ועיבור שנה ל' אישתקד עשינו שניהם מלאין דל תלתא לבהדי תלתא וקם ליה בדוכתיה אמר ליה נר ישראל כן הוה:
and the month that was intercalated, added for the leap year, was thirty days, and last year we turned two months that are generally deficient into full months, which meant that it had eight full months instead of the usual six. Consequently, remove from consideration the three months that were made deficient this year corresponding to the three extra months that were made full last year, and the moon is restored to its place, i.e., it is properly aligned with the months. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Lamp of Israel! Indeed, so it was.
מתני׳ אין פוחתין מעשרים ואחת תקיעות במקדש ולא מוסיפין על ארבעים ושמנה
MISHNA: No fewer than twenty-one trumpet blasts are sounded daily in the Temple, as each day three blasts were sounded for the opening of the gates in the morning, nine for the daily morning offering, and nine for the daily afternoon offering, totaling twenty-one. And no more than forty-eight are ever sounded on a single day. This would occur on the Friday of Sukkot, when they would sound an additional twelve blasts during the ritual of drawing the water for the water libation; nine for the additional offerings; three to signal the population to cease their work before Shabbat; and three more to mark the beginning of Shabbat.
אין פוחתין משני נבלים ולא מוסיפין על ששה אין פוחתין משני חלילין ולא מוסיפין על שנים עשר ובשנים עשר יום בשנה החליל מכה לפני המזבח בשחיטת פסח ראשון ובשחיטת פסח שני ויום טוב הראשון של פסח וביום טוב של עצרת ובשמונת ימי החג ולא היה מכה באבוב של נחשת אלא באבוב של קנה מפני שקולו ערב ולא היה מחלק אלא באבוב יחידי מפני שהוא מחליק יפה
When accompanying their song with instruments, the Levites do not use fewer than two lyres and do not use more than six. When flutes are played, they do not use fewer than two flutes and do not use more than twelve. And there are twelve days during the year when the flute plays before the altar: At the time of the slaughter of the first Paschal offering, on the fourteenth of Nisan; and at the time of the slaughter of the second Paschal offering, on the fourteenth of Iyyar; and on the first festival day of Passover; and on the festival of Shavuot; and on all eight days of the festival of Sukkot. And one would not play with a copper flute; rather, one would play with a flute of reed, because its sound is more pleasant. And one would conclude the music only with a single flute, because it concludes the music nicely.
ועבדי כהנים היו דברי ר"מ רבי יוסי אומר משפחת בית פגרים ובית ציפרא מעמאום היו משיאין לכהונה רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אומר לוים היו:
The Temple musicians were slaves of priests; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: The musicians were not slaves, but Israelites from the family of the house of Pegarim and the family of the house of Tzippara from the city of Emaum, and their lineage was sufficiently pure that they would marry their daughters to members of the priesthood. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: They were Levites.
גמ׳ מתניתין דלא כרבי יהודה דתניא ר' יהודה אומר [הפוחת] לא יפחות משבע [והמוסיף] לא יוסיף על שש עשרה
GEMARA: The mishna teaches that no fewer than twenty-one trumpet blasts are sounded daily in the Temple and no more than forty-eight. The Gemara notes: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: One may not blow fewer than seven blasts, and one may not blow more than sixteen blasts.
במאי קמיפלגי רבי יהודה סבר תקיעה תרועה ותקיעה חדא היא ורבנן סברי תקיעה לחוד ותרועה לחוד ותקיעה לחוד
The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do the tanna of the mishna and Rabbi Yehuda disagree? The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda holds: A series of blasts consisting of tekia, terua, tekia is counted as one unit. And the Rabbis hold: A tekia is counted as a discrete unit and a terua is also counted as a discrete unit, and the final tekia is again counted as a discrete unit. They agree with regard to the sequence and the number of the blasts; their disgreement is only with regard to how the blasts are tallied.
