אִיפְּכָא מַתְנִינַן לַהּ: learned the reverse, that is to say, according to our version of the baraita, it is the judges of the exile who maintain that the claimant collects only half the sum, which corresponds to the halakha taught by Rava.
מַתְנִי׳ לֹא אֶת הַבּוֹר וְלֹא אֶת הַגַּת וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹבָךְ בֵּין חֲרֵבִין בֵּין יְשׁוּבִין וְצָרִיךְ לִיקַּח לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ MISHNA: In continuation of the previous mishna (68b) discussing one who sells a field, the mishna teaches that even if he says that he is selling it and everything that is in it, has sold neither the cistern, nor the winepress, nor the dovecote, whether it is abandoned or utilized, as these items are not part of the field itself. And the seller must purchase for himself a path through the buyer’s domain to reach whatever remains his. This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva, who holds that one who sells, sells generously; therefore, whatever is not explicitly excluded from the sale is assumed to be sold, and it is presumed that the seller did not retain for himself the right to the path that he requires to access his property. And the Rabbis say: The seller need not purchase a path through the buyer’s domain, as it is assumed that since the seller withholds these items for himself, he also reserves a path to reach them.
וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בִּזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ חוּץ מֵאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִיקַּח לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מְכָרָן לְאַחֵר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִיקַּח לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים צָרִיךְ לִיקַּח לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ And Rabbi Akiva concedes that when the seller says to the buyer in the bill of sale that he is selling the field apart from these things, i.e., the cistern and the winepress, he need not purchase for himself a path through the buyer’s domain. Since these items would have been excluded from the sale even if he had said nothing, it is assumed that he also meant to reserve for himself the right to access them. But if the seller kept the field but sold the cistern and winepress to another person, Rabbi Akiva says: The buyer need not purchase for himself a path through the seller’s domain to reach what he has bought, since a seller sells generously. But the Rabbis say: He must purchase for himself a path through the seller’s domain.
בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמוֹכֵר אֲבָל בְּנוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה נוֹתֵן אֶת כּוּלָּהּ הָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ זָכוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה זָכוּ בְּכוּלָּהּ הַמַּחֲזִיק בְּנִכְסֵי הַגֵּר הֶחְזִיק בַּשָּׂדֶה הֶחְזִיק בְּכוּלָּהּ In what case is this statement, that these items are excluded, said? It is said with regard to one who sells a field, but with regard to one who gives it away as a gift, it is assumed that he gives all of it, including everything found in the field. Similarly, with regard to brothers who divide their father’s estate among themselves, when they each acquire a field as part of their inheritance, they acquire all of it, including the items that would be excluded from a sale. So too, with regard to one who takes possession of the property of a convert, when he takes possession of a field, he takes possession of all of it.
הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה הִקְדִּישׁ אֶת כּוּלָּהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה לֹא הִקְדִּישׁ אֶלָּא אֶת הֶחָרוּב הַמּוּרְכָּב וְאֶת סַדַּן הַשִּׁקְמָה: One who consecrates a field has consecrated all of it. Rabbi Shimon says: One who consecrates a field has not consecrated any of the items that are ordinarily excluded from a sale except for the grafted carob tree and the sycamore trunk.
גְּמָ׳ מַאי שְׁנָא מֶכֶר וּמַאי שְׁנָא מַתָּנָה פֵּירֵשׁ יְהוּדָה בֶּן נְקוֹסָא לִפְנֵי רַבִּי זֶה פֵּירֵשׁ וְזֶה לֹא פֵּירֵשׁ GEMARA: The Gemara asks: In what way is a sale different from a gift, and in what way is a gift different from a sale? Why does the mishna distinguish between the two with regard to what is retained by the prior owner? Yehuda ben Nekosa explained before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: The difference between the cases is that this one, the seller, specified that certain items were not included in the sale, and that one, the donor, did not specify.
