דרך הרבים שש עשרה אמות דרך ערי מקלט שלשים ושתים אמות א"ר הונא מאי קראה דכתיב (דברים יט, ג) תכין לך הדרך דרך הדרך:
The standard width of a public thoroughfare is sixteen cubits. A road leading to one of the cities of refuge must be at least thirty-two cubits wide. Rav Huna said: What is the verse from which this is derived? As it is written with regard to the cities of refuge: “You shall prepare for yourself the way, and divide the borders of your land that the Lord, your God, caused you to inherit, into three parts, so that every manslayer may flee there” (Deuteronomy 19:3). Instead of simply stating: A way, the verse states: “The way,” to indicate that the road must be twice as wide as a standard public thoroughfare.
דרך המלך אין לה שיעור: שהמלך פורץ גדר לעשות לו דרך ואין ממחין בידו:
The mishna teaches: A king’s thoroughfare has no maximum measure. The Gemara explains: This is because the halakha is that a king may breach the fence of an individual in order to create a thoroughfare for himself, and none may protest his actions.
דרך הקבר אין לה שיעור: משום יקרא דשכבא:
The mishna teaches: The path for those accompanying a deceased person to a grave has no maximum measure. The Gemara explains: This is due to the honor of the deceased.
המעמד דייני ציפורי אמרו בת ד' קבין כו': ת"ר המוכר קברו דרך קברו מקום מעמדו ובית הספדו באין בני משפחה וקוברין אותו על כרחו משום פגם משפחה:
§ The mishna teaches: With regard to the practice of standing and comforting the mourners following a funeral, the judges of Tzippori said that the standard requisite size is the area required for sowing four kav of seed. The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a family burial plot, even if one of the family sells the land designated for his own grave to another, or sells the path that will be used by the burial procession to his grave, or sells the place that will be used for standing and comforting his mourners, or sells the site that will be used for his eulogy, his family members may come and bury him in his grave even against the will of the buyer, due to the need to avoid a family flaw, i.e., harm to the family name that would arise if one of the family members was not buried with the rest of his family.
ת"ר אין פוחתין משבעה מעמדות ומושבות למת כנגד (קהלת א, ב) הבל הבלים אמר קהלת הבל הבלים הכל הבל
The Sages taught in a baraita: On their return from the burial, the mourners would stop after traveling a short distance and would sit to bewail the loss of the deceased. They would then stand and continue journeying for a short while and then repeat the procedure. The mourners perform no fewer than seven standings and sittings in honor of the deceased. These seven correspond to the seven references to “vanity” in the verse: “Vanity of vanities, says Kohelet; vanity of vanities, all is vanity” (Ecclesiastes 1:2), counting the plural term “vanities” as two references.
א"ל רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי היכי עבדי א"ל כדתניא אמר רבי יהודה ביהודה בראשונה לא היו פוחתין משבעה מעמדות ומושבות למת כגון עמדו יקרים עמודו שבו יקרים שבו אמרו לו א"כ אף בשבת מותר לעשות כן
Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: How do they perform this ceremony? Rav Ashi said to him that it is done as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said that in Judea, initially they would perform no fewer than seven standings and sittings in honor of the deceased. One of the procession would make a statement such as: Stand, dear friends, stand, after which the mourners would continue on their journey to their home, and then he would say: Sit down, dear friends, sit down, at which point they would sit. The Rabbis said to him: If so, that this is all that the practice entails, then it should be permitted to do so even on Shabbat, since there is no explicit eulogy or mourning, whereas the custom is not to do so.
אחתיה דרמי בר פפא הוה נסיבא ליה לרב אויא שכיבא עבד לה מעמד ומושב א"ר יוסף טעה בתרתי טעה שאין עושין אלא בקרובים והוא עבד אפילו ברחוקים וטעה שאין עושין אלא ביום ראשון והוא עבד ביום שני
The Gemara relates: The sister of Rami bar Pappa was married to Rav Avya. When she died Rav Avya performed the practice of standing and sitting for her. Rav Yosef said: He erred in two matters. He erred, as the ceremony is to be performed only with the participation of close family members, and he performed it even with a distant relative. And he erred again, as mourners should perform this ceremony only on the first day of mourning, the day of the burial, and he performed it on the second day.
אביי אמר בהא נמי טעה שאין עושין אלא בבית הקברות והוא עשה בעיר רבא אמר בהא נמי טעה שאין עושין אלא במקום שנהגו והתם לא נהוג
Abaye said: He also erred in this, as mourners should perform the ceremony only in the cemetery, but he performed it in the city. Rava said: He also erred in this, as mourners should perform it only in a locale where people are accustomed do so, but there, where he performed it, it was not the custom to do so.
מיתיבי אמרו לו אם כן אף בשבת מותר לעשות כן ואי אמרת בבית הקברות וביום א' בית הקברות בשבת מאי בעי בעיר הסמוכה לבית הקברות דאמטיוהו בין השמשות:
The Gemara raises an objection to the claims of Rav Yosef and Abaye from the baraita cited above: The Rabbis said to him: If so, that this is all that the practice entails, then it should be permitted to do so even on Shabbat. The Gemara explains the objection: And if you say, as Abaye did, that the ceremony should be performed only in the cemetery, or, as Rav Yosef did, on the first day, then how could it occur that the ceremony would be performed on Shabbat; what would anyone want to be doing in a cemetery on Shabbat, when it is prohibited to perform a burial? The Gemara explains: It could happen in a city that is close to the cemetery, and this is a case where they brought the deceased for burial at twilight just before Shabbat began, so that the return journey took place on Shabbat itself.
מתני׳ המוכר מקום לחברו לעשות לו קבר וכן המקבל מחברו לעשות לו קבר עושה תוכה של מערה ד' אמות על שש ופותח לתוכה שמונה כוכין שלש מכאן ושלש מכאן ושנים מכנגדן וכוכין ארכן ארבע אמות ורומן שבע
MISHNA: There is the case of one who sells a plot of land to another in order for him to construct for himself an underground catacomb, and similarly the case of a contractor who receives a plot of land from another under a commission to construct for him a catacomb. If the size of the catacomb was not specified, then he should make the inside of each burial chamber four cubits wide by six cubits long and open up into the chamber, by digging into its walls, eight burial niches [kukhin] in which the coffins will rest. Three niches should be opened up from the wall here, along the length of the chamber, and three from there, along the other side, and two niches from the wall facing the entrance. And these niches should be formed so that their length is four cubits and their height is seven handbreadths,