מאי טעמא דר' יהודה כתיב (במדבר י, ה) ותקעתם תרועה וכתיב (במדבר י, ו) תרועה יתקעו (לכם) ש"מ תקיעה תרועה ותקיעה חדא היא ורבנן ההוא לפשוטה לפניה ופשוטה לאחריה הוא דאתא
The Gemara asks: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written in the verse: “And you shall sound [utkatem] a terua” (Numbers 10:5), and it is written: “A terua they will sound [yitke’u]” (Numbers 10:6). Conclude from the fact that the Torah uses a verb from the root tekia when referring to a terua that a tekia, terua, and tekia together constitute one unit. And how do the Rabbis interpret these verses? They explain that these verses come to teach that each terua blast is accompanied by a plain blast, a tekia, preceding it and another plain blast following it.
ורבנן מ"ט דכתיב (במדבר י, ז) ובהקהיל את הקהל תתקעו ולא תריעו ואי ס"ד תקיעה תרועה ותקיעה חדא היא אמר רחמנא עביד פלגא דמצוה ורבי יהודה סימנא בעלמא הוא
The Gemara asks: And what is the reasoning of the Rabbis? As it is written: “And when congregating the people you shall sound a tekia and shall not sound a terua” (Numbers 10:7). And if it enters your mind that a series of tekia, terua, and tekia are considered one unit, would the Merciful One say to perform only half a mitzva? Rather, each sound constitutes a separate mitzva. The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda explain this verse? The Gemara answers: That single tekia mentioned in the context of congregating the people was blown merely as a signal to the people to assemble, not for the purpose of fulfilling a mitzva, which, in Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion, always comes in units of three sounds.
כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב כהנא אין בין תקיעה לתרועה ולא כלום כמאן כרבי יהודה פשיטא
The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rav Kahana said? As Rav Kahana said: There is to be no pause between a tekia and a terua at all, but rather they are sounded in one continuous series of blasts. In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara asks: Isn’t that obvious? Why was it necessary to point this out?
מהו דתימא אפילו כרבנן אתיא ולאפוקי מדרבי יוחנן דאמר שמע תשע תקיעות בתשע שעות ביום יצא קמ"ל
The Gemara answers: It is not obvious that Rav Kahana’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Lest you say that Rav Kahana comes to teach his halakha even in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, and that he is coming to exclude only the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan, who says: If one heard nine blasts in nine different hours on the day of Rosh HaShana, despite the considerable gap between them, he has fulfilled his obligation. One might have thought that Rav Kahana meant only that there should not be such long gaps between the sounds. Therefore, the Gemara teaches us that Rav Kahana’s ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as he does not allow any pause at all between the shofar blasts.
ואימא הכי נמי אם כן מאי ולא כלום:
The Gemara asks: And how do you know that this was Rav Kahana’s intent? One can say it is indeed so, that Rav Kahana holds in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and he merely excludes the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan. The Gemara answers that if so, what is the meaning of the phrase “at all” when Rav Kahana said that there is no pause between a tekia and a terua at all? This phrase indicates that Rav Kahana does not allow even a slight pause between blasts, which is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.
שנים עשר יום בשנה מכה בחליל וכו': מאי שנא הני הואיל ויחיד גומר בהן את ההלל
§ The mishna teaches that there are twelve days during the year when the flute plays before the altar, and it proceeds to list them. The Gemara asks: What is different about these days enumerated in the mishna that the flute is played before the altar specifically on those occasions? The Gemara answers: They are unique, since these are the days on which the individual completes the full hallel.
דאמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יהוצדק שמונה עשר ימים שהיחיד גומר בהן את ההלל שמונה ימי החג ושמונה ימי חנוכה ויום טוב הראשון של פסח ויום טוב (הראשון) של עצרת ובגולה עשרים ואחד תשעה ימי החג ושמונה ימי חנוכה ושני ימים טובים של פסח ושני ימים טובים של עצרת
As Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: There are eighteen days a year on which the individual completes the full hallel: The eight days of the festival of Sukkot, including the Eighth Day of Assembly; and the eight days of Hanukkah; and the first festival day of Passover; and the festival day of Assembly, i.e., Shavuot. And in the Diaspora, where a second day is added to each Festival due to uncertainty over the precise date, there are twenty-one days: The nine days of the festival of Sukkot; and the eight days of Hanukkah; and the first two festival days of Passover; and the two festival days of Assembly, i.e., Shavuot.
מאי שנא בחג דאמרי' כל יומא ומאי שנא בפסח דלא אמרינן
The Gemara asks: What is different about the festival of Sukkot, that we say hallel every day, and what is different about Passover, that we do not say hallel