הַאי זֶה פֵּירֵשׁ וְזֶה לֹא פֵּירֵשׁ זֶה לֹא פֵּירֵשׁ וְזֶה לֹא פֵּירֵשׁ הוּא אֶלָּא זֶה הָיָה לוֹ לְפָרֵשׁ וְזֶה לֹא הָיָה לוֹ לְפָרֵשׁ The Gemara asks: How can it be suggested that this one specified and that one did not specify, when in fact this one did not specify, and that one did not specify, as in neither case did the prior owner specify what items he was reserving for himself? Rather, the difference is that this one, the buyer, should have specified that those items that are not integral parts of the field are nevertheless included in the sale, and since he neglected to do so, he suffers the loss. But in the case of a gift, that one, the recipient, should not have specified what was included in the gift, as it would have been inappropriate for him to act in this manner.
הַהוּא דַּאֲמַר לְהוּ הַבוּ לֵיהּ לִפְלָנְיָא בֵּיתָא דְּמַחְזִיק מְאָה גּוּלְפֵי אִשְׁתְּכַח דַּהֲוָה מַחְזִיק מְאָה וְעֶשְׂרִין אָמַר מָר זוּטְרָא מְאָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ מְאָה וְעֶשְׂרִין לָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ It is related that there was a certain person who said to others: Give to so-and-so my house containing 100 barrels [gulfei] as a gift. It was found that there was a house in his possession that contained 120 barrels. Mar Zutra said: The owner said to him that he was giving him a house containing 100 barrels, and he did not say to him that he was giving him a house containing 120 barrels. Therefore, the recipient receives only the portion of the house that holds 100 barrels, and not the rest of the house.
רַב אָשֵׁי אָמַר מִי לָא תְּנַן בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמוֹכֵר אֲבָל בְּנוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה נוֹתֵן אֶת כּוּלָּן אַלְמָא מַאן דְּיָהֵיב מַתָּנָה בְּעַיִן יָפָה יָהֵיב הָכָא נָמֵי מַאן דְּיָהֵיב מַתָּנָה בְּעַיִן יָפָה יָהֵיב: Rav Ashi said: Didn’t we learn in the mishna here: In what case is this statement said? It is said with regard to one who sells a field, but with regard to one who gives it away as a gift, it is assumed that he gives all of it. Apparently, one who gives a gift gives generously. Here too, then, say that one who gives a gift gives generously, even if he is not always precise in his wording. Therefore, it should be assumed that the donor intended to give the recipient the entire house, which contains more than 100 barrels.
הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה הִקְדִּישׁ וְכוּ׳ אָמַר רַב הוּנָא אַף עַל גַּב דַּאֲמוּר רַבָּנַן הַקּוֹנֶה שְׁנֵי אִילָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵירוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא קָנָה קַרְקַע מָכַר קַרְקַע וְשִׁיֵּיר שְׁנֵי אִילָנוֹת לְפָנָיו יֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע וַאֲפִילּוּ לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא דְּאָמַר מוֹכֵר בְּעַיִן יָפָה מוֹכֵר הָנֵי מִילֵּי גַּבֵּי בּוֹר וָדוּת דְּלָא קָא מַכְחֲשִׁי בְּאַרְעָא אֲבָל אִילָנוֹת דְּקָא מַכְחֲשִׁי בְּאַרְעָא § The mishna teaches: One who consecrates a field, has consecrated all of it. Rav Huna said: Even though the Rabbis said: If one buys two trees in the field of another, he does not acquire any of the land but acquires only the trees, and if he sells land to another, and he retains two trees for himself, he also retains the land around those trees, that does not always apply. Rav Huna elaborates: And even according to Rabbi Akiva, who says that one who sells, sells generously and does not retain anything for himself, this does not always apply, as this statement applies only with regard to a pit and a cistern, which do not weaken the land, and therefore the seller feels no need to protect himself from the potential claims of the buyer. But with regard to trees, which do weaken the land, as they draw water and nutrients from the soil,