המנשר פרסותיה מן הארכובה ולמטה תרגמא רב פפא בעגלה המושכת בקרון: One who cuts the hooves of the animal, severing the legs from the knee and below, does not render the animal a tereifa. It is evident from the baraita, which discusses the cases in which an animal is rendered a tereifa and is therefore unfit to eat, that it is discussing kosher animals. The Gemara answers: Rav Pappa interpreted the baraita as referring to the calf that pulls the king’s coach, a kosher animal of which the king made use.
יום תגלחת זקנו: איבעיא להו היכי קתני יום תגלחת זקנו והנחת בלוריתו או דלמא יום תגלחת זקנו והעברת בלוריתו ת"ש דתני' תרוייהו יום תגלחת זקנו והנחת בלוריתו יום תגלחת זקנו והעברת בלוריתו § The mishna teaches: The day of shaving his, i.e., the gentile’s, beard and his locks. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the mishna teaching here? Is it referring to the day of shaving his beard and head, when he cuts the hair of his head and as a result his long locks at the back of his head are left as a form of idol worship? Or perhaps the mishna is speaking of the day of shaving his beard and removing his locks, which are removed some time after they were left on the head? The Gemara responds: Come and hear an answer, as both opinions are taught in baraitot: One baraita mentions the day of shaving his beard and head when his long locks at the back of his head are left, whereas a different baraita specifies the day of shaving his beard and removing his locks.
אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל עוד אחרת יש [להם] ברומי אחת לשבעים שנה מביאין אדם שלם ומרכיבין אותו על אדם חיגר ומלבישין אותו בגדי אדם הראשון ומניחין לו בראשו קרקיפלו של רבי ישמעאל The Gemara continues to discuss Roman festivals. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They have another festival in Rome: Once every seventy years they bring a man who is whole and free from any defect and have him ride on a lame man, to symbolize the healthy Esau ruling over Jacob, who walked with a limp after his fight with the angel. And they dress him in the garments of Adam the first man and place on his head the scalp [karkifelo] of Rabbi Yishmael, which the Romans flayed when they executed him.
ותלו ליה [בצואריה] מתקל [ר'] זוזא דפיזא ומחפין את השווקים באינך ומכריזין לפניו סך קירי פלסתר אחוה דמרנא זייפנא דחמי חמי ודלא חמי לא חמי מאי אהני לרמאה ברמאותיה ולזייפנא בזייפנותיה ומסיימין בה הכי ווי לדין כד יקום דין And they hang gold on his neck weighing two hundred dinars, and cover the markets with onyx, and announce before him: The calculation [sakh] of the master [kiri] Jacob with regard to the time of the redemption is fraudulent [plaster]; the brother of our master, i.e., Esau, a forger. They further announce: One who witnesses this festival witnesses it, and whoever does not witness it will not witness it ever, as it was celebrated only once every seventy years. What purpose does deceit serve for the deceiver, and forgery for the forger? And they conclude in this fashion: Woe unto this one, Esau, when that one, Jacob, will arise, as this will cause Esau’s downfall.
אמר רב אשי הכשילן פיהם לרשעים אי אמרו זייפנא אחוה דמרנא כדקאמרי השתא דאמרי דמרנא זייפנא מרנא גופיה זייפנא הוא Rav Ashi says: The mouths of these wicked people have caused their downfall. Had they said: A forger is the brother of our master, their claim would be interpreted as they say and wish to be understood. Now that they say: The brother of our master, a forger; they can be understood as saying: It is our master himself who is the forger.
ותנא דידן מ"ט לא קחשיב לה להאי דאיתא בכל שתא ושתא קחשיב דליתא בכל שתא ושתא לא קחשיב The Gemara asks: And what is the reason that the tanna of our mishna does not count this festival in his list of gentile festivals? The Gemara answers: The tanna of the mishna counts those festivals that occur each and every year, and he does not count those festivals that do not occur each and every year.
הני דרומאי ודפרסאי מאי מוטרדי וטוריסקי מוהרנקי ומוהרין הני דפרסאי ודרומאי דבבלאי מאי מוהרנקי ואקניתי' בחנוני ועשר באדר The Gemara comments: Those festivals enumerated in the mishna are the festivals of the Romans. The Gemara asks: And what are the idolatrous festivals of the Persians? The Gemara answers: Mutredei and Turyaskei, Moharnekei and Moharin. The Gemara asks: Those are the festivals of the Persians and the Romans, and what are the festivals of the Babylonians? The Gemara answers: Moharnekei and Akenitei, Beḥanunei and the tenth of Adar.
