אלא למ"ד טריפה יולדת מאי איכא למימר אמר קרא אתך בדומין לך ודלמא נח גופיה טריפה הוה תמים כתיב ביה But according to the one who says that a tereifa can give birth, what can be said? According to this opinion, a tereifa cannot be excluded by the phrase: “To keep seed alive.” The Gemara answers: The verse states with regard to the animals that were brought by Noah into the ark: “You shall bring into the ark, to keep them alive with you” (Genesis 6:19). The term “with you” indicates that the verse is stated with regard to animals that are similar to you, but not a tereifa. The Gemara asks: But perhaps Noah himself was a tereifa. If so, one cannot exclude a tereifa from the comparison of animals to Noah. The Gemara answers: It is written about Noah that he was “complete” (Genesis 6:9).
ודלמא תמים בדרכיו היה צדיק כתיב ביה The Gemara challenges: But perhaps the verse means that his ways were complete, but it is not referring to Noah’s physical attributes. The Gemara explains: It is already written about him that he was “righteous” (Genesis 6:9), which means that his actions were perfect. Consequently, when the verse says that he was also complete, it must be referring to his body.
דלמא תמים בדרכיו צדיק במעשיו הוה לא ס"ד דנח גופיה טריפה הואי דאי ס"ד דנח טריפה הוה א"ל רחמנא כוותך עייל שלמין לא תעייל The Gemara challenges: But perhaps the verse means that Noah was complete in his manner, and he was righteous in his good deeds. Accordingly, the verse would not exclude the possibility that Noah himself was a tereifa. The Gemara explains: It cannot enter your mind that Noah himself was a tereifa, as, if it enters your mind that Noah was a tereifa, would the Merciful One have said to him: Bring in tereifot like you to the ark, but do not bring in whole and perfect animals?
והשתא דנפקא ליה מאתך לחיות זרע ל"ל אי מאתך הוה אמינא לצוותא בעלמא ואפילו זקן ואפילו סריס כתב רחמנא זרע The Gemara asks: And now that it has been established that one derives the disqualification of a tereifa from the term “with you,” why do I need the phrase “to keep seed alive”? The Gemara answers: If one could learn only from “with you,” I would say that Noah brought the animals to the ark only for the purpose of company, and therefore even an animal that is elderly and even one who is castrated can come into the ark, provided that it is not a tereifa. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: “To keep seed alive,” teaching that only animals that could bear offspring may be brought into the ark.
איבעיא להו שלשה ימים הן ואידיהן או דלמא הן בלא אידיהן § A dilemma was raised before the Sages: When the mishna teaches that it is prohibited to conduct business with gentiles on the three days before their festival, do the three days include them, i.e., the days preceding the festival and their festival itself, in which case the prohibition applies only to the festival and the two preceding days? Or perhaps it is referring to them without their festival, i.e., the prohibition applies to three full days before the festival.
ת"ש ר' ישמעאל אומר שלשה לפניהם ושלשה לאחריהן אסור אי ס"ד הן ואידיהן רבי ישמעאל יום אידיהן חשיב להו מעיקרא וחשיב להו לבסוף The Gemara suggests a proof from a mishna (7b). Come and hear, as Rabbi Yishmael says: On the three days before the festivals of gentiles and the three days after them, these actions are prohibited. The Gemara analyzes this statement. If it enters your mind that the three days include them and their festival, this would mean that Rabbi Yishmael counts the day of their festival twice, as he counts it initially, as part of the first set of three days, and he also counts it at the end, along with the second set of three days. Clearly, the three days do not include the day of the festival itself.
איידי דתנא שלשה לפניהם תנא נמי שלשה לאחריהם The Gemara rejects this proof: It is possible that the festival is counted as one of the initial three days, i.e., the three days include them and their festival, and is not counted as part of the three days following the festival. But since Rabbi Yishmael taught that these actions are prohibited during the three days before them, he also used the same expression and taught that these actions are prohibited during the three days after them, although what he is actually teaching is that these actions are prohibited only during the two days after it.
ת"ש דאמר רב תחליפא בר אבדימי אמר שמואל יום א' לדברי רבי ישמעאל לעולם אסור ואי ס"ד הן ואידיהן האיכא ארבעה וחמשה דשרי The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from that which Rav Taḥlifa bar Avdimi says that Shmuel says: According to the statement of Rabbi Yishmael, it is always prohibited to engage in business with Christians, as their festival takes place every Sunday. Since the three days preceding and following their festival are included in the prohibition, one cannot engage in business with them any day of the week. And if it enters your mind that the three days of the mishna include them and their festival, i.e., only the two days preceding and following the festival are included in the prohibition, then according to Rabbi Yishmael there are still Wednesday and Thursday, on which it is permitted to engage in business with Christians.
