Mishnah Taanit 4.2 משנה תענית
At three periods of the year, the priests shall raise their hands [to bless the people], in each prayer, [and] four times [in one of them], in the morning, additional, afternoon, and closing [or concluding] prayers. [The three mentioned periods are] on the fast-days, on the fast of the standing men, and on the day of atonement. בשלשה פרקים (בשנה) כהנים נושאין את כפיהן ארבע פעמים ביום, בשחרית, במוסף ובמנחה ובנעילת שערים: These are ‏מעמדות‎, standing men [and this is the cause of their institution]. It is written (Numbers 28:2), "Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, viz. my bread," &c. How can an offering be brought for a person without his standing near it [at the time of its being sacrificed]? Therefore did the elder prophets institute twenty-four "mishmaroth" [or divisions of orders]; each mishmarah had always a "mahamad" [or section of standing men], composed of cohanim [priests], Levites, and Israelites, stationed at Jerusalem. When it came to the turn of each mishmarah to go up [from their cities to the Temple], the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem, and the Israelites who belonged to that mishmarah, assembled in [the synagogues of] their cities to read the history of the creation [Genesis 1]. אלו הן מעמדות, לפי שנאמר (במדבר כח, ב), "צו את בני ישראל ואמרת אלהם את קרבני לחמי", וכי היאך קרבנו של אדם קרב, והוא אינו עומד על גביו, התקינו נביאים הראשונים עשרים וארבע משמרות.על כל משמר ומשמר היה מעמד בירושלים של כהנים, של לוים , ושל ישראלים.הגיע זמן המשמר לעלות, כהנים ולוים עולים לירושלים, וישראל שבאותו משמר מתכנסין לעריהן וקוראין במעשה בראשית . The standing men used to fast four times in the week; viz., from Monday until Thursday (inclusive), but they did not fast on Friday, on account of the honor due the Sabbath, nor on Sunday, that they might not (too suddenly) pass over from rest and pleasure to weariness and fasting--for that might endanger their lives. On Sunday the standing men read (the sections commencing): 'In the beginning,' etc. (Genesis 1:1-5), and, 'Let there be an expansion,' etc. (Genesis 1:6) (ואנשי המעמד היו מתענין ארבעה ימים בשבוע, מיום שני ועד יום חמישי.ולא היו מתענין ערב שבת, מפני כבוד השבת.ולא באחד בשבת, כדי שלא יצאו ממנוחה וענג ליגיעה ותענית וימותו).ביום הראשון, בראשית ויהי רקיע.בשני, יהי רקיע ויקוו המים.בשלישי, יקוו המים ויהי מארת.ברביעי, יהי מארת וישרצו המים.בחמישי, ישרצו המים ותוצא הארץ.בששי, תוצא הארץ, ויכלו השמים .פרשה גדולה, קורין אותה בשנים, והקטנה ביחיד, בשחרית ובמוסף.ובמנחה נכנסין וקורין על פיהן כקורין את שמע.ערב שבת במנחה לא היו נכנסין, מפני כבוד השבת. On those days on which "Hallel" is sung, the standing men used not to attend during the morning prayer [in Jerusalem]. When there was an additional offering ‏קרבן מוסף‎, they did not assemble at the time of the closing prayer. When a wood-offering 6 was brought, they did not assemble during the afternoon prayer. Thus saith R. Akivah; but Ben Azzai said to him, "Rabbi Joshua taught as follows: When there was an additional offering, the standing men did not assemble during the afternoon prayers; when a wood-offering was brought, they did not assemble at the time of the closing