זִיל הָאִידָּנָא וְתָא לִמְחַר בְּלֵילְיָא שַׁדַּר קַצְיֵיהּ לְהָהוּא דִּידֵיהּ
Go now, and come tomorrow. At night, Rabbi Yannai sent and had someone cut down that tree that belonged to him.
לִמְחַר אֲתָא לְקַמֵּיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ זִיל קוֹץ אָמַר לֵיהּ הָא מָר נָמֵי אִית לֵיהּ אָמַר לֵיהּ זִיל חֲזִי אִי קוּץ דִּידִי קוֹץ דִּידָךְ אִי לָא קוּץ דִּידִי לָא תִּקּוֹץ אַתְּ
The next day, that man came before Rabbi Yannai, who said to him: Go, cut down your tree. The man said to him: But the Master also has a tree that leans into the public domain. Rabbi Yannai said to him: Go and see: If mine is cut down, then cut yours down. If mine is not cut down, you do not have to cut yours down, either.
מֵעִיקָּרָא מַאי סְבַר וּלְבַסּוֹף מַאי סְבַר מֵעִיקָּרָא סְבַר נִיחָא לְהוּ לִבְנֵי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים דְּיָתְבִי בְּטוּלֵּיהּ כֵּיוָן דַּחֲזָא דְּקָא מְעַכְּבִי שַׁדַּר קַצְיֵיהּ וְלֵימָא לֵיהּ זִיל קוֹץ דִּידָךְ וַהֲדַר אֶקּוֹץ דִּידִי מִשּׁוּם דְּרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ דְּאָמַר הִתְקוֹשְׁשׁוּ וָקוֹשּׁוּ קְשׁוֹט עַצְמְךָ וְאַחַר כָּךְ קְשׁוֹט אֲחֵרִים:
The Gemara asks: At the outset what did Rabbi Yannai hold, and ultimately, what did he hold? The Gemara replies: At the outset, he held that the general public is amenable to having the tree there, as they sit in its shade. Once he saw that they were preventing someone else who owned a tree from keeping his, he understood that it was only out of respect that they did not object to his tree being there. He therefore sent someone to cut it down. The Gemara asks: But why did he tell the man to return the next day? Let him say to him: Go cut down your tree, and then I will cut mine down. The Gemara answers: Because of the statement of Reish Lakish, who said: The verse states: “Gather yourselves together and gather [hitkosheshu vakoshu]” (Zephaniah 2:1), and this can be explained homiletically to mean: Adorn [keshot] yourself and afterward adorn others, i.e., act properly before requiring others to do so.
אֲבָל אִם רָצָה כּוֹנֵס לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וּמוֹצִיא אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ כָּנַס וְלֹא הוֹצִיא מַהוּ שֶׁיַּחֲזוֹר וְיוֹצִיא רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר כָּנַס מוֹצִיא וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר כָּנַס אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא
§ The mishna teaches that one may not extend projections or balconies into the public domain. Rather, if he desired to build one he may draw back into his property by moving his wall, and extend the projection to the end of his property line. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If one drew back into his property but did not extend the projection at that time, what is the halakha concerning whether he may return and extend it at a later date? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: If one drew back into his property, he may extend it even later, and Reish Lakish says: If one drew back into his property but did not build the projection at that time, he may not extend it later.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב לְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בַּר תַּחְלִיפָא אַסְבְּרַהּ לָךְ לְהוֹצִיא כּוּלֵּי עָלְמָא לָא פְּלִיגִי דְּמוֹצִיא כִּי פְּלִיגִי לְהַחֲזִיר כְּתָלִים לִמְקוֹמָן וְאִיפְּכָא אִיתְּמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֵינוֹ מַחְזִיר וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר מַחְזִיר
The Gemara presents an alternative version of the dispute: Rabbi Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yirmeya bar Taḥlifa: I will explain the matter to you. To later extend a projection, everyone agrees that he may extend it, since he is adding within his own property. Where they disagree is with regard to whether he may return the walls to their prior place. And with regard to this disagreement the opposite was stated: Rabbi Yoḥanan says he may not return the walls to their prior place, and Reish Lakish says he may return them.
רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֵינוֹ מַחְזִיר מִשּׁוּם דְּרַב יְהוּדָה דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה מֶצֶר שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ בּוֹ רַבִּים אָסוּר לְקַלְקְלוֹ וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר מַחְזִיר הָנֵי מִילֵּי הֵיכָא דְּלֵיכָּא רַוְוחָא הָכָא הָא אִיכָּא רַוְוחָא:
Rabbi Ya’akov explains their reasoning: Rabbi Yoḥanan says that he may not return the walls to their prior place because of the statement of Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda says: With regard to a path that the public has established as a public thoroughfare, it is prohibited to ruin it, i.e., to prevent people from using it. Once the public has become accustomed to using the place where his wall had stood, he may not repossess that space. And Reish Lakish says that he may return the walls to their prior place, because that matter applies in a case where there is no space, i.e., if he were to move back the wall there would be no space for the public to walk, but here there is space, since they can still walk through the public domain.
לָקַח חָצֵר וּבָהּ זִיזִין וּגְזוּזְטְרָאוֹת הֲרֵי הִיא בְּחֶזְקָתָהּ אָמַר רַב הוּנָא נָפְלָה חוֹזֵר וּבוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ
The mishna teaches that if one purchased a courtyard in which there are projections and balconies extending into the public domain, this courtyard retains its presumptive status, allowing the owner to use the projections. Rav Huna says: If the wall of the courtyard fell, he may return and build it as it was, including the projections or balconies.
מֵיתִיבִי אֵין מְסַיְּידִין וְאֵין מְכַיְּירִין וְאֵין מְפַיְּיחִין בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה לָקַח חָצֵר מְסוּיֶּדֶת מְכוּיֶּרֶת מְפוּיַּחַת הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקָתָהּ נָפְלָה אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וּבוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ
The Gemara raises an objection based on that which is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 9:17): One may not plaster, and one may not tile, and one may not paint [mefayyeḥin] images in the present, as a sign of mourning for the destruction of the Temple. But if one purchased a courtyard that was plastered, tiled, or painted with images, this courtyard retains its presumptive status, and it is assumed that it was done in a permitted manner. If it then fell, he may not return and build it in its previous form. This indicates that one may not rebuild a building in a manner that is prohibited, even if there was an acquired privilege to maintain it in that manner.
The Gemara answers: A case of forbidden matters is different, i.e., in the case of the baraita, he may not rebuild it because it is prohibited for him to do so. In this mishna, the issue is encroachment upon the rights of others, and once he had an acquired privilege to use the projections or balconies, he maintains that right.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן לֹא יָסוּד אָדָם אֶת בֵּיתוֹ בְּסִיד וְאִם עֵירַב בּוֹ חוֹל אוֹ תֶּבֶן מוּתָּר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר עֵירַב בּוֹ חוֹל הֲרֵי זֶה טְרַכְסִיד וְאָסוּר תֶּבֶן מוּתָּר
§ With regard to the ruling of the above-quoted baraita, the Sages taught (Tosefta, Sota 15:9): A person may not plaster his house with plaster, but if he mixed sand or straw into the plaster, which dulls its luster, it is permitted. Rabbi Yehuda says: If he mixed sand into it, it is white cement [terakesid], which is of a higher quality than standard plaster, and it is prohibited, but if he mixed in straw, it is permitted.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן כְּשֶׁחָרַב הַבַּיִת בַּשְּׁנִיָּה רַבּוּ פְּרוּשִׁין בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל בָּשָׂר וְשֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן נִטְפַּל לָהֶן רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אָמַר לָהֶן בָּנַי מִפְּנֵי מָה אִי אַתֶּם אוֹכְלִין בָּשָׂר וְאֵין אַתֶּם שׁוֹתִין יַיִן אָמְרוּ לוֹ נֹאכַל בָּשָׂר שֶׁמִּמֶּנּוּ מַקְרִיבִין עַל גַּבֵּי מִזְבֵּחַ וְעַכְשָׁיו בָּטֵל נִשְׁתֶּה יַיִן שֶׁמְּנַסְּכִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְעַכְשָׁיו בָּטֵל
§ Having mentioned the prohibition against plastering, which is a sign of mourning over the destruction of the Temple, the Gemara discusses related matters. The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Sota 15:11): When the Temple was destroyed a second time, there was an increase in the number of ascetics among the Jews, whose practice was to not eat meat and to not drink wine. Rabbi Yehoshua joined them to discuss their practice. He said to them: My children, for what reason do you not eat meat and do you not drink wine? They said to him: Shall we eat meat, from which offerings are sacrificed upon the altar, and now the altar has ceased to exist? Shall we drink wine, which is poured as a libation upon the altar, and now the altar has ceased to exist?
אָמַר לָהֶם אִם כֵּן לֶחֶם לֹא נֹאכַל שֶׁכְּבָר בָּטְלוּ מְנָחוֹת אֶפְשָׁר בְּפֵירוֹת פֵּירוֹת לֹא נֹאכַל שֶׁכְּבָר בָּטְלוּ בִּכּוּרִים אֶפְשָׁר בְּפֵירוֹת אֲחֵרִים מַיִם לֹא נִשְׁתֶּה שֶׁכְּבָר בָּטֵל נִיסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם שָׁתְקוּ
Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: If so, we will not eat bread either, since the meal-offerings that were offered upon the altar have ceased. They replied: You are correct. It is possible to subsist with produce. He said to them: We will not eat produce either, since the bringing of the first fruits have ceased. They replied: You are correct. We will no longer eat the produce of the seven species from which the first fruits were brought, as it is possible to subsist with other produce. He said to them: If so, we will not drink water, since the water libation has ceased. They were silent, as they realized that they could not survive without water.
אָמַר לָהֶן בָּנַי בּוֹאוּ וְאוֹמַר לָכֶם שֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְאַבֵּל כׇּל עִיקָּר אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁכְּבָר נִגְזְרָה גְּזֵרָה וּלְהִתְאַבֵּל יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁאֵין גּוֹזְרִין גְּזֵירָה עַל הַצִּבּוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רוֹב צִבּוּר יְכוֹלִין לַעֲמוֹד בָּהּ דִּכְתִיב בַּמְּאֵרָה אַתֶּם נֵאָרִים וְאֹתִי אַתֶּם קֹבְעִים הַגּוֹי כֻּלּוֹ
Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: My children, come, and I will tell you how we should act. To not mourn at all is impossible, as the decree was already issued and the Temple has been destroyed. But to mourn excessively as you are doing is also impossible, as the Sages do not issue a decree upon the public unless a majority of the public is able to abide by it, as it is written: “You are cursed with the curse, yet you rob Me, even this whole nation” (Malachi 3:9), indicating that the prophet rebukes the people for neglecting observances only if they were accepted by the whole nation.
אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים סָד אָדָם אֶת בֵּיתוֹ בְּסִיד וּמְשַׁיֵּיר בּוֹ דָּבָר מוּעָט וְכַמָּה אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא כְּנֶגֶד הַפֶּתַח
Rabbi Yehoshua continues: Rather, this is what the Sages said: A person may plaster his house with plaster, but he must leave over a small amount in it without plaster to remember the destruction of the Temple. The Gemara interjects: And how much is a small amount? Rav Yosef said: One cubit by one cubit. Rav Ḥisda said: This should be opposite the entrance, so that it is visible to all.
עוֹשֶׂה אָדָם כׇּל צׇרְכֵי סְעוּדָה וּמְשַׁיֵּיר דָּבָר מוּעָט מַאי הִיא אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא כָּסָא דְהַרְסָנָא
Rabbi Yehoshua continues: The Sages said that a person may prepare all that he needs for a meal, but he must leave out a small item to remember the destruction of the Temple. The Gemara interjects: What is this small item? Rav Pappa said: Something akin to small, fried fish.
עוֹשָׂה אִשָּׁה כׇּל תַּכְשִׁיטֶיהָ וּמְשַׁיֶּירֶת דָּבָר מוּעָט מַאי הִיא אָמַר רַב בַּת צִדְעָא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אִם אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָם תִּשְׁכַּח יְמִינִי תִּדְבַּק לְשׁוֹנִי לְחִכִּי וְגוֹ׳
Rabbi Yehoshua continues: The Sages said that a woman may engage in all of her cosmetic treatments, but she must leave out a small matter to remember the destruction of the Temple. The Gemara interjects: What is this small matter? Rav said: She does not remove hair from the place on the temple from which women would remove hair. The source for these practices is a verse, as it is stated: “If I forget you, Jerusalem, let my right hand forget its cunning. Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I remember you not; if I set not Jerusalem above my highest joy” (Psalms 137:5–6).