אמר רב חנן בר רב חסדא אמר רב ואמרי לה א"ר חנן בר רבא אמר רב חמשה בתי עבודת כוכבים קבועין הן אלו הן בית בל בבבל בית נבו בכורסי תרעתא שבמפג צריפא שבאשקלון נשרא שבערביא כי אתא רב דימי הוסיפו עליהן יריד שבעין בכי נדבכה שבעכו איכא דאמרי נתברא שבעכו רב דימי מנהרדעא מתני איפכא יריד שבעכו נדבכה שבעין בכי § Rav Ḥanan bar Rav Ḥisda says that Rav says, and some say that it was Rav Ḥanan bar Rava who says that Rav says: There are five established temples of idol worship, and they are: The temple of Bel in Babylonia; the temple of Nebo in the city of Khursei; the temple of Tirata, which is located in the city of Mapag; Tzerifa, which is located in Ashkelon; and Nashra, which is located in Arabia. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: The Sages added to these places the marketplace that is located in Ein Bekhi and Nadbekha, which is located in Akko. There are those who say that Rav Dimi was referring to Natbera that is located in Akko. Rav Dimi from Neharde’a teaches the opposite, that it is the marketplace that is located in Akko, and Nadbekha that is located in Ein Bekhi.
א"ל רב חנן בר רב חסדא לרב חסדא מאי קבועין הן א"ל הכי אמר אבוה דאימך קבועין הן לעולם תדירא כולה שתא פלחי להו Rav Ḥanan bar Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Ḥisda: What does it mean that these temples of idol worship are established? Rav Ḥisda said to him: This is what your mother’s father, Rav Ḥanan bar Rava, said: In contrast to festivals, which last for one or several days, they are always fixed as the site of idol worship, as constantly, all year round, worship takes place there.
אמר שמואל בגולה אינו אסור אלא יום אידם בלבד ויום אידם נמי מי אסיר והא רב יהודה שרא ליה לרב ברונא לזבוני חמרא ולרב גידל לזבוני חיטין בחגתא דטייעי שאני חגתא דטייעי דלא קביעא: § Shmuel says: The halakha is that in the Diaspora, engaging in business with gentiles is prohibited only on the day of their festival itself, not during the days preceding and following the festival. Since Jews live among the gentiles, they are unable to refrain from engaging in business with them for such an extended period. The Gemara asks: And is it prohibited even on their festival day itself? But didn’t Rav Yehuda permit Rav Beruna to sell wine to gentiles, and permitted Rav Giddel to sell wheat, on the festival of the Arab merchants? The Gemara answers: The festival of the Arab merchants is different, as it does not have a fixed time, and therefore the Sages did not include it in the prohibition.
מתני׳ עיר שיש בה עבודת כוכבים חוצה לה מותר היה חוצה לה עבודת כוכבים תוכה לה מותר מהו לילך לשם בזמן שהדרך מיוחדת לאותו מקום אסור ואם היה יכול להלך בה למקום אחר מותר: MISHNA: In the case of a city in which there is active idol worship, it is permitted to engage in business transactions with gentiles who live outside of the city. If the idol worship is outside the city, it is permitted to engage in business within the city. What is the halakha with regard to traveling there, a place where a pagan festival is being celebrated? When the road is designated only for that place, it is prohibited to use the road, as onlookers will assume that the traveler intends to join the festival. But if one were able to travel on it to arrive at another place, it is permitted to use the road to reach the place that is observing the festival.
גמ׳ ה"ד חוצה לה אמר רשב"ל משום ר' חנינא כגון עטלוזא של עזה וא"ד בעא מיניה רשב"ל מר"ח עטלוזא של עזה מהו א"ל לא הלכת לצור מימיך וראית ישראל ועובד כוכבים GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances that determine whether a place is sufficiently far from a city to be considered outside of it? Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina: A place that is far enough away is, for example, the bazaar [atluza] of Gaza, which is located outside the city walls. And some say that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish asked Rabbi Ḥanina about this issue: What is the halakha with regard to the bazaar of Gaza? May one conduct business there on the day of a festival celebrated in Gaza? Rabbi Ḥanina said to him: Did you never in your lifetime travel to Tyre and see a Jew and a gentile