וְעָמְדוּ קִינִּין בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם בְּרִבְעָתַיִם: The mishna concludes: And as a result, the price of the nests stood that day at one-quarter of a silver dinar, as the demand for nests decreased. It is clear in the mishna that the term dinarei indicates a higher value than the term dinarin.
כָּתוּב מִלְּמַעְלָה וְכוּ׳ תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן יִלְמַד הַתַּחְתּוֹן מִן הָעֶלְיוֹן בְּאוֹת אַחַת אֲבָל לֹא בִּשְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת § The mishna teaches: If it is written in the document above that someone owes one hundred dinars, and below it is written two hundred dinars, or if above it is written two hundred and below one hundred, everything follows the bottom amount. If so, why does one write the information in the upper part of the document at all? It is a safety measure, so that if one letter is erased from the lower part of the document, thereby rendering it illegible, the information can be learned from the upper part of the document. The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:4): Information concerning what is written below may be learned from what is written above if the lower text is missing one letter, but not if it is missing two letters. In that case, in the event of a discrepancy between information written above and information written below, the document is not valid.
כְּגוֹן חָנָן מֵחֲנָנִי וְעָנָן מֵעֲנָנִי For example, if the name of one party is written as Ḥanan below and Ḥanani above, it may be derived from the word Ḥanani written above that the party is named Ḥanani. And similarly, if a name is written Anan below, it may be learned from the name Anani written above that the party is named Anani.
מַאי שְׁנָא שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת דְּלָא דִּלְמָא מִיתְרְמֵי שֵׁם בֶּן אַרְבַּע אוֹתִיּוֹת וְהָוֵה לֵיהּ פַּלְגֵיהּ דִּשְׁמָא אִי הָכִי אוֹת אַחַת נָמֵי דִּלְמָא מִיתְרְמֵי שֵׁם בֶּן שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת וְהָוֵה לֵיהּ פַּלְגֵיהּ דִּשְׁמָא The Gemara asks: What is different about two letters missing, that the baraita teaches that the name written below cannot be corrected from the name written above? The Gemara suggests: It is out of concern that perhaps it will occur by chance that there is a four-letter name, and the omission of two letters would be half of the name, and for this reason the Sages extended this concern to all cases where two letters are missing. The Gemara challenges: If so, the same could be said when one letter is missing as well, as perhaps it will occur by chance that there is a two-letter name, and the omission of one letter would be half of the name.
אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת הַיְינוּ טַעְמָא דִּלְמָא מִיתְרְמֵי שֵׁם בֶּן שָׁלֹשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת וְהָוֵה לֵיהּ רוּבָּא דִשְׁמָא The Gemara explains: Rather, this is the reason that when two letters are missing the name written below cannot be corrected from the name written above: The concern is that perhaps it will occur by chance that there is a three-letter name, and the omission of two letters would be a majority of the name. The Sages applied this concern to all cases where two letters are missing.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא פְּשִׁיטָא לִי סֵפֶל מִלְּמַעְלָה וְקֵפֶל מִלְּמַטָּה הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַתַּחְתּוֹן The Gemara continues to discuss discrepancies between the information written above and below in a document. Rav Pappa said: It is obvious to me that if a document states above that one owes a sefel, a type of cup, and below it states kefel, a type of garment, everything is determined by the information written below. In this case there is not a missing letter at the bottom but an altered letter. Therefore, the information written below is not corrected from the information written above.
בָּעֵי רַב פָּפָּא קֵפֶל מִלְּמַעְלָה וְסֵפֶל מִלְּמַטָּה מַאי מִי חָיְישִׁינַן לִזְבוּב אוֹ לָא תֵּיקוּ Rav Pappa raises a dilemma: What if it is stated kefel above and sefel below? The difference between the two words is that the former begins with kuf, whereas the latter begins with samekh. The orthographical difference between these two letters is a single stroke that extends downward, as the omission of the extension of this stroke would change kuf into samekh. Rav Pappa’s dilemma is: Are we concerned for the possibility that a fly landed on the stroke of the kuf, removing the ink and changing it into samekh? Or are we not concerned with this possibility? The Gemara comments: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.
הָהוּא דַּהֲוָה כְּתִב בֵּיהּ שֵׁית מְאָה וְזוּזָא שַׁלְחֵהּ רַב שֵׁרֵבְיָא קַמֵּיהּ דְּאַבָּיֵי שֵׁית מְאָה אִיסְתֵּירֵי וְזוּזָא אוֹ דִלְמָא שֵׁית מְאָה פְּרִיטֵי וְזוּזָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ דַּל פְּרִיטֵי דְּלָא כָּתְבִי בִּשְׁטָרָא דַּאֲסוֹכֵי מַסְכַּן לְהוּ § The Gemara relates: There was a certain document in which it was written that the amount due was six hundred and a dinar, without specifying to which denomination the six hundred amount referred. Rav Sherevya sent this question before Abaye: Does the holder of the document collect six hundred istira and a dinar? Istira is another name for a sela, which equals four dinars. Or is he perhaps entitled to collect only six hundred perutot and a dinar, a peruta being a small fraction of a dinar? Abaye said to him: Remove the possibility of six hundred perutot, since people do not write large numbers of perutot in a document, as they instead combine them into larger denominations