הוה שפיך להו חמרא לעובדי כוכבים ואזיל מעבר להו מעברא ויהבו ליה גולפי באגרא אתו אמרו ליה לאביי א"ל כי קא טרח בהתירא קא טרח would pour wine which he sold to gentiles into their wineskins and go and ferry them over the crossing, and they would give him the jugs in which the wine had been stored as payment. The jugs that the wine had been stored in were included in the sale, and the gentiles would pay him by returning the jugs. People came and told Abaye that Rav Ika was accepting a wage from the wine of gentiles. Abaye said to them: When he labored, he labored with permitted wine, since he was pouring kosher wine into the wineskins, and only subsequently the wine was rendered forbidden by being in the possession of the gentiles.
והא רוצה בקיומו דלא נצטרו זיקי דמתני בהדייהו א"נ דמייתו פריסדקי בהדייהו The Gemara asks: But doesn’t he desire the preservation of the wine in the wineskins in that the wineskins should not be torn, as he would then need to return the jugs he received in payment? The Gemara answers: It is a case where he stipulated with the gentile purchasers that even if the wineskins were to tear it would be at their expense and not his, and he would keep the jugs in any event. Alternatively, it is a case where the gentile purchasers brought barrels [perisdakei] with them, so that they could pour the wine into them should the wineskins be torn.
והא קא מעבר להו מעברא דקא טרח באיסורא דא"ל למברויא מעיקרא א"נ דנקיטי ביה קיטרי: The Gemara asks: But didn’t he ferry them over the crossing, which is laboring with forbidden wine? The Gemara answers: This is not a case where he was ferrying the wine over the crossing himself, as he made an arrangement with the ferrymen and said to the ferryman initially that the latter would ferry the buyers and the barrels without payment. Alternatively, it was a case where he held special signal knots in collusion with the ferryman that he would ferry these people without payment. In any event, he was not laboring for them himself.
מתני׳ יין נסך שנפל ע"ג ענבים ידיחן והן מותרות ואם היו מבוקעות אסורות נפל ע"ג תאנים או על גבי תמרים אם יש בהן בנותן טעם אסור ומעשה בביתוס בן זונן שהביא גרוגרות בספינה ונשתברה חבית של יין נסך ונפל על גביהן ושאל לחכמים והתירום MISHNA: In the case of wine used for a libation that fell on grapes, one rinses them and they are permitted. But if the grapes were cracked, they are forbidden. In a case where the wine fell on figs or on dates, if there is sufficient wine in them to impart flavor, they are forbidden. And there was an incident involving Boethus ben Zunen, who transported dried figs in a ship, and a barrel of wine used for a libation broke and fell on them, and he asked the Sages as to the halakha, and the Sages deemed the figs permitted.
זה הכלל כל שבהנאתו בנותן טעם אסור כל שאין בהנאתו בנותן טעם מותר כגון חומץ שנפל ע"ג גריסין: This is the principle: Anything that benefits from a forbidden item imparting flavor to it, i.e., the forbidden item contributes a positive taste to it, is forbidden, and anything that does not benefit from a forbidden item imparting flavor to it is permitted, such as forbidden vinegar that fell onto split beans, as the flavor imparted by the vinegar does not enhance the taste of the beans.
גמ׳ מעשה לסתור חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני אם נותן טעם לפגם הוא מותר ומעשה נמי בביתוס בן זונן שהיה מביא גרוגרות בספינה ונשתברה חבית של יין נסך ונפל על גביהן ובא מעשה לפני חכמים והתירום GEMARA: The Gemara asks with regard to the incident related in the mishna: Was an incident cited to contradict the halakha stated immediately before it? The Gemara answers: The mishna is incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: If the wine imparts flavor to the detriment of the mixture, the food is permitted. And there was also an incident involving Boethus ben Zunen, who was transporting dried figs in a ship, and a barrel of wine used for a libation broke and fell on them, and the incident came before the Sages, and the Sages deemed the figs permitted because the flavor given by the wine did not enhance their taste but was instead to their detriment.
ההוא כרי דחיטי דנפל עליה חביתא דיין נסך שרייה רבא לזבוניה לעובדי כוכבים The Gemara relates: There was an incident involving a certain heap of wheat upon which a barrel of wine used for a libation fell. Rava permitted selling it to gentiles, as deriving benefit from it is not prohibited.
איתיביה רבה בר ליואי לרבא בגד שאבד בו כלאים ה"ז לא ימכרנה לעובד כוכבים ולא יעשנה מרדעת לחמור אבל עושה אותו תכריכין למת מצוה Rabba bar Livai raised an objection to Rava from a baraita: With regard to a garment in which diverse kinds, a prohibited mixture of wool and linen, have been lost, i.e., it is known that linen fibers became mixed into a woolen garment but they cannot be detected and removed, one may not sell the garment to a gentile, nor fashion it into a saddlecloth for a donkey, but one may make it into shrouds for a corpse with no one to bury it [met mitzva], as a corpse is not obligated in the observance of mitzvot.
לעובד כוכבים מ"ט לא דלמא אתי לזבוניה לישראל ה"נ אתי לזבוניה לישראל Rabba bar Livai asked: What is the reason that it is not permitted to sell it to a gentile? Perhaps he will come to sell it to a Jew, who will not know that it is forbidden. Here too, with regard to the wheat, the gentile purchasers may come to sell it to a Jew, who is prohibited from consuming it.
הדר שרא למיטחינהו ולמפינהו ולזבונינהו לעובדי כוכבים שלא בפני ישראל Rava then retracted his decision and permitted grinding the wheat and baking bread with it and selling it to gentiles not in the presence of Jews. In this manner, Jews will not be likely to buy bread from the gentiles, as the bread of gentiles is forbidden to Jews.
תנן יין נסך שנפל ע"ג ענבים ידיחן והן מותרות ואם היו מבוקעות אסורות מבוקעות אין שאין מבוקעות לא אמר רב פפא שאני חיטי הואיל ואגב צירייהו כמבוקעות דמיין We learned in the mishna: In the case of wine used for a libation that fell on grapes, one rinses them and they are permitted. But if the grapes were cracked, they are forbidden. The Gemara infers: If the grapes are cracked, they are forbidden, but grapes that are not cracked are not forbidden. If so, what is the cause for concern in the case where wine spilled on the wheat? It should be sufficient to rinse the wheat. Rav Pappa said: Wheat is different, since, because of its slits, its status is similar to that of grapes that are cracked.