שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ גָּלָל: he turns it into manure, i.e., the chaff acts like manure, and an excessive amount of manure damages the seeds.
מַתְנִי׳ מַרְחִיקִין אֶת הַנְּבֵלוֹת וְאֶת הַקְּבָרוֹת וְאֶת הַבּוּרְסְקִי מִן הָעִיר חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה אֵין עוֹשִׂין בּוּרְסְקִי אֶלָּא לְמִזְרַח הָעִיר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר לְכׇל רוּחַ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חוּץ מִמַּעֲרָבָהּ וּמַרְחִיק חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה וּמֵרְחִיקִין אֶת הַמִּשְׁרָה מִן הַיָּרָק וְאֶת הַכְּרֵישִׁין מִן הַבְּצָלִים וְאֶת הַחַרְדָּל מִן הַדְּבוֹרִים וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי מַתִּיר בְּחַרְדָּל: MISHNA: One must distance animal carcasses, and graves, and a tannery [haburseki], a place where hides are processed, fifty cubits from the city. One may establish a tannery only on the east side of the city, because winds usually blow from the west and the foul smells would therefore be blown away from the residential area. Rabbi Akiva says: One may establish a tannery on any side of a city except for the west, as the winds blowing from that direction will bring the odors into the city, and one must distance it fifty cubits from the city. One must distance from vegetables water in which flax is steeped, because this water ruins them; and likewise one must distance leeks from onions, and mustard from bees. And Rabbi Yosei permits one not to do so in the case of mustard.
גְּמָ׳ אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא הֵיכִי קָאָמַר לְכׇל רוּחַ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה וְסוֹמֵךְ חוּץ מִמַּעֲרָבָהּ דְּמַרְחִיק חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹ דִּלְמָא לְכׇל רוּחַ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה וּמַרְחִיק חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה חוּץ מִמַּעֲרָבָהּ דְּאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלָל GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to what case is Rabbi Akiva speaking? Did he mean that one may establish a tannery on any side of a city, and one may even place the tannery close to the city, except for the west side, where one must establish it at a distance of fifty cubits? Or perhaps he meant that one may establish a tannery on any side and distance it fifty cubits, except for the west side, where one may not establish a tannery at all.
תָּא שְׁמַע דְּתַנְיָא רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר לְכׇל רוּחַ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה וּמַרְחִיק חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה חוּץ מִמַּעֲרָבָהּ דְּאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כׇּל עִיקָּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא תְּדִירָא The Gemara cites a proof: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva says that one may establish a tannery on any side of the city and distance it fifty cubits, except for the west side, where one may not establish a tannery at all, because the western wind is frequent.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא לְרַב נַחְמָן מַאי תְּדִירָא אִילֵּימָא תְּדִירָא בְּרוּחוֹת וְהָא אָמַר רַב חָנָן בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב אַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת מְנַשְּׁבוֹת בְּכׇל יוֹם וְרוּחַ צְפוֹנִית עִם כּוּלָּן שֶׁאִילְמָלֵא כֵּן אֵין הָעוֹלָם מִתְקַיֵּים אֲפִילּוּ שָׁעָה אַחַת וְרוּחַ דְּרוֹמִית קָשָׁה מִכּוּלָּן וְאִילְמָלֵא בֶּן נֵץ שֶׁמַּעֲמִידָהּ מַחְרֶבֶת אֶת הָעוֹלָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הֲמִבִּינָתְךָ יַאֲבֶר נֵץ יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָו לְתֵימָן § With regard to the last statement of the baraita, Rava said to Rav Naḥman: What does frequent mean in this context? If we say it means frequent among the winds, i.e., this wind blows all the time, that is difficult. But doesn’t Rav Ḥanan bar Abba say that Rav says: Four winds blow every day from different directions, and the northern wind blows with each of the other three; as, if this were not so, i.e., if it did not blow, the world would not exist for even one hour, as the northern wind is pleasant and tempers the bitter effects of the other winds. And the southern wind is harsher than all of them, and were it not for the angel named Ben Netz, who stops it from blowing even harder, it would destroy the entire world, as it is stated: “Does the hawk [netz] soar by your wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?” (Job 39:26). This indicates that the northern wind is the most constant, not the western wind.
אֶלָּא מַאי תְּדִירָא תְּדִירָא בִּשְׁכִינָה דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בּוֹאוּ וְנַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁהוֹדִיעוּ מְקוֹם תְּפִלָּה דִּכְתִיב וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים Rather, what is the meaning of frequent? It means frequent with the Divine Presence, i.e., the Divine Presence is found on the western side, and therefore it is inappropriate to set up a tannery there with its foul odors. As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Come and let us be grateful to our ancestors who revealed to us the place of prayer, as it is written: “And the hosts of heaven bow down to You” (Nehemiah 9:6). Since the celestial bodies move from east to west, they bow in that direction, which indicates that the Divine Presence is in the west.
מַתְקֵיף לַהּ רַב אַחָא בַּר יַעֲקֹב וְדִלְמָא כְּעֶבֶד שֶׁנּוֹטֵל פְּרָס מֵרַבּוֹ וְחוֹזֵר לַאֲחוֹרָיו וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה קַשְׁיָא Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov objects to this: But perhaps the celestial bodies are like a servant who receives a gift from his master and walks backward while bowing. If so, the Divine Presence is in the east and the celestial bodies are moving backward. The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is difficult, i.e., the verse does not provide a definitive proof.
וְרַבִּי אוֹשַׁעְיָא סָבַר שְׁכִינָה בְּכׇל מָקוֹם דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אוֹשַׁעְיָא מַאי דִּכְתִיב אַתָּה הוּא ה׳ לְבַדֶּךָ אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְגוֹ׳ שְׁלוּחֶיךָ לֹא כִּשְׁלוּחֵי בָּשָׂר וָדָם שְׁלוּחֵי בָּשָׂר וָדָם מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּלְּחִים לְשָׁם מַחֲזִירִים שְׁלִיחוּתָן אֲבָל שְׁלוּחֶיךָ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּלְּחִין מִשָּׁם מַחְזִירִין שְׁלִיחוּתָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הַתְשַׁלַּח בְּרָקִים וְיֵלֵכוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ לְךָ הִנֵּנוּ יָבוֹאוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא וְיֵלֵכוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה בְּכׇל מָקוֹם The Gemara comments: And Rabbi Oshaya holds that the Divine Presence is found in every place, as Rabbi Oshaya says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You are the Lord, even You alone, You have made heaven…You preserve them all alive and the hosts of heaven bow down to You” (Nehemiah 9:6)? This indicates that Your messengers are not like the messengers of flesh and blood. The messengers of flesh and blood return to the place from where they were sent to report on their mission. But Your messengers return and report on their mission from the very same place to which they are sent, as it is stated “Can you send forth lightnings, that they may go out and say to you: Here we are?” (Job 38:35). The verse does not state: They will come and say, i.e., they do not return to their point of departure, but: “They may go out and say,” which teaches that the Divine Presence is found in every place.
וְאַף רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל סָבַר שְׁכִינָה בְּכׇל מָקוֹם דְּתָנָא דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מִנַּיִן שֶׁשְּׁכִינָה בְּכׇל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הִנֵּה הַמַּלְאָךְ הַדֹּבֵר בִּי יֹצֵא וּמַלְאָךְ אַחֵר יֹצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ אַחֲרָיו לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא לִקְרָאתוֹ מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁכִינָה בְּכׇל מָקוֹם The Gemara comments: And Rabbi Yishmael, too, holds that the Divine Presence is in every place, as one of the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: From where is it derived that the Divine Presence is in every place? As it is stated: “And behold the angel who spoke with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him” (Zechariah 2:7). Although both angels were coming from the Divine Presence, the verse does not state: After him, but: “To meet him,” which teaches that the Divine Presence is in every place, and therefore the angels depart for their missions from every place.
וְאַף רַב שֵׁשֶׁת סָבַר שְׁכִינָה בְּכׇל מָקוֹם דַּאֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב שֵׁשֶׁת לְשַׁמָּעֵיהּ לְכׇל רוּחָתָא אוֹקְמַן לְבַר מִמִּזְרָח וְלָאו מִשּׁוּם דְּלֵית בֵּיהּ שְׁכִינָה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם דְּמוֹרוּ בֵּהּ מִינֵי And Rav Sheshet, too, holds that the Divine Presence is in every place, as Rav Sheshet said to his servant: Set me facing any direction to pray except for the east. Rav Sheshet, who was blind, required the assistance of his aide to prepare for prayer. He explained to his servant: And the reason I do not wish to face east is not because it does not contain the Divine Presence, but because the heretics instruct people to pray in that direction.
וְרַבִּי אֲבָהוּ אָמַר שְׁכִינָה בַּמַּעֲרָב דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ מַאי אוֹרְיָה אֲוִיר יָהּ But Rabbi Abbahu says: The Divine Presence is in the west, as Rabbi Abbahu says: What is the meaning of oriyya, which is a name for the west? It means the air of God [avir Yah], i.e., this is the place of the Divine Presence.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה מַאי דִּכְתִיב יַעֲרֹף כַּמָּטָר לִקְחִי זוֹ רוּחַ מַעֲרָבִית שֶׁבָּאָה מֵעׇרְפּוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם The Gemara cites a statement connected to the four winds. Rav Yehuda said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distill as the dew; as the small rain upon the tender growth, and as the showers upon the herb” (Deuteronomy 32:2)? “My doctrine shall drop [ya’arof ] as the rain”; this is the western wind, which comes from the back of [me’orpo] the world, as the west is also referred to as the back.
תִּזַּל כַּטַּל אִמְרָתִי זוֹ רוּחַ צְפוֹנִית שֶׁמַּזֶּלֶת אֶת הַזָּהָב וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר הַזָּלִים זָהָב מִכִּיס “My speech shall distill [tizzal] as the dew”; this is the northern wind, which brings dry air that reduces the rain and grain and thereby devalues [mazzelet] gold. When grain crops are reduced their price appreciates, and consequently the value of gold decreases. And in addition, it says: “You who lavish [hazzalim] gold out of the bag” (Isaiah 46:6).
כִּשְׂעִירִם עֲלֵי דֶשֶׁא זוֹ רוּחַ מִזְרָחִית שֶׁמַּסְעֶרֶת אֶת כׇּל הָעוֹלָם כְּשָׂעִיר וְכִרְבִיבִים עֲלֵי עֵשֶׂב זוֹ רוּחַ דְּרוֹמִית שֶׁהִיא מַעֲלָה רְבִיבִים וּמְגַדֶּלֶת עֲשָׂבִים “As the small rain [kisirim] upon the tender growth”; this is the eastern wind that rages through [maseret] the entire world like a demon [sa’ir] when it blows strongly. “And as the showers upon the herb”; this is the southern wind, which raises showers and causes herbs to grow.
תַּנְיָא רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר עוֹלָם It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The world