אליבא דרבי ישמעאל לא קמבעיא לי דהן בלא אידיהן כי קא מבעיא לי אליבא דרבנן מאי The Gemara clarifies: According to the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, I have no dilemma, as it is clear that the three days mentioned in the mishna are them without their festival. When I raise the dilemma, it is according to the opinion of the Rabbis: What days are included in the prohibition according to their opinion?
אמר רבינא ת"ש ואלו הן אידיהן של עובדי כוכבים קלנדא סטרונייא וקרטסים ואמר רב חנין בר רבא קלנדא ח' ימים אחר תקופה סטרונייא שמונה ימים לפני תקופה וסימנך (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני Ravina says: Come and hear a proof from the continuation of the mishna (8a). And these are the festivals of gentiles: Kalenda, Saturnalia, and Kratesis. And Rav Ḥanin bar Rava says in explanation of that mishna: When do these festivals occur? Kalenda is held during the eight days after the winter solstice, and Saturnalia is held during the eight days before the winter solstice. And your mnemonic to remember which festival is which is that the festival that occurs after the solstice is mentioned first and the festival that takes place before it is mentioned later, as in the verse: “You have hemmed me in behind and before” (Psalms 139:5), where the word “before” appears after the term “behind.”
ואי סלקא דעתך הן ואידיהן עשרה הוו תנא כוליה קלנדא חד יומא הוא חשיב ליה Ravina explains the proof: And if it enters your mind that the tanna of the mishna counts them and their festival, in this case there are ten days that are included in the prohibition: The eight days of the festival and the two days beforehand. Why, then, would the mishna say that the prohibition applies for only three days? If the three days do not include the festivals themselves, then this difficulty does not apply, as although in practice the prohibition lasts for eleven days, the mishna is not referring to the period of the festival. The Gemara responds: This proof is inconclusive, as the tanna counts all of the festival of Kalenda as one day.
אמר רב אשי ת"ש לפני אידיהן של עובדי כוכבים שלשה ימים ואי ס"ד הן ואידיהן ליתני אידיהן של עובדי כוכבים שלשה ימים Rav Ashi says: Come and hear a proof from the mishna, which specifies that the time that the actions are prohibited is: On the three days before the festivals of gentiles. And if it enters your mind that the mishna is referring to them and their festival, let it teach: At the time of the festivals of gentiles, it is prohibited to engage in business with them for three days. The wording of the mishna indicates that all three days are before the festival.
וכי תימא האי דקתני לפני אידיהן למעוטי לאחר אידיהן ליתני אידם של עובדי כוכבים ג' ימים לפניהם אלא ש"מ הן בלא אידיהן ש"מ And if you would say: That which is taught in the mishna: Before the festivals of the gentiles, serves to exclude the days following their festivals, i.e., the tanna is clearly indicating that the prohibition applies before, rather than afterward, let the mishna teach: At the time of the festivals of gentiles, it is prohibited to engage in business with them for three days beforehand. Rather, conclude from the wording employed that when the mishna states: The three days before the festivals, it is referring to them without their festival. The Gemara affirms: Conclude from here that this is the case.
איבעיא להו משום הרווחה או דלמא משום (ויקרא יט, יד) ולפני עור לא תתן מכשול § A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is the reason for the prohibition against conducting business with gentiles in the days preceding their festivals because the gentile might profit, which will bring him joy, and he will subsequently give thanks to his idol on his festival? Or perhaps it is because this is a violation of the prohibition: “And you shall not put a stumbling block before the blind” (Leviticus 19:14), as one who sells an animal to a gentile thereby aids him in engaging in prohibited idol worship.
למאי נפקא מינה דאית ליה בהמה לדידיה אי אמרת משום הרווחה הא קא מרווח ליה אי אמרת משום עור לא תתן מכשול הא אית ליה לדידיה The Gemara explains: What is the practical difference between the two options? The practical difference is in a situation where the gentile already has an animal of his own. If you say that the reason for the prohibition is because he might profit, here too the Jew causes him to profit. But if you say that the reason for the prohibition is due to the prohibition: “You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind,” since the gentile has his own animal, the Jew is not helping him sin.
וכי אית ליה לא עבר משום עור לא תתן מכשול והתניא אמר רבי נתן The Gemara challenges: And even if he already has his own animal, does not one who assists him transgress due to the command: “You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind”? But isn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan said: