Avodah Zarah 30bעבודה זרה ל׳ ב
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30bל׳ ב

מכאן ואילך אין בו משום גילוי ואין בו משום יין נסך ונהרדעי אמרי אפי' לבתר תלתא יומי חיישינן משום גילוי מ"ט זימנין מיקרי שתי

From this point forward, it is not subject to the halakha of exposure and is not subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation. And the Sages of Neharde’a say: Even after three days, we are concerned with regard to exposure. What is the reason? It is because at times it occurs that a snake drinks even sour wine.

ת"ר יין תוסס אין בו משום גילוי וכמה תסיסתו ג' ימים השחלים אין בהם משום גילוי ובני גולה נהגו בהן איסור ולא אמרן אלא דלית בהו חלא אבל אית בהו חלא מיגרי בהו

§ The Gemara discusses the halakha of exposure with regard to various foods and beverages. The Sages taught: Wine that is still fermenting is not subject to the halakha of exposure. And how long is its fermentation process? It is three days. Cress-based dishes are not subject to the halakha of exposure, but the residents of the Diaspora are accustomed to treating them as prohibited if they were left exposed. And we said this only in a case where the dishes do not contain vinegar; but if they do contain vinegar, the vinegar repels the snakes, and in such a situation even the inhabitants of the Diaspora do not treat them as prohibited.

כותח הבבלי אין בו משום גילוי ובני גולה נהגו בו איסור אמר רב מנשי אי אית ביה נקורי חיישינן אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר שמואל מי טיף טיף אין בו משום גילוי אמר רב אשי והוא דעביד טיף להדי טיף טיף

The Gemara continues: Babylonian kutaḥ, a popular dip, is not subject to the halakha of exposure, but the residents of the Diaspora are accustomed to treating it as prohibited. Rav Menashei said: If the kutaḥ has indentations in it, we are concerned that they are from a snake’s fangs, and it is therefore prohibited. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi says that Shmuel says: Dripping water is not subject to the halakha of exposure while it is being collected. Rav Ashi said: And that is the halakha only in a case where the dripping occurs one drop immediately after another drop, i.e., continuously, as the snake will not drink from it in that circumstance.

אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר שמואל פי תאנה אין בו משום גילוי כמאן כי האי תנא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר אוכל אדם ענבים ותאנים בלילה ואינו חושש משום שנאמר (תהלים קטז, ו) שומר פתאים ה'

Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi says that Shmuel says: The mouth of a fig is not subject to the halakha of exposure. In accordance with whose opinion is this stated? It is stated in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer said: A person may eat grapes and figs at night, and he need not have cause for concern, as it is stated: “The Lord preserves the simple” (Psalms 116:6). This verse teaches that one need not fear that harm might befall him when he engages in commonplace activities.

אמר רב ספרא משום ר' יהושע דרומא שלשה מיני ארס הן של בחור שוקע של בינוני מפעפע ושל זקן צף למימרא דכמה דקשיש כחוש חיליה והתניא שלשה כל זמן שמזקינין גבורה מתוספת בהן אלו הן דג נחש וחזיר כח אוסופי הוא דקא מוסיף זיהריה קליש

Rav Safra says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua Deroma: There are three kinds of snake venom: Venom of a young snake, which sinks to the bottom when it is deposited in liquid; venom of a snake of intermediate age, i.e., a snake that is no longer young, which is suspended in the liquid; and venom of an old snake, which floats at the top. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that as a snake ages, the strength of its venom becomes weaker? But isn’t it taught in a baraita that three creatures become stronger as they age, and they are: A fish, a snake, and a pig? The Gemara answers: It is physically that a snake strengthens, but the potency of its venom diminishes.

של בחור שוקע למאי הלכתא דתניא חבית שנתגלה אע"פ ששתו ממנה תשעה ולא מתו לא ישתה ממנה עשירי מעשה היה ששתו ממנו תשעה ולא מתו ושתה עשירי ומת אמר ר' ירמיה זהו שוקע

The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha was it stated that the venom of a young snake sinks? The Gemara explains: As it is taught in a baraita: With regard to a barrel that was uncovered, even though nine people drank from it and did not die, the tenth should not drink from it, as the venom may have sunk to the bottom of the barrel. The Gemara relates that there was an incident in which nine people drank from an exposed barrel and did not die, and a tenth subsequently drank from it and died. Rabbi Yirmeya says: This is an example of venom that sinks.

וכן אבטיח שנתגלתה אע"פ שאכלו ממנה ט' בני אדם ולא מתו לא יאכל ממנה עשירי מעשה היה ואכלו ממנה תשעה ולא מתו ואכל עשירי ומת א"ר זהו שוקע

And similarly, with regard to a melon that was exposed, even though nine people ate from it and did not die, the tenth should not eat from it. Again, there was an incident in which nine people ate from a melon and did not die, and the tenth ate from it and died. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: This is an example of venom that sinks.

ת"ר מים שנתגלו הרי זה לא ישפכם ברשות הרבים ולא ירביץ בהן את הבית ולא יגבל בהן את הטיט ולא ישקה מהן לא בהמתו ולא בהמת חבירו ולא ירחץ בהן פניו ידיו ורגליו אחרים אומרים מקום שיש סירטא אסור אין סירטא מותר

The Sages taught: With regard to water that was exposed, one may not pour it out in the public thoroughfare, nor settle dust with it by sprinkling it in the house, nor mix clay with it, nor give it to drink to his animal or the animal of another, nor wash his face, hands, or feet with it. Others say: If the part that one is washing is an area of the body that has a crevice in it, it is prohibited to wash it with exposed water, as the venom may seep through the crevice; if the body part does not have a crevice, it is permitted.

אחרים היינו תנא קמא איכא בינייהו גב היד וגב הרגל ורומני דאפי

The Gemara raises a difficulty: The opinion introduced with the phrase: Others say, is identical to the opinion of the first tanna of the baraita. Both hold that one may not wash his face, hands, and feet with exposed water, as these body parts have crevices in them. The Gemara explains: There is a difference between them with regard to the back of the hand and the back of the foot, and the upper part of the face, i.e., the area of the cheekbones. According to the opinion introduced with the phrase: Others say, it is permitted to wash those parts of the body, as they are free of crevices. According to the first tanna it is prohibited, as they are part of the face, hands, and feet.

אמר מר לא ישקה מהן לא בהמתו ולא בהמת חבירו והתניא אבל משקהו לבהמת עצמו כי תניא ההיא לשונרא אי הכי דחבריה נמי דחבריה כחיש דידיה נמי כחיש הדר בריא דחבריה נמי הדר בריא זימנין דבעי לזבונא ומפסיד ליה מיניה

The Master said above concerning exposed water: Nor give it to drink to his animal or the animal of another. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: But one may give exposed water to his own animal to drink? The Gemara answers: When that baraita is taught, it is referring to a cat, as cats are less susceptible to snake venom. The Gemara challenges: If that is so, let him also give the water to the cat of another. The Gemara explains: The venom weakens the cat of another. The Gemara challenges: But doesn’t the venom also weaken his own cat? The Gemara explains: It will later recover. The Gemara challenges: The cat of another will also recover later. The Gemara explains: Although both will eventually recover, there are times that the owner wishes to sell the cat and loses potential profit from the cat’s current weakness.

א"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יהודה בן בתירא שלשה יינות הן יין נסך אסור בהנאה ומטמא טומאה חמורה בכזית

Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira: There are three kinds of prohibited wines: It is prohibited to derive benefit from wine used for a libation, and the wine imparts severe ritual impurity when it has the volume of an olive-bulk.