְיָא And Rabba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will raise Jerusalem three parasangs upward; as it is stated: “And it shall be lifted up and inhabited in its place” (Zechariah 14:10). What is the meaning of the phrase “in its place”? It means equivalent to its place, i.e., Jerusalem will be raised to a height whose measure in parasangs corresponds to the measure of its area in square parasangs. The Gemara asks: And from where is it derived that the place of Jerusalem was an area of three square parasangs? Rabba said that a certain elder said to me: I saw the initial Jerusalem, when it was still extant, and its area was three square parasangs.
וְשֶׁמָּא תֹּאמַר יֵשׁ צַעַר לַעֲלוֹת תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר מִי אֵלֶּה כָּעָב תְּעוּפֶינָה וְכַיּוֹנִים אֶל אֲרֻבֹּתֵיהֶם אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ הַאי עֵיבָא תְּלָתָא פַּרְסֵי מִידְּלֵי The Gemara continues to discuss the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan: And lest you say that there is discomfort in ascending to a place so high, the verse states in a prophecy depicting the return of the Jewish people to Jerusalem: “Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their cotes” (Isaiah 60:8). This indicates that they can easily ascend to Jerusalem, as though they were clouds or doves. Rav Pappa said: Incidentally, one can learn from that statement that this cloud mentioned in the verse is three parasangs high, as it reaches Jerusalem, which will be raised three parasangs.
אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא בִּקֵּשׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לָתֵת אֶת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם בְּמִדָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וָאֹמַר אָנָה אַתָּה הֹלֵךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לָמֹד אֶת יְרוּשָׁלִַם לִרְאוֹת כַּמָּה רׇחְבָּהּ וְכַמָּה אׇרְכָּהּ Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wished to give a set measure for Jerusalem, as it is stated in a prophecy of Zechariah: “And I lifted up my eyes and saw, and behold a man with a measuring line in his hand. Then I said: Where are you going? And he said to me: To measure Jerusalem, to see what is its breadth, and what is its length” (Zechariah 2:5–6).
אָמְרוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַרְבֵּה כְּרַכִּים בָּרָאתָ בְּעוֹלָמְךָ שֶׁל אוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם וְלֹא נָתַתָּ מִדַּת אׇרְכָּן וּמִדַּת רׇחְבָּן יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁשִּׁמְךָ בְּתוֹכָהּ וּמִקְדָּשְׁךָ בְּתוֹכָהּ וְצַדִּיקִים בְּתוֹכָהּ אַתָּה נוֹתֵן בָּהּ מִדָּה מִיָּד וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָו רֻץ דַּבֵּר אֶל הַנַּעַר הַלָּז לֵאמֹר פְּרָזוֹת תֵּשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם מֵרֹב אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה בְּתוֹכָהּ The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You have created many cities in Your world for the nations of the world, and You did not give the measure of their length or the measure of their width, i.e., they are not limited by any set measure, but expand as they develop. With regard to Jerusalem, which has Your name in it, and Your Temple in it, and righteous people in it, will You give it a measure? Immediately: “And, behold, the angel that spoke with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him, and said to him: Run, speak to this young man, saying: Jerusalem shall be inhabited without walls for the multitude of men and cattle within it” (Zechariah 2:7–8).
אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהוֹסִיף עַל יְרוּשְׁלֶם אֶלֶף טֶפֶף גִּינּוֹאוֹת אֶלֶף קֶפֶל מִגְדָּלִים אֶלֶף לִיצוֹי בִּירָנִיּוֹת אֶלֶף וּשְׁנֵי שִׁילֹה טוֹטַפְרָאוֹת וְכׇל אַחַת וְאַחַת הָוְיָא כְּצִפּוֹרִי בְּשַׁלְווֹתָהּ Reish Lakish says: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will add to Jerusalem one thousand times the numerical value of tefaf of gardens; one thousand times the numerical value of kefel of towers; one thousand times the value of litzoy of fortifications; and one thousand and two times the value of shilo of small houses [totpera’ot]. And each and every one of these additions will be like the great city of Tzippori in its prosperity.
תַּנְיָא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אֲנִי רָאִיתִי צִפּוֹרִי בְּשַׁלְווֹתָהּ וְהָיוּ בָּהּ מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים אֶלֶף שְׁווֹקִים שֶׁל מוֹכְרֵי צִיקֵי קְדֵירָה The Gemara clarifies the size of the city of Tzippori. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei said: I saw Tzippori in its prosperity, and there were one hundred and eighty thousand markets of sellers of meat sauces in it. On this basis, one can estimate the future size of Jerusalem.
וְהַצְּלָעוֹת צֵלָע אֶל צֵלָע שָׁלוֹשׁ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים פְּעָמִים מַאי שָׁלוֹשׁ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים פְּעָמִים אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר רַב פַּפֵּי מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִי אִם שָׁלֹשׁ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם הֵן כׇּל אַחַת וְאַחַת יֵשׁ בָּהּ שְׁלֹשִׁים מְדוֹרִין לְמַעְלָה אִם שְׁלֹשִׁים יְרוּשָׁלַיִם הֵן כׇּל אַחַת וְאַחַת יֵשׁ בָּהּ שְׁלֹשָׁה מְדוֹרִין לְמַעְלָה: In a similar manner, the Gemara interprets the verse: “And the side-chambers were one over another, three and thirty times” (Ezekiel 41:6). What is the meaning of: “Three and thirty times”? Rabbi Levi says that Rav Pappi says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua of Sikhnei: If in the future Jerusalem will triple in size, so that it occupies three times its former area, then each and every dwelling will contain thirty stories upward. If the area of Jerusalem will be multiplied by thirty, each and every dwelling will contain three stories above every house.
