וְעַל יְדֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי קֹרַח and by the three sons of Korah.
יִרְמְיָה כָּתַב סִפְרוֹ וְסֵפֶר מְלָכִים וְקִינוֹת חִזְקִיָּה וְסִיעָתוֹ כָּתְבוּ (יִמְשָׁק סִימָן) יְשַׁעְיָה מִשְׁלֵי שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה כָּתְבוּ (קַנְדָּג סִימָן) יְחֶזְקֵאל וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר דָּנִיֵּאל וּמְגִילַת אֶסְתֵּר עֶזְרָא כָּתַב סִפְרוֹ וְיַחַס שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים עַד לוֹ Jeremiah wrote his own book, and the book of Kings, and Lamentations. Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote the following, and a mnemonic to remember which books they wrote is yod, mem, shin, kuf: Isaiah [Yeshaya], Proverbs [Mishlei], Song of Songs [Shir HaShirim], and Ecclesiastes [Kohelet]. The members of the Great Assembly wrote the following, and a mnemonic to remember these books is kuf, nun, dalet, gimmel: Ezekiel [Yeḥezkel ], and the Twelve Prophets [Sheneim Asar], Daniel [Daniel ], and the Scroll of Esther [Megillat Ester]. Ezra wrote his own book and the genealogy of the book of Chronicles until his period.
מְסַיְּיעָא לֵיהּ לְרַב דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב לֹא עָלָה עֶזְרָא מִבָּבֶל עַד שֶׁיִּחֵס עַצְמוֹ וְעָלָה וּמַאן אַסְּקֵיהּ נְחֶמְיָה בֶּן חֲכַלְיָה The Gemara comments: This supports Rav, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Ezra did not ascend from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael until he established his own genealogy, and after that he ascended. This genealogy is what is written in the book of Chronicles. And who completed the book of Chronicles for the generations following Ezra? Nehemiah, son of Hacaliah.
אָמַר מָר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כָּתַב סִפְרוֹ וּשְׁמוֹנָה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה תַּנְיָא כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר שְׁמוֹנָה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כְּתָבָן דְּתַנְיָא וַיָּמׇת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד ה׳ אֶפְשָׁר מֹשֶׁה מֵת וְכָתַב וַיָּמׇת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה אֶלָּא עַד כָּאן כָּתַב מֹשֶׁה מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ כָּתַב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְאָמְרִי לַהּ רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה The Gemara elaborates on the particulars of this baraita: The Master said above that Joshua wrote his own book and eight verses of the Torah. The Gemara comments: This baraita is taught in accordance with the one who says that it was Joshua who wrote the last eight verses in the Torah. This point is subject to a tannaitic dispute, as it is taught in another baraita: “And Moses the servant of the Lord died there” (Deuteronomy 34:5); is it possible that after Moses died, he himself wrote “And Moses died there”? Rather, Moses wrote the entire Torah until this point, and Joshua wrote from this point forward; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And some say that Rabbi Neḥemya stated this opinion.
אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אֶפְשָׁר סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה חָסֵר אוֹת אַחַת וּכְתִיב לָקֹחַ אֵת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה אֶלָּא עַד כָּאן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר וּמֹשֶׁה אוֹמֵר וְכוֹתֵב מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר וּמֹשֶׁה כּוֹתֵב בְּדֶמַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם בָּרוּךְ מִפִּיו יִקְרָא אֵלַי אֵת כׇּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַאֲנִי כּוֹתֵב עַל הַסֵּפֶר בַּדְּיוֹ Rabbi Shimon said to him: Is it possible that the Torah scroll was missing a single letter? But it is written: “Take this Torah scroll” (Deuteronomy 31:26), indicating that the Torah was complete as is and that nothing further would be added to it. Rather, until this point the Holy One, Blessed be He, dictated and Moses repeated after Him and wrote the text. From this point forward, with respect to Moses’ death, the Holy One, Blessed be He, dictated and Moses wrote with tears. The fact that the Torah was written by way of dictation can be seen later, as it is stated concerning the writing of the Prophets: “And Baruch said to them: He dictated all these words to me, and I wrote them with ink in the scroll” (Jeremiah 36:18).
כְּמַאן אָזְלָא הָא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב גִּידֵּל אָמַר רַב שְׁמוֹנָה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה יָחִיד קוֹרֵא אוֹתָן לֵימָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה הִיא וּדְלָא כְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אֲפִילּוּ תֵּימָא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הוֹאִיל וְאִשְׁתַּנּוֹ אִשְׁתַּנּוֹ: The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi Yehoshua bar Abba says that Rav Giddel says that Rav says: When the Torah is read publicly in the synagogue, one person reads the last eight verses in the Torah, and that section may not be divided between two readers? Shall we say that this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, as according to Rabbi Shimon these verses are an integral part of the Torah, written by Moses just like the rest? The Gemara answers: Even if you say that this was said in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, since they differ from the rest of the Torah in one way, as Moses wrote them with tears, they differ from the rest of the Torah in this way as well, i.e., they may not be divided between two readers.
יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כָּתַב סִפְרוֹ וְהָכְתִיב וַיָּמׇת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן עֶבֶד ה׳ דְּאַסְּקֵיהּ אֶלְעָזָר וְהָכְתִיב וְאֶלְעָזָר בֶּן אַהֲרֹן מֵת דְּאַסְּקֵיהּ פִּנְחָס It is stated in the baraita that Joshua wrote his own book. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written toward the end of the book: “And Joshua, son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died” (Joshua 24:29)? Is it possible that Joshua wrote this? The Gemara answers: Aaron’s son Eleazar completed it. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it also written: “And Eleazar, son of Aaron, died” (Joshua 24:33)? The Gemara answers: Pinehas completed it.
שְׁמוּאֵל כָּתַב סִפְרוֹ וְהָכְתִיב וּשְׁמוּאֵל מֵת דְּאַסְּקֵיהּ גָּד הַחוֹזָה וְנָתָן הַנָּבִיא It is also stated in the baraita that Samuel wrote his own book. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And Samuel died” (I Samuel 28:3)? The Gemara answers: Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet finished it.
דָּוִד כָּתַב סֵפֶר תְּהִלִּים עַל יְדֵי עֲשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים וְלִיחְשׁוֹב נָמֵי אֵיתָן הָאֶזְרָחִי אָמַר רַב אֵיתָן הָאֶזְרָחִי זֶה הוּא אַבְרָהָם כְּתִיב הָכָא אֵיתָן הָאֶזְרָחִי וּכְתִיב הָתָם מִי הֵעִיר מִמִּזְרָח צֶדֶק [וְגוֹ׳] It is further stated that David wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten elders, whom the baraita proceeds to list. The Gemara asks: But then let it also count Ethan the Ezrahite among the contributors to the book of Psalms, as it is he who is credited with Psalms, chapter 89. Rav says: Ethan the Ezrahite is the same person as Abraham. Proof for this is the fact that it is written here: “A Maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite” (Psalms 89:1), and it is written there: “Who raised up one from the east [mizraḥ], whom righteousness met wherever he set his foot” (Isaiah 41:2). The latter verse is understood as referring to Abraham, who came from the east, and for that reason he is called Ethan the Ezrahite in the former verse.
קָא חָשֵׁיב מֹשֶׁה וְקָא חָשֵׁיב הֵימָן וְהָאָמַר רַב הֵימָן זֶה מֹשֶׁה כְּתִיב הָכָא הֵימָן וּכְתִיב הָתָם בְּכׇל בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא תְּרֵי הֵימָן הֲווֹ The Gemara asks: The baraita counts Moses among the ten elders whose works are included in the book of Psalms, and it also counts Heman. But doesn’t Rav say: The Heman mentioned in the Bible (I Kings 5:11) is the same person as Moses? This is proven by the fact that it is written here: “Heman” (Psalms 88:1), which is Aramaic for trusted, and it is written there about Moses: “For he is the trusted one in all My house” (Numbers 12:7). The Gemara answers: There were two Hemans, one of whom was Moses, and the other a Temple singer from among the descendants of Samuel.
מֹשֶׁה כָּתַב סִפְרוֹ וּפָרָשַׁת בִּלְעָם וְאִיּוֹב מְסַיְּיעָא לֵיהּ לְרַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר לַחְמָא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר לַחְמָא אִיּוֹב בִּימֵי מֹשֶׁה הָיָה כְּתִיב הָכָא מִי יִתֵּן אֵפוֹא וְיִכָּתְבוּן מִלָּי וּכְתִיב הָתָם וּבַמֶּה יִוָּדַע אֵפוֹא The baraita further states that Moses wrote his own book, i.e., the Torah, the portion of Balaam, and the book of Job. This supports Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma, as Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma says: Job lived in the time of Moses. It is written here with regard to Job: “Oh, that my words were written now [eifo]” (Job 19:23), and it is written there in Moses’ words to God: “For in what shall it be known here [eifo]” (Exodus 33:16). The unusual use of the word eifo in these two places indicates that Job and Moses lived in the same generation.
וְאֵימָא בִּימֵי יִצְחָק דִּכְתִיב מִי אֵפוֹא הוּא הַצָּד צַיִד וְאֵימָא בִּימֵי יַעֲקֹב דִּכְתִיב אִם כֵּן אֵפוֹא זֹאת עֲשׂוּ וְאֵימָא בִּימֵי יוֹסֵף דִּכְתִיב אֵיפֹה הֵם רוֹעִים The Gemara comments: But if that is the proof, say that Job lived in the time of Isaac, as it is written in connection with Isaac: “Who then [eifo] is he that has taken venison” (Genesis 27:33). Or say that he lived in the time of Jacob, as it is written with respect to Jacob: “If it must be so now [eifo], do this” (Genesis 43:11). Or say that he lived in the time of Joseph, as it is written with respect to Joseph: “Tell me, I pray you, where [eifo] are they feeding their flocks?” (Genesis 37:16).
