Aramaic Targum to Ruth
Chapter 1א׳
1 א

וַהֲוָה בְּיוֹמֵי נְגִיד נְגִידַיָּא וַהֲוָה כְפַן תַּקִּיף בְּאַרְעָא דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל עֲשַׂרְתֵּי כַפְנִין תַּקִּיפִין אִתְגְּזָרוּ מִן שְׁמַיָּא לְמִהְוֵי בְּעָלְמָא מִן יוֹמָא דְּאִתְבְּרִי עָלְמָא עַד דְּיֵיתֵי מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא לְאוֹכָחָא בְּהוֹן דָּיְרֵי אַרְעָא כְּפַן קַדְמָאֵי בְּיוֹמֵי אָדָם כְּפַן תִּנְיָן בְּיוֹמֵי לֶמֶךְ כְּפַן תְּלִיתָאֵי בְּיוֹמֵי אַבְרָהָם כְּפַן רְבִיעָאֵי בְּיוֹמֵי יִצְחָק כְּפַן חֲמִישָׁאֵי בְּיוֹמֵי יַעֲקֹב כְּפַן שְׁתִיתָאֵי בְּיוֹמֵי בּוֹעַז דְּמִתְקְרִי אִבְצָן צַדִּיקָא דְּמִן בֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה כְּפַן שְׁבִיעָאֵי בְּיוֹמֵי דָוִד מַלְכָּא דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּפַן תְּמִינָאֵי בְּיוֹמֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ נְבִיָּא כְּפַן תְּשִׁיעָאֵי בְּיוֹמֵי אֱלִישָׁע בְּשׁוֹמְרוֹן כְּפַן עֲשִׂירָאֵי עֲתִיד לְמִהְוֵי לָא כְּפַן לְמֵיכַל לַחְמָא וְלָא צָהוּתָא לְמִשְׁתֵּי מַיָּא אֱלָהֵין לְמִשְׁמַע פִּתְגָם נְבוּאָה מִן קֳדָם יְיָ וְכַד הֲוָה כַּפְנָא הָדֵין תַּקִּיף בְּאַרְעָא דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל נְפַק גַּבְרָא רַבָּא מִן בֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה וַאֲזַל לָדוּר בְּחַקְלָא דְמוֹאָב הוּא וְאִתְּתֵיהּ וּתְרֵין בְּנוֹהִי:

It came to pass in the days of the Judge of Judges that there was a great famine in the Land of Israel. Ten great famines were decreed by Heaven to be upon the earth, from the day on which the world was created until the coming of the King-Messiah, to admonish therewith the inhabitants of the earth. The first famine was in the days of Adam. The second famine was in the days of Lemech. The third was in the days of Abraham. The fourth famine was in the days of Isaac. The fifth famine was in the days of Jacob. The sixth famine was in the days of Boaz, who is known as1 Ivzan the Pious of Beth Lehem of Judah. The seventh famine was in the days of David, the king of Israel. The eighth famine was in the days of Elijah the prophet. The ninth famine was in the days of Elisha at Samaria. The tenth famine is due to come, not a famine of bread nor a thirst for water, but to hear the word of prophecy from the Lord. And when there was this great famine in the Land of Israel, a nobleman went forth out to Beth Lehem of Judah and went to dwell in the field of Moab, he and his wife and his two sons.

2 ב

וְשׁוּם גַּבְרָא אֱלִימֶלֶךְ וְשׁוּם אִתְּתֵיהּ נָעֳמִי וְשׁוּם תְּרֵין בְּנוֹהִי מַחְלוֹן וְכִלְיוֹן אֶפְרָתִין רַבָּנִין מִן בֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה וַאֲתוֹ עַד חֲקַל מוֹאָב וַהֲווֹ תַּמָּן רוֹפִילִין:

The name of the man was Elimelech, and the name of his wife was Naomi, and the names of his two sons were Mahlon and Kilion, Ephrathites, noblemen, of Beth Lehem of Judah; and they came unto the field of Moab, and there they were military tribunes.

3 ג

וּמִית אֱלִימֶלֶךְ בַּעְלָהּ דְּנָעֳמִי וְאִשְׁתְּאַרַת הִיא אַרְמְלָא וּתְרֵין בְּנַהָא יַתְמִין:

Elimelech, the husband of Naomi, died, and she was left a widow, and her two sons were left orphans.

