כדי שלא תהא חיה קופצת ולעביד חריץ ולא לעביד בן חריץ איידי דרווח קיימא בגויה וקפצה ולעביד בן חריץ ולא לעביד חריץ איידי דקטין קיימא אשפתיה וקפצה וכמה בין חריץ לבן חריץ טפח:
so that an animal will not jump over the fence, enter the field, and cause damage. The Gemara asks: Let him make only a larger ditch and not make a smaller ditch. The Gemara replies: Since the ditch is wide, the animal can stand inside it and jump from there over the fence. The Gemara asks: If so, then let him make only a smaller ditch and not make a larger ditch? Since the ditch is small, the animal stands on its edge and jumps over the fence. The baraita explains the matter further: And how much space is there between the larger ditch and the smaller ditch? One handbreadth.
הדרן עלך בית כור
מתני׳ יש נוחלין ומנחילין ויש נוחלין ולא מנחילין מנחילין ולא נוחלין לא נוחלין ולא מנחילין
MISHNA: There are family members who both inherit from and bequeath to each other upon their respective deaths; and there are those who inherit from certain relatives but do not bequeath to them; and there are those who bequeath to certain relatives but do not inherit from them; and there are those who, despite being relatives, do not inherit from nor bequeath to one another.
ואלו נוחלין ומנחילין האב את הבנים והבנים את האב והאחין מן האב נוחלין ומנחילין האיש את אמו והאיש את אשתו ובני אחיות נוחלין ולא מנחילין האשה את בניה והאשה את בעלה ואחי האם מנחילין ולא נוחלין והאחין מן האם לא נוחלין ולא מנחילין:
The mishna lists those referred to above. And these both inherit and bequeath: A father with regard to his sons, and sons with regard to their father, and paternal brothers; all inherit from one another and bequeath to each other. A man with regard to his mother, and a man with regard to his wife, and sons of sisters, i.e., nephews born to the sisters of the deceased, all inherit from their respective relatives but do not bequeath to them. A woman with regard to her sons, and a woman with regard to her husband, and maternal uncles, all bequeath to their respective relatives but do not inherit from them. And maternal brothers, despite being blood relatives, do not inherit from each other nor do they bequeath to one another, as they are not considered relatives for the purpose of inheritance.
גמ׳ מאי שנא דקתני האב את הבנים ברישא ליתני הבנים את האב ברישא חדא דאתחולי בפורענותא לא מתחלינן
GEMARA: The Gemara begins by clarifying the order of the list in the mishna. What is different, i.e., what is the reason, that the mishna teaches: A father with regard to his sons, as the first example? Let it teach: Sons with regard to their father, as the first example. The Gemara explains why this would be preferable: One reason is that we do not want to begin with a calamity, as the death of a son during his father’s lifetime is a calamity; therefore, it would have been appropriate to begin with the example of sons inheriting from their father.