Avodah Zarah 71aעבודה זרה ע״א א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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71aע״א א

ורמינהי עיר שכבשוה כרקום כל כהנות שבתוכה פסולות אמר רב מרי לנסך אין פנאי לבעול יש פנאי:

GEMARA: And the Gemara raises a contradiction to the assumption that soldiers during wartime do not have time to commit transgressions from that which is taught in another mishna (Ketubot 27a): With regard to a city that was conquered by an army laying siege, all the women married to priests located in the city are unfit and forbidden to their husbands, due to the concern that they were raped. Rav Mari resolved the contradiction and said: They do not have time to pour wine for libations, as their passion for idolatry is not pressing at that time, but they have time to engage in intercourse, because their lust is great even during wartime.

מתני׳ האומנין של ישראל ששלח להם עובד כוכבים חבית של יין נסך בשכרן מותר לומר תן לנו את דמיה משנכנסה לרשותן אסור:

MISHNA: With regard to Jewish craftsmen to whom a gentile sent a barrel of wine used for a libation in lieu of their wage, it is permitted for them to say to him: Give us its monetary value instead. But once it has entered into their possession, it is prohibited for them to say so, as that would be tantamount to selling the wine to the gentile and deriving benefit from it.

גמ׳ אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מותר לאדם לומר לעובד כוכבים צא והפס עלי מנת המלך

GEMARA: Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: It is permitted for a person to say to a gentile: Go and placate the collectors of the governmental tax on wine for me, and I will reimburse you subsequently, even if he pays the tax with wine used for a libation.

מיתיבי אל יאמר אדם לעובד כוכבים עול תחתי לעוצר אמר ליה רב עול תחתי לעוצר קאמרת הא לא דמיא אלא להא אבל אומר לו מלטני מן העוצר:

One of the Sages raised an objection from a baraita: A person may not say to a gentile: Go in my stead to the commissary [la’otzer] to pay the wine tax for me, if he pays it in wine used for a libation. Rav said to him: You say that the case I am referring to is similar to one who says to a gentile: Go in my stead to the commissary? In that case, since he says: In my stead, whatever the gentile gives the commissary is considered as though the Jew gave it himself. This case that I am referring to is comparable only to that which is taught in the baraita: But the Jew may say to a gentile: Save me from the commissary.

מתני׳ המוכר יינו לעובד כוכבים פסק עד שלא מדד דמיו מותרין מדד עד שלא פסק דמיו אסורין:

MISHNA: In the case of a Jew who sells his wine to a gentile, if he fixed a price before he measured the wine into the gentile’s vessel, deriving benefit from the money paid for the wine is permitted. It is not tantamount to selling wine used for a libation, as the gentile purchased the wine before it became forbidden, and the money already belonged to the Jew. But if the Jew measured the wine into the gentile’s vessel, thereby rendering it forbidden, before he fixed a price, the money paid for the wine is forbidden.

גמ׳ אמר אמימר משיכה בעובד כוכבים קונה תדע דהני פרסאי משדרי פרדשני להדדי ולא הדרי בהו רב אשי אמר לעולם אימא לך משיכה בעובד כוכבים אינה קונה והאי דלא הדרי בהו דרמות רוחא הוא דנקיטא להו

GEMARA: Ameimar says: The legal act of acquiring an object by pulling it applies to a gentile. Know that it is so, as those Persians send gifts [pardashnei] to one another and do not retract them, which shows that they acquire one from another by pulling the object alone, even without paying for it. Rav Ashi says: Actually, I will say to you that pulling an object does not acquire it in a transaction involving a gentile, and the fact that they do not retract their gifts is not due to the halakhot of acquisition but because they are taken over by haughtiness, and they consider it shameful to retract a gift.

אמר רב אשי מנא אמינא לה מדאמר להו רב להנהו סבויתא כי כייליתו חמרא לעובדי כוכבים שקלו זוזי מינייהו והדר כיילן להו ואי לא נקיטו בהדייהו זוזי אוזיפונהו והדר שקילו מינייהו כי היכי דתיהוי הלואה גבייהו דאי לא עבדיתו הכי כי קא הוי יין נסך ברשותייכו קא הוי וכי שקילתו דמי יין נסך קא שקילתו ואי ס"ד משיכה בעובד כוכבים קונה

Rav Ashi said: From where do I say that acquisition by pulling does not apply to gentiles? It is from that which Rav said to certain wine shopkeepers: When you measure wine for gentiles, take the dinars from them and then measure the wine for them. And if they do not have dinars with them readily available, lend them dinars and then take those dinars back from them, so that it will be a loan provided to them that they are repaying. As if you do not do so, when it becomes wine used for a libation it becomes so in your possession, and when you take the money it will be payment for wine used for a libation that you are taking. Rav Ashi concludes his proof for his opinion: And if it enters your mind that pulling an object acquires it in a transaction involving a gentile,