4 ד

וַעֲבַרוּ עַל גְּזֵירַת מֵימְרָא דַּיָי וּנְסִיבוּ לְהוֹן נְשִׁין נוּכְרָאִין מִן בְּנָת מוֹאָב שׁוֹם חֲדָא עָרְפָּה וְשׁוֹם תִּנְיֵיתָא רוּת בַּת עֶגְלוֹן מַלְכָּא דְּמוֹאָב וִיתִיבוּ תַמָּן כִּזְמַן עֲשַׂר שְׁנִין:

They transgressed the decree of the Word of the Lord and took unto themselves foreign wives, of the daughters of Moab, the name of the one was Orpah, and the name of the second was Ruth, the daughter of Eglon the king of Moab, and they dwelt there for a period of about ten years.

5 ה

וְעַל דַּעֲבַרוּ עַל גְּזֵירַת מֵימְרָא דַּיָי וְאִתְחַתַּנוּ בְּעַמְמִין נוּכְרָאִין אִתְקְטַעוּ יוֹמֵיהוֹן וּמִיתוּ אַף תַּרְוֵיהוֹן מַחְלוֹן וְכִלְיוֹן בְּאַרְעָא מְסָאַבְתָּא וְאִשְׁתְּאַרַת אִתְּתָא מַתְכְּלָא מִתְּרֵין בְּנַהָא וְאַרְמְלָא מִבַּעְלָהּ:

And because they transgressed the decree of the Word of the Lord by intermarrying with strange peoples, their days were cut short, and the two of them, Mahlon and Kilion, also died, in an unclean land; and the woman was left bereft of her two sons and widowed of her husband.

6 ו

וְקַמַת הִיא וְכַלָּתָהָא וְתָבַת מֵחֲקַל מוֹאָב אֲרוּם אִתְבַּשְׂרַת בַּחֲקַל מוֹאָב עַל פּוּם מַלְאֲכָא אֲרוּם דְּכַר יְיָ יַת עַמֵּיהּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִתַּן לְהוֹן לַחְמָא בְּגִין זְכוּתֵיהּ דְּאַבְצָן נְגִידָא וּבִצְלוֹתֵיהּ דְּצַלִּי קֳדָם יְיָ הוּא בוֹעַז חַסִידָא:

Then she arose with her daughters-in-law and returned from the field of Moab, for she was informed by an angel, in the field of Moab, that the Lord had remembered his people, the House of Israel, giving them bread, through the merit of the Judge Ivzan by virtue of the prayer which he prayed before the Lord; he is Boaz the Pious.

7 ז

וּנְפַקַת מִן אַתְרָא דַּהֲוָת תַּמָּן וְתַרְתֵּין כַּלְּתָהָא עִמָּהּ וּמְהַלְּכָן בְּאוֹרְחָא לִמְתָּב לַאֲרַע יְהוּדָה:

She went forth out of the place where she had been, and her two daughters-in-law with her; and they were walking on the way to return to the land of Judah.

8 ח

וַאֲמָרַת נָעֳמִי לְתַרְתֵּין כַּלָתָהָא אִיזֵילְנָא תֻבְנָא אִתְּתָא לְבֵית אִמָהּ יַעֲבֵיד יְיָ עִמְּכוֹן טִיבוּ כְּמָא דַּעֲבַדְתּוּן עִם בַּעְלֵיכוֹן שְׁכִיבַיָּא דְּסָרֵיבְתוּן לְמִסַּב גּוּבְרַיָּא בָּתַר מוֹתֵיהוֹן וְעִמִּי דְּזַנְתּוּן וְסוֹבַרְתּוּן יָתִי:

Said Naomi to her daughters-in-law: "Go, return each to her mother's house. May the Lord do kindness unto you, just as you have done unto your deceased husbands, refusing to marry after their death, and unto me, whom you have provided for and sustained.

9 ט

יִתֵּן יְיָ לְכוֹן אֲגַר שְׁלִים עַל טֵיבוּתָא דַּעֲבַדְתּוּן לִי וּבְהַהוּא אֲגַר תַּשְׁכְּחוּן נְיָחָא כָּל חֲדָא וַחֲדָא לְבֵית בַּעְלַהּ וְנַשֵּׁיקַת לְהוֹן וּנְטַלָא קָלֵיהוֹן וּבְכִיאָן:

"May the Lord reward you fully for the kindness which you have shown to me, and by virtue of that reward may each of you find rest in the house of her husband." Then she kissed them, and they lifted up their voices and wept.

10 י

וַאֲמַרְנָא לָהּ לָא נְתוּב לְעַמָנָא וּלְדַחָלְתָּנָא אֲרוּם אֲלָהֵין עִמָךְ נְתוּב לְעַמָךְ לְאִתְגַיָירָא:

Said they unto her: "We will not return to our people and our gods, but with you will we return to your people, to become proselytes."