לָא סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ דִּכְתִיב מִי יִתֵּן בַּסֵּפֶר וְיֻחָקוּ וּמֹשֶׁה הוּא דְּאִיקְּרִי מְחוֹקֵק דִּכְתִיב וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ כִּי שָׁם חֶלְקַת מְחֹקֵק סָפוּן The Gemara answers: It could not enter your mind to say this, as it is written in the continuation of the previously mentioned verse: “Oh, that my words were inscribed [veyuḥaku] in a book” (Job 19:23), and it is Moses who is called the inscriber, as it is written with regard to him: “And he provided the first part for himself, for there was the inscriber’s [meḥokek] portion reserved” (Deuteronomy 33:21).
רָבָא אָמַר אִיּוֹב בִּימֵי מְרַגְּלִים הָיָה כְּתִיב הָכָא אִישׁ הָיָה בְאֶרֶץ עוּץ אִיּוֹב שְׁמוֹ וּכְתִיב הָתָם הֲיֵשׁ בָּהּ עֵץ מִי דָּמֵי הָכָא עוּץ הָתָם עֵץ הָכִי קָאָמַר לְהוּ מֹשֶׁה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל יֶשְׁנוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ אָדָם שֶׁשְּׁנוֹתָיו אֲרוּכּוֹת כְּעֵץ וּמֵגֵין עַל דּוֹרוֹ כְּעֵץ Rava says: Job lived at the time of the spies whom Moses sent to scout the land of Canaan. This is proven by the fact that it is written here: “There was a man in the land of Utz, whose name was Job” (Job 1:1), and it is written there in the account of the spies: “Whether there are trees [eitz] in it” (Numbers 13:20). The Gemara asks: Is it comparable? Here the word that is used is Utz, whereas there the word is eitz. The Gemara answers: This is what Moses said to Israel, i.e., to the spies: Is that man named Job still alive, he whose years are as long as the years of a tree and who protects his generation like a tree? This is why the allusion to him here is through the word eitz, rather than Utz.
יָתֵיב הָהוּא מֵרַבָּנַן קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי וְיָתֵיב וְקָאָמַר אִיּוֹב לֹא הָיָה וְלֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא מָשָׁל הָיָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ עָלֶיךָ אָמַר קְרָא אִישׁ הָיָה בְאֶרֶץ עוּץ אִיּוֹב שְׁמוֹ The Gemara relates that one of the Sages sat before Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani and he sat and said: Job never existed and was never created; there was never such a person as Job. Rather, his story was a parable. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said to him: In rebuttal to you, the verse states: “There was a man in the Land of Utz whose name was Job” (Job 1:1), which indicates that such a man did indeed exist.
אֶלָּא מֵעַתָּה וְלָרָשׁ אֵין כֹּל כִּי אִם כִּבְשָׂה אַחַת קְטַנָּה אֲשֶׁר קָנָה וַיְחַיֶּהָ וְגוֹ׳ מִי הֲוָה אֶלָּא מָשָׁל בְּעָלְמָא הָכָא נָמֵי מָשָׁל בְּעָלְמָא אִם כֵּן שְׁמוֹ וְשֵׁם עִירוֹ לָמָּה The Gemara asks: But if that is so, that the words “there was” prove that Job existed, what shall we say about the parable that Natan the prophet presented to David: “There were two men in one city; the one rich and the other poor. The rich man had very many flocks and herds, but the poor man had nothing except one little lamb, which he had bought and reared” (II Samuel 12:3)? Was there really such a person? Rather, it was merely a parable; here too it is merely a parable. The Gemara answers: If so, that it is a parable, why state his name and the name of his city? Rather, Job was clearly a real person.
רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ אִיּוֹב מֵעוֹלֵי גוֹלָה הָיָה וּבֵית מִדְרָשׁוֹ בִּטְבֶרְיָא הָיָה מֵיתִיבִי יְמֵי שְׁנוֹתָיו שֶׁל אִיּוֹב מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִצְרַיִם וְעַד שֶׁיָּצְאוּ The Gemara cites another opinion with regard to the time when Job lived. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar both say: Job was among those who ascended from the exile to Eretz Yisrael at the start of the Second Temple period, and his house of study was in Tiberias. The Gemara raises an objection from what is taught in a baraita: The days of Job’s life extended from when Israel entered Egypt until they left, indicating that this is the period during which he lived and not, as suggested, in the early days of the Second Temple.