מַאי עַל רֹאשׁ שִׂמְחָתִי אָמַר רַב יִצְחָק זֶה אֵפֶר מִקְלֶה שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ חֲתָנִים אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב פָּפָּא לְאַבָּיֵי הֵיכָא מַנַּח לֵהּ בִּמְקוֹם תְּפִילִּין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לָשׂוּם לַאֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן לָתֵת לָהֶם פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר
The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Above my highest [rosh] joy? Rav Yitzḥak says: This is referring to the burnt ashes that are customarily placed on the head [rosh] of bridegrooms at the time of their wedding celebrations, to remember the destruction of the Temple. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: Where are they placed? Abaye replied: On the place where phylacteries are placed, as it is stated: “To appoint to them that mourn in Zion, to give to them a garland in place of ashes” (Isaiah 61:3). Since phylacteries are referred to as a garland (see Ezekiel 24:17), it may be inferred from this verse that the ashes were placed in the same place as the phylacteries.
וְכׇל הַמִּתְאַבֵּל עַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם זוֹכֶה וְרוֹאֶה בְּשִׂמְחָתָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר שִׂמְחוּ אֶת יְרוּשָׁלַםִ וְגוֹ׳
The baraita continues: And anyone who mourns for the destruction of Jerusalem will merit and see its joy, as it is stated: “Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all that love her; rejoice for joy with her, all that mourn for her” (Isaiah 66:10).
תַּנְיָא אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן אֱלִישָׁע מִיּוֹם שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ דִּין הוּא שֶׁנִּגְזוֹר עַל עַצְמֵנוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל בָּשָׂר וְלֹא לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן אֶלָּא אֵין גּוֹזְרִין גְּזֵרָה עַל הַצִּבּוּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רוֹב צִבּוּר יְכוֹלִין לַעֲמוֹד בָּהּ
It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Sota 15:10) that Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, by right, we should decree upon ourselves not to eat meat and not to drink wine, but the Sages do not issue a decree upon the public unless a majority of the public is able to abide by it.
וּמִיּוֹם שֶׁפָּשְׁטָה מַלְכוּת הָרְשָׁעָה שֶׁגּוֹזֶרֶת עָלֵינוּ גְּזֵירוֹת רָעוֹת וְקָשׁוֹת וּמְבַטֶּלֶת מִמֶּנּוּ תּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹת וְאֵין מַנַּחַת אוֹתָנוּ לִיכָּנֵס לִשְׁבוּעַ הַבֵּן וְאָמְרִי לַהּ לִישׁוּעַ הַבֵּן דִּין הוּא שֶׁנִּגְזוֹר עַל עַצְמֵנוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִישָּׂא אִשָּׁה וּלְהוֹלִיד בָּנִים וְנִמְצָא זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ כָּלֶה מֵאֵלָיו
And from the day that the wicked kingdom, i.e., Rome, spread, who decree evil and harsh decrees upon us, and nullify Torah study and the performance of mitzvot for us, and do not allow us to enter the celebration of the first week of a son, i.e., circumcision, and some say: To enter the celebration of the salvation of a firstborn son; by right we should each decree upon ourselves not to marry a woman and not to produce offspring, and it will turn out that the descendants of Abraham our forefather will cease to exist on their own, rather than being forced into a situation where there are sons who are not circumcised.
אֶלָּא הַנַּח לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מוּטָב שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שׁוֹגְגִין וְאַל יִהְיוּ מְזִידִין:
But concerning a situation such as this, the following principle is applied: Leave the Jews alone and do not impose decrees by which they cannot abide. It is better that they be unwitting sinners, who do not know that what they are doing is improper considering the circumstances, and not be intentional wrongdoers, who marry and procreate despite knowing that they should not.
הַדְרָן עֲלָךְ חֶזְקַת הַבָּתִּים