11 יא

וַאֲמַרַת נָעֳמִי תֻּבְנָא בְּרַתֵּי לְמָא תֵיזְלִין עִמִּי הַעוֹד כְּעַן אִית לִי וַלְדָא בִּמְעַי וִיהוֹן לְכוֹן לְגוּבְרִין:

Then said Naomi: "Return, O my daughters. Why should you go with me? Do I still have children in my womb that they might be husbands unto you?

12 יב

תּוּבְנָא בְרַתַּי מִבַּתְרַי אִזֵילְנָא לְעַמְּכוֹן אֲרֵים סָבִית מִלְּמֶהֱוֵי מִבְעְלָא לִגְבַר אֲרוּם אֲמָרִית אִלּוּ אֲנָא רִיבָא אִית לִי סְבַר בְּרַם הֲוֵיתִי מִבַּעְלָא בְּלֵלְיָא לִגְבַר וּבְרַם הֲוֵיתִי יָלְדָא בְנִין:

"Return, my daughters, from following me. Go unto your people, for I am too old to be married. Should I say: 'Now, if I were a young woman, having hope, verily! should I be married this very night and should I bear sons,'

13 יג

דִּלְמָא לְהוֹן אַתּוּן מְתִינָן עַד דִּי יִרְבּוֹן כְּאִתְּתָא דְּנָטְרָא לְיָבָם קַלִּיל לְמִסְּבַהּ לְאִנְתּוּ הַבְּדִילְהוֹן אַתּוּן יָתְבָן עֲגִימָן בְּדִיל דְּלָא לְמֶהֱוֵי מִתְנַסְבָּן לִגְבַר בְּבָעוּ בְרַתַּי לָא תְמָרְרוּן נַפְשִׁי אֲרוּם מָרִיר לִי יַתִּיר מִנְּכוֹן אֲרוּם נַפְקַת בִּי מַחָא מִן קֳדָם יְיָ:

"Would you wait for them until they grew up, like a woman who waits for a small brother-in-law to marry her? Because of them would you sit tied down, not marrying? Pray, my daughters, do not grieve me, for I am more embittered than you, because a stroke from the Lord has come forth against me."

14 יד

וּנְטַלָא קָלֵיהוֹן וּבְכִיאָן עוֹד זִמְנָא אוּחְרָנָא וְנַשֵּׁיקַת עָרְפָּה לַחֲמָתַהּ וְרוּת אִתְדַּבְּקַת בָּהּ:

Once again they lifted their voices and wept; and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth clung unto her.

15 טו

וַאֲמָרַת הָא תְּבַת יְבִמְתֵּךְ לְוָת עַמָּהּ וּלְוָת דַּחְלְתָּהּ תּוּבִי בָּתַר יְבִמְתֵּךְ לְעַמֵךְ וּלְדַחְלְתֵיךְ:

Then said she: "Behold, your sister-in-law has returned to her people and to her gods. Return after your sister-in-law to your people and your gods!"

16 טז

וַאֲמָרַת רוּת לָא תַקְנִיטִי בִי לְמִשְׁבְּקֵיךְ לִמְתָּב מִבָּתְרַיִךְ אֲרוּם תְּאִיבָא אֲנָא לְאִתְגַּיָּרָא אֲמַרַת נָעֳמִי אִתְפַּקַּדְנָא לְמִטַּר שַׁבַּיָּא וְיוֹמֵי טָבָא בְּדִיל דְּלָא לְהַלָּכָא בָּר מִתְּרֵין אַלְפִין אַמִּין אֲמַרַת רוּת לְכָל מָן דֵּי אַתְּ אָזְלָא אֵיזֵיל אֲמַרַת נָעֳמִי אִתְפַּקַּדְנָא דְּלָא לִמְבָּת כַּחֲדָא עִם (גּוּבְרַיָּא) עֲמָמַיָא אֲמַרַת רוּת בְּכָל אֲתַר דִּי תָּבִיתִי אֲבִית אֲמַרַת נָעֳמִי אִתְפַּקַּדְנָא לְמִנְטַר שֵׁית מְאָה וּתְלָת עֲסַר פִּקּוֹדַיָּא אֲמַרַת רוּת מַה דְּנָטְרִין עַמִּיךְ אֲהָא נָטְרָא אֲנָא כְּאִלּוּ הֲווֹ עַמִּי מִקִּדְמַת דְּנָא אֲמַרַת נָעֳמִי אִתְפַּקַּדְנָא דְּלָא לְמִפְלַח פּוּלְחָנָא נוּכְרָאָה אֲמַרַת רוּת אֱלָהִיךְ הוּא אֱלָהִי:

But Ruth said: "Do not coax me to leave you, to turn from following you, for I desire to become a proselyte." Said Naomi: "We are commanded to keep the Sabbaths and holidays, not to walk more than two thousand cubits." Said Ruth: "Wheresoever you go I shall go." Said Naomi: "We are commanded not to spend the night together with non-Jews." Said Ruth: "Wherever you lodge I shall lodge." Said Naomi: "We are commanded to keep six hundred thirteen commandments." Said Ruth: "That which your people keep, that I shall keep, as though they had been my people before this." Said Naomi: "We are commanded not to worship idolatry." Said Ruth: "Your God is my God."

