Arakhin 3bערכין ג׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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3bג׳ ב

לאתויי עבדים ולמאן דתני עבדים בהדיא לאתויי מאי לאתויי מנוה היפה לנוה הרעה

The Gemara answers: The mishna teaches this clause to add slaves. If a slave wishes to ascend to Eretz Yisrael, he can force his master to either ascend with him, or to sell him to someone who will ascend, or to free him. The Gemara asks: And according to the one who teaches slaves explicitly in the mishna, what does this phrase serve to add? The Gemara answers that it serves to add the case of one who wishes to compel his family to move from a pleasant residence outside of Eretz Yisrael to a noxious residence in Eretz Yisrael.

ואין הכל מוציאין לאתויי עבד שברח מח"ל לארץ:

The Gemara adds that when that same mishna teaches, in its continuation: But all may not remove others from Eretz Yisrael, this serves to add the case of a slave who fled from outside of Eretz Yisrael to Eretz Yisrael. The master may not bring him back to outside of Eretz Yisrael.

הכל מעלין לירושלים לאתויי מנוה היפה לנוה הרעה ואין הכל מוציאין לאתויי מאי לאתויי מנוה הרעה לנוה היפה:

The Gemara discusses another statement of that same mishna: All can force their family to ascend to Jerusalem. This serves to add the halakha that one may compel his family to move from a pleasant residence outside of Jerusalem to a noxious residence in Jerusalem. The Gemara asks: What is added by the next clause of that mishna: And none can remove them from Jerusalem? The Gemara explains that this serves to add that one cannot compel his family to leave Jerusalem, even from a noxious residence in Jerusalem to a pleasant residence elsewhere in Eretz Yisrael.

הכל חייבין בסוכה כהנים לוים וישראלים פשיטא אי הני לא מחייבי מאן מיחייבי

§ The Gemara discusses several other cases where a mishna or baraita states that everyone is obligated in a particular mitzva. A baraita teaches: Everyone is obligated in the mitzva of sukka, including priests, Levites, and Israelites. The Gemara asks: Isn’t that obvious? If these people are not obligated to perform the mitzva, then who is obligated to perform it?

כהנים איצטריכא ליה סד"א הואיל וכתיב (ויקרא כג, מב) בסוכות תשבו ואמר מר תשבו שבעת ימים כעין תדורו מה דירה איש ואשתו אף סוכה איש ואשתו והני כהנים הואיל ובני עבודה נינהו לא ליחייבו

The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the halakha to mention that priests are obligated to fulfill this mitzva, as it might enter your mind to say that since it is written: “In sukkot shall you reside seven days” (Leviticus 23:42), one can argue as follows: The Master said that this teaches: Reside seven days as you dwell in your permanent home: Just as in the case of dwelling, a man and his wife typically reside together, so too, the mitzva of sukka must be performed by a man and his wife residing together. And with regard to these priests, since they are occupied with the Temple service during the Festival and are not free to dwell in the sukka together with their wives, perhaps they should not be obligated in the mitzva of sukka.

קא משמע לן נהי דפטירי בשעת עבודה בלא שעת עבודה חיובי מיחייבי מידי דהוה אהולכי דרכים דאמר מר הולכי דרכים ביום פטורין מן הסוכה ביום וחייבים בלילה:

Therefore, the baraita teaches us that this is not so, as although priests are exempt at the time of the Temple service, when it is not the time of Temple service they are obligated, just as is the halakha with regard to travelers. As the Master said in a baraita: Travelers who are on the move during the day are exempt from the mitzva of sukka during the day but are obligated at night, as they are not traveling at that time.

הכל חייבין בציצית כהנים לוים וישראלים פשיטא

§ The Gemara cites a similar baraita: Everyone is obligated in the mitzva of ritual fringes, including priests, Levites, and Israelites. The Gemara asks again: Isn’t that obvious?

כהנים איצטריך ליה סד"א הואיל וכתיב (דברים כב, יא) לא תלבש שעטנז גדילים תעשה לך מאן דלא אישתרי כלאים לגביה בלבישה הוא דמחייב במצות ציצית והני כהנים הואיל ואשתרי כלאים לגבייהו לא לחייבו

The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the baraita to mention that priests are obligated to fulfill this mitzva, as it may enter your mind to say as follows: Since it is written: “You shall not wear diverse kinds, wool and linen together. You shall prepare yourself twisted cords upon the four corners of your covering” (Deuteronomy 22:11–12), it is only one who is not permitted to wear diverse kinds who is obligated in the mitzva of ritual fringes. But with regard to these priests, since diverse kinds are permitted for them when they perform the Temple service, as the belt of the priestly vestments contains diverse kinds, they should not be obligated in the mitzva of ritual fringes.

קמ"ל נהי דאישתרי בעידן עבודה בלא עידן עבודה לא אישתרי:

Therefore, the baraita teaches us that although priests are permitted to wear diverse kinds at the time when they perform the Temple service, when it is not the time of the Temple service they are not permitted to wear diverse kinds. Consequently, they are obligated in ritual fringes, as they do not have an absolute dispensation from the prohibition of diverse kinds.

