Bava Batra 153aבבא בתרא קנ״ג א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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153aקנ״ג א

סבור מיניה הני מילי לאחר אבל לעצמו לא אמר להו רב חסדא כי אתא רב הונא מכופרי פירשה בין לעצמו בין לאחרים

Rav’s disciples understood from this that this statement applies only when the person on his deathbed wishes to retract his gift and transfer it to another. But if he recovers and wishes to retract the gift and retain it for himself, Shmuel’s statement does not apply. Rav Ḥisda said to them: When Rav Huna came from Kufrei, he explained that Shmuel’s statement applies both to retaining the property for himself and to transferring it to others.

ההוא דקנו מיניה אתא לקמיה דרב הונא אמר מאי איעבד לך דלא אקנית כדמקנו אינשי

The Gemara relates: There was a certain person on his deathbed who wrote a deed of transfer granting his property to another, and it was acquired from him by means of an act of acquisition. He subsequently recovered and wanted to retract the gift, and he came before Rav Huna. Rav Huna said to him: What can I do for you? You cannot retract the gift, as you did not transfer the gift in the manner that people on their deathbed transfer ownership of gifts, and you enhanced the legal power of the recipient by performing an act of acquisition.

ההיא מתנתא דהוה כתוב בה בחיים ובמות רב אמר הרי היא כמתנת שכיב מרע ושמואל אמר הרי היא כמתנת בריא

§ The Gemara relates: There was a deed pertaining to a certain gift of a person on his deathbed, in which it was written that the gift is given both in life and in death. In such a case, Rav says: It is like the gift of a person on his deathbed, and if he recovers he can retract it. And Shmuel says: It is like the gift of a healthy person, and he cannot retract it.

רב אמר הרי היא כמתנת שכיב מרע מדכתיב בה במות אחר מיתה קאמר ליה והאי דכתיב בחיים סימן בעלמא דחיי

The Gemara explains: Rav says: It is like the gift of a person on his deathbed. This can be inferred from the fact that it is written in the deed that the gift is given in death. This means that the giver is saying to him that the gift should take effect after his death, and that which is written in the deed, that the gift is given in life, is merely an auspicious omen, expressing hope that the giver will live.

ושמואל אמר הרי היא כמתנת בריא מדכתיב בה בחיים מחיים קאמר והאי דכתב ובמות כמאן דאמר מעתה ועד עולם אמרי נהרדעי הלכתא כוותיה דרב

And Shmuel says: It is like the gift of a healthy person. This can be inferred from the fact that it is written in the deed that the gift is given in life. This means that the giver is saying that the gift takes effect during his life, i.e., immediately. And that which he wrote, that the gift is given in death, is like one who says: From now and for evermore, i.e., that the gift is not retractable. The Sages of Neharde’a say: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav.

אמר רבא ואי כתיב בה מחיים קנה

Rava said: And if it was written in the deed that the gift is given during life and in death, the recipient acquires the gift and it cannot be retracted, as this term indicates that the gift takes effect while the giver still lives.

אמר אמימר לית הלכתא כוותיה דרבא אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר פשיטא דהא אמרי נהרדעי הלכתא כוותיה דרב מהו דתימא מחיים מודי רב קא משמע לן

Ameimar said: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rava. Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: Isn’t that obvious, as the Sages of Neharde’a say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav? Ameimar replied: Lest you say that with regard to the term: During life, Rav concedes that the giver intends for the gift to take effect immediately, Ameimar teaches us that since the giver also mentioned death, he intended the gift as the gift of a person on his deathbed and he can retract it.

ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרב נחמן לנהרדעא שדריה לקמיה דר' ירמיה בר אבא לשום טמיא אמר הכא אתרא דשמואל היכי נעביד כוותיה דרב

The Gemara relates: There was a certain person who wrote in the deed that the gift is given in life and in death. When he recovered he wanted to retract the gift. He came before Rav Naḥman in Neharde’a. Rav Naḥman sent him to appear before Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba in Shum Tamya. Rav Naḥman said in explanation of his actions: Here, Neharde’a, is the place of Shmuel. Consequently, Shmuel’s rulings should be followed, and therefore how can we act in accordance with the opinion of Rav?

ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרבא עבד לה רבא כשמעתיה הוה קא טרדא ליה

The Gemara relates: There was a certain woman who wrote in the deed that the gift is given during life and in death. She came before Rava. Rava acted with regard to her case in accordance with his halakhic ruling, and he ruled that she cannot retract the gift. She did not accept the ruling, and she constantly troubled him, saying that he had not judged her case properly.

אמר ליה לרב פפא בריה דרב חנן ספריה זיל כתוב לה וכתוב בה שוכר עליהן או מטען אמרה ליטבע ארביה אטעויי קא מטעית לי אמשינהו למניה דרבא במיא ואפי' הכי לא איפרק מטיבעא:

Rava said to Rav Pappa, his scribe, son of Rav Ḥanan: Go, write for her a ruling in her favor, and write in the ruling the phrase: He may hire replacements at their expense, or deceive them to get them to return to work. This is a phrase from the mishna (Bava Metzia 75b) that discusses the ruling in the case of one who hired laborers to perform a task that cannot be delayed, and they quit. Rava intended this phrase to indicate to the court that the ruling was merely a ruse in order to persuade the woman to leave. The woman understood the ruse. She said: May his ship sink; you are deceiving me. Rava had his clothes immersed in water so that the curse should be fulfilled in this alternative manner, but even so he was not saved from the sinking of his ship.

מתני׳ לא כתב בה שכיב מרע הוא אומר שכיב מרע הייתי והן אומרים בריא היית צריך להביא ראיה ששכיב מרע היה דברי ר"מ וחכ"א המוציא מחברו עליו הראיה:

MISHNA: If one did not write in the deed that he was on his deathbed, and he then recovered and wished to retract the gift, and he says: I was on my deathbed, and since I recovered, I can retract the gift, but the recipients say: You were healthy, and the gift cannot be retracted, the giver must bring proof that he was on his deathbed in order to retract the gift. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: The burden of proof rests upon the claimant, and since the property is in the possession of the giver, the recipients must bring proof that they have the right to receive it.

גמ׳ ההוא מתנתא דהוה כתב בה כד הוה קציר ורמי בערסיה ולא כתב בה ומגו מרעיה איפטר לבית עולמיה

GEMARA: There was a deed pertaining to a certain gift of a person on his deathbed, in which it was written that the gift was bestowed when the giver was sick and lying in his bed, but the continuation of the standard formula: And from his sickness he departed to his eternal home, was not written in it. The giver’s heirs claimed that although he was ill when he wrote the deed, he later recovered, and his gift is not valid.