17 יז

אֲמַרַת נָעֳמִי אִית לַנָא אַרְבַּע דִּינֵי מוֹתָא לְחַיָּבַיָּא רְגֵימַת אַבְנָא וִיקֵידַת נוּרָא וּקְטֵילַת סַיְפָא וּצְלֵיבַת קֵיסָא אֲמַרַת רוּת בְּכָל מַה דִּתְמוּתִי אֲמוּת אֲמַרַת נָעֳמִי אִית לַנָא בֵּית קְבוּרְתָא אֲמַרַת רוּת וְתַמָּן אֱהֶא קְבִירָא וְלָא תוֹסִיפִי עוֹד לְמַלָּלָא כִּדְנָן יַעֲבֵיד יְיָ לִי וְכִדְנָן יוֹסִיף עֲלַי אֲרוּם מוֹתָא יְהֵי מַפְרֵישׁ בֵּינִי וּבֵינָךְ:

Said Naomi: "We have four methods of capital punishment for the guilty -- stoning, burning with fire, death by the sword, and hanging upon the gallows." Said Ruth: "To whatever death you are subject I shall be subject." Said Naomi: "We have two cemeteries." Said Ruth: "There shall I be buried. And do not continue to speak any further. May the Lord do thus unto me and more if [even] death will separate me from you."

18 יח

וַחֲזָת אֲרוּם מְאוּלְּמָא הִיא לִמְהָךְ עִמַּהּ וּפְסַקַת מִלְּמַלָּלָא לַהּ:

When she saw that she insisted upon going with her, she ceased to dissuade her.

19 יט

וַאֲזָלָן תַּרְוֵיהוֹן עַד דְּעַלָן בֵּית לֶחֶם וַהֲוָה כַּד עַלָן לְבֵית לֶחֶם וְאַרְגִישׁוּ כָּל יָתְבֵי קַרְתָּא עֲלֵיהוֹן וַאֲמָרָן הֲדָא נָעֳמִי:

The two of them went until they came to Beth Lehem. And it happened that when they came to Beth Lehem all the inhabitants of the city became excited over them and the women said, "Is this Naomi?"

20 כ

וַאֲמַרַת לְהוֹן לָא תִהְוְיָן קָרַן לִי נָעֳמִי קְרוֹ לִי מָרִירַת נַפְשָׁא אֲרוּם אַמְרֵיר שַׁדַּי לִי לַחְדָּא:

But she said to them: "Do not call me Naomi [pleasant]; call me the bitter of soul, for the Almighty has dealt very bitterly with me indeed.

21 כא

אֲנָא מָלְיָא אֲזַלִית מִבַּעְלִי וּמִבְּנַי וְרֵקָנְיָא אֲתֵיבְנִי יְיָ מִנְּהוֹן לְמָא דֵין אַתּוּן קָרַן לִי נָעֳמִי וּמִן קֳדָם יְיָ אִתַּסְהַד בִּי חוֹבְתִי וְשַׁדַּי אַבְאֵישׁ לִי:

"I went away full, with my husband and sons, but the Lord has brought me back destitute of them. Why, then, should you call me Naomi, seeing that my guilt has been testified to before the Lord, and the Almighty has brought evil upon me?"

22 כב

וְתַבַת נָעֳמִי וְרוּת מוֹאֲבִיתָא כַלְּתַהּ עִמַּהּ דְּתַבַת מֵחֲקַל מוֹאָב וְאִינּוּן אֲתוֹ בֵּית לֶחֶם בְּמַעֲלֵי יוֹמָא דְּפִסְחָא וּבְהַהוּא יוֹמָא שָׁרִיאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִחְצַד יָת עוּמְרָא דַּאֲרָמוּתָא דַּהֲוָה מִן שְׂעָרִין:

So Naomi returned, and with her was Ruth, the Moabitess, her daughter-in-law, who returned from the field of Moab. And they came to Beth Lehem on the eve of the Passover, and on that very day the Israelites began to harvest the Omer of the heave-offering which was of barley.