אִיתְּמַר סְפִינָה רַב אָמַר כֵּיוָן שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ כׇּל שֶׁהוּא קָנָה וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיִּמְשׁוֹךְ אֶת כּוּלָּהּ § The Gemara returns to discuss the mishna, which discusses the acquisition of a ship. It was stated that there was a dispute among amora’im with regard to the manner in which a ship is acquired. Rav says: Once the buyer has pulled the ship and moved it by any amount, he has acquired it. And Shmuel says: He does not acquire it until he pulls the entire ship to the extent that the end of the ship has at least reached the place previously occupied by its front.
לֵימָא כְּתַנָּאֵי כֵּיצַד בִּמְסִירָה אֲחָזָהּ בְּטַלְפָּהּ בִּשְׂעָרָהּ בְּאוּכָּף שֶׁעָלֶיהָ בִּשְׁלִיף שֶׁעָלֶיהָ בִּפְרוּמְבְּיָא שֶׁבְּפִיהָ בְּזוֹג שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָהּ קְנָאָהּ כֵּיצַד בִּמְשִׁיכָה קוֹרֵא לָהּ וְהִיא בָּאָה אוֹ שֶׁהִכִּישָׁהּ בְּמַקֵּל וְרָצְתָה לְפָנָיו כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָקְרָה יָד וָרֶגֶל קְנָאָהּ רַבִּי אַחַי וְאָמְרִי לַהּ רַבִּי אַחָא אוֹמֵר עַד שֶׁתְּהַלֵּךְ מְלֹא קוֹמָתָהּ The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this dispute is parallel to a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: How is an animal acquired through passing? If the buyer grasped it by its hoof, or by its hair, or by the saddle that is on it, or by the load that is on it, or by the bit [perumbiyya] in its mouth, or by the bell on its neck, he has acquired it. How is an animal acquired through pulling? If he calls it and it comes, or if he hits it with a stick and it runs before him, once it lifts a foreleg and a hind leg from where it was standing, he has acquired it. Rabbi Aḥai, and some say Rabbi Aḥa, says: It is not enough if the animal lifts its hooves. Rather, one does not acquire it until it walks its full length, i.e., it moves both of its forelegs and both of its hindlegs.
לֵימָא רַב דְּאָמַר כְּתַנָּא קַמָּא וּשְׁמוּאֵל דְּאָמַר כְּרַבִּי אַחָא אָמַר לְךָ רַב אֲנָא דַּאֲמַרִי אֲפִילּוּ לְרַבִּי אַחָא עַד כָּאן לָא קָאָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא אֶלָּא בְּבַעֲלֵי חַיִּים דְּאַף עַל גַּב דְּעָקְרָה יָד וָרֶגֶל בְּדוּכְתַּהּ קָיְימָא אֲבָל סְפִינָה כֵּיוָן דְּנָדָה בַּהּ פּוּרְתָּא נָדָה לַהּ כּוּלָּהּ Shall we say that Rav, who holds that a buyer can acquire the ship even by moving it only a minimal distance, states his ruling in accordance with the opinion of the first tanna that it is enough for the animal to lift two legs; and Shmuel, who holds that the entire ship must be moved, states his ruling in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Aḥa that the animal must move its full length? The Gemara rejects this suggestion: Rav could have said to you: I state my ruling even in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Aḥa, since Rabbi Aḥa states his opinion only with regard to animals, as although it lifted a foreleg and a hind leg, it stands in its place. But in the case of a ship, once a bit of it moves, all of it moves, and therefore the buyer acquires it.
וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר אֲנָא דַּאֲמַרִי אֲפִילּוּ כְּתַנָּא קַמָּא עַד כָּאן לָא קָאָמַר תַּנָּא קַמָּא אֶלָּא בְּבַעֲלֵי חַיִּים דְּכֵיוָן דְּמִיעַקְרָא יָד וָרֶגֶל אִידַּךְ לְמִיעְקַר קָיְימָא אֲבָל סְפִינָה אִי מָשֵׁיךְ לַהּ כּוּלַּהּ אִין אִי לָא לָא And Shmuel could say: I stated my ruling even in accordance with the opinion of the first tanna. The first tanna states his opinion only with regard to animals, as once an animal has lifted a foreleg and a hind leg, the other legs stand ready to be lifted. But with regard to a ship, if he pulls the entire ship, yes, he acquires it, but if he does not pull the whole ship, he does not acquire it.
לֵימָא כְּהָנֵי תַּנָּאֵי דְּתַנְיָא סְפִינָה נִקְנֵית בִּמְשִׁיכָה רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר סְפִינָה וְאוֹתִיּוֹת נִקְנוֹת בִּמְשִׁיכָה The Gemara offers another suggestion: Let us say that the dispute of Rav and Shmuel is parallel to the dispute between these tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: A ship is acquired by pulling. Rabbi Natan says: A ship and letters, i.e., the content of a promissory note, are acquired by pulling the document