מנא הני מילי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דאמר קרא (בראשית כג, יז) ויקם שדה עפרון אשר במכפלה וגו' מי שצריך לגבול סביב יצאו אלו שאין צריכין לגבול סביב אמר רב משרשיא מכאן למצרים מן התורה:
The Gemara asks: From where are these matters, i.e., that a grafted carob and a sycamore trunk are not included in the sale of a field, derived? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: As the verse states: “So the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave that was within it, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the boundaries around, were established for Abraham as a possession” (Genesis 23:17–18). This teaches that anything that requires a boundary around it, as it does not have natural demarcations, is included in the sale of a field. This excludes these trees, i.e., the grafted carob and the sycamore trunk, which do not require a boundary around them, as they stand out individually on their own. Rav Mesharshiyya says: From here there is a source that the acquisition of the actual boundaries in a sale is from the Torah.
אמר רב יהודה האי מאן דמזבן ארעא לחבריה צריך למכתב ליה קני לך דיקלין ותאלין והוצין וציצין ואע"ג דכי לא כתב ליה הכי קני אפ"ה שופרא דשטרא הוא
§ Rabbi Yehuda said: One who sells land to another must write for him the following in the bill of sale: Acquire for yourself the palm trees and the dates and the branches and the seedlings. And even if he did not write this for him the buyer would still acquire all of these entities, as demonstrated by the mishna that it is only a grafted carob and a sycamore trunk that are excluded from the sale of a field. Even so, it is an enhancement of the bill of sale that he write all of the details of the transaction so that there be no possible room for disagreement.
אמר ליה ארעא ודיקלי חזינן אי אית ליה דיקלי יהיב ליה תרי דיקלי ואי לית ליה זבין ליה תרי דיקלי ואי משעבדי פריק ליה תרי דיקלי
If the seller said to the buyer: I am selling you the land and palm trees, we consider the situation. If he has palm trees, he must give him two palm trees as two is the minimum number of trees that would justify being called: Trees, in the plural. And if he has no palm trees, he must buy two palm trees for him somewhere else. And if he has palm trees, but they are mortgaged to another person, he must redeem two palm trees and give them to the buyer.
ארעא בדיקלי חזינן אי אית בה דיקלי יהיב ליה ואי לאו מקח טעות הוא ארעא בי דיקלי לית ליה דיקלי דחזיא לדיקלי קאמר ליה אמר ליה לבר מדיקלא פלניא חזינן אי דיקלא טבא הוא שיורי שייריה אי דיקלא בישא הוא כל שכן הנך
If the seller said to the buyer: I am selling you land with palm trees, we consider the situation. If there are palm trees on the land, he must give him the land, and if not, this is a mistaken transaction and the sale is void. If the seller said to the buyer: I am selling you land of palm trees, the buyer has no claim to receive palm trees. Therefore, if the land has no palm trees, this is not a mistaken transaction, as the seller meant to say to him that the land was fit for palm trees, and not that it already contained them. Furthermore, if the seller said to the buyer that he is selling the land except for such and such a palm tree, we consider the situation. If it is a good palm tree, we assume that he retained only that one for himself and did not include it in the sale, but if it is a bad palm tree, we assume that all the more so did he retain for himself the other ones that are of higher quality.
אמר ליה לבר מאילני אי אית ליה אילני לבר מאילני אי אית ליה דיקלי לבר מדיקלי אי אית ליה גופני לבר מגופני
If the seller said to the buyer that he is selling him the entire field except for the trees, we consider the situation. If he has different types of trees in the field, for example, olive and fig trees, he has sold the entire field except for the trees. If he has only palm trees in the field, we assume that he meant to sell the entire field except for the palm trees, even though one does not ordinarily refer to palm trees by the more general term: Trees. Similarly, if he has only grapevines in the field, the buyer acquires everything except for the grapevines.
אילני וגופני לבר מאילני אילני ודיקלי לבר מאילני גופני ודיקלי לבר מגופני
If the field has both trees and grapevines, he has sold everything except for the trees; therefore, the buyer does not acquire the trees, which the seller excluded from the sale, but he does acquire the grapevines. Similarly, if in the field there are both trees and palm trees, he has sold everything except for the trees. If there are no other trees in the field, but only grapevines and palm trees, everything, including the palm trees, is sold except for the grapevines, which we assume the seller reserved for himself.
אמר רב כל שעולין לו בחבל הוי שיור כל שאין עולין לו בחבל לא הוי שיור
Rav says: If the seller specified that he is selling a field but not the trees, any tree that is so tall that one must climb it by rope in order to harvest its fruit is retained and is not included in the sale, and any tree that one need not climb by rope is not retained and is sold along with the field.