הכל חייבין בתפילין כהנים לוים וישראלים פשיטא כהנים איצטריך ליה סד"א הואיל וכתיב (דברים ו, ח) וקשרתם לאות על ידך והיו לטוטפות בין עינך כל דאיתיה במצוה דיד איתיה במצוה דראש

§ The Gemara cites another baraita: Everyone is obligated in the mitzva of phylacteries, including priests, Levites, and Israelites. The Gemara again asks: Isn’t that obvious? The Gemara answers that it was necessary to say that priests are obligated to fulfill this mitzva, as it might enter your mind to say that since it is written: “And you shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes” (Deuteronomy 6:8), perhaps this juxtaposition teaches that anyone included in the mitzva of the phylacteries of the arm is also included in the mitzva of the phylacteries of the head.

והני כהנים הואיל וליתנהו במצוה דיד דכתיב (ויקרא ו, ג) ילבש על בשרו שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בינו ובין בשרו אימא במצוה דראש נמי לא ליחייבו

And in the case of these priests, since they are not included in the mitzva of the phylacteries of the arm, as it is written with regard to the priestly vestments: “He shall put upon his flesh” (Leviticus 6:3), which teaches that nothing may interpose between the priestly vestments and his flesh, and therefore he may not wear the phylacteries of the arm, which would interpose, perhaps one would say that priests should also not be obligated in the mitzva of the phylacteries of the head.

קמ"ל דלא מעכבי אהדדי כדתנן תפלה של יד אינה מעכבת של ראש ושל ראש אינה מעכבת של יד

Therefore, the baraita teaches us that the absence of one of the two types of phylacteries do not prevent fulfillment of the mitzva with the other. As we learned in a mishna (Menaḥot 38a): Absence of the phylacteries of the arm does not prevent fulfillment of the mitzva of the phylacteries of the head, and likewise the absence of the phylacteries of the head does not prevent fulfillment of the mitzva of the phylacteries of the arm. If one has only one type, he dons it without the other. Consequently, the priests are obligated in the mitzva of phylacteries of the head during the time of their Temple service.

ומאי שנא דיד דכתיב ילבש על בשרו ראש נמי כתיב (שמות כט, ו) ושמת המצנפת על ראשו

The Gemara asks: And what is different about the phylacteries of the arm? You claim that priests are exempt from this obligation, as it is written with regard to the priestly vestments: “He shall put upon his flesh.” If so, they should also be exempt from donning the phylacteries of the head, as it is written with regard to the High Priest: “And you shall set the mitre upon his head” (Exodus 29:6). Since the phylacteries of the head would interpose between his head and the mitre, he should be exempt from the mitzva of the phylacteries of the head.

תנא שערו היה נראה בין ציץ למצנפת ששם מניח תפילין

The Gemara answers by citing a halakha that the Sages taught: The hair of the High Priest was visible between the frontplate and the mitre. The frontplate was set on the forehead, below the hairline, while the mitre was set above it. In that space there the High Priest would don his phylacteries. Consequently, the phylacteries did not interpose between the mitre and the High Priest’s head.

הכל חייבין בתקיעת שופר כהנים לוים וישראלים פשיטא כהנים איצטריכא ליה סד"א הואיל וכתיב (במדבר כט, א) יום תרועה יהיה לכם מאן דליתיה אלא בתקיעה דחד יומא חייב

§ The Gemara cites yet another baraita: Everyone is obligated to sound the shofar, including priests, Levites, and Israelites. The Gemara once again asks: Isn’t that obvious? The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the halakha to mention that priests are obligated to fulfill this mitzva, as it might enter your mind to say as follows: Since it is written: “And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month…it shall be a day of sounding for you” (Numbers 29:1), you might have said that one who is obligated to sound on only one day is obligated to sound the shofar on Rosh HaShana.

והני כהנים הואיל ואיתנהו בתקיעה כוליה שתא דכתיב (במדבר י, י) ותקעתם בחצוצרות על עולותיכם אימא לא ליחייבו מי דמי התם חצוצרות הכא שופר

But with regard to these priests it is different, since they are obligated to sound all year long, as they sound trumpets when they sacrifice the offerings in the Temple on other Festivals, as it is written: “And you shall sound the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings” (Numbers 10:10), you might therefore say that they should not be obligated to sound the shofar on Rosh HaShana. Therefore, the baraita teaches that even priests are obligated to fulfill this mitzva. The Gemara questions this comparison: Are these cases comparable? There, on the other special occasions throughout the year, the priests sound trumpets, whereas here, on Rosh HaShana, the issue is blowing the shofar.

איצטריך סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ותנן שוה היובל לראש השנה לתקיעה ולברכות דאיתיה במצות יובל איתיה במצות ראש השנה דליתיה במצות יובל ליתיה במצות ר"ה והני כהני הואיל וליתנהו במצות דיובל דתנן כהנים ולוים מוכרין לעולם

Rather, it was necessary to say that priests are obligated to fulfill this mitzva for a different reason. It might enter your mind to say as follows: Since we learned in a mishna (Rosh HaShana 26b): Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana, with respect to both the shofar blasts and to the three additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer, I might have said that one who is fully included in the mitzva of the Jubilee Year is also included in the mitzva of Rosh HaShana, and that one who is not included in the mitzva of the Jubilee Year is likewise not included in the mitzva of Rosh HaShana. But with regard to these priests, since they are not fully included in the mitzva of the Jubilee Year, as we learned in a mishna (see 26b): Priests and Levites may sell their fields at any time, even in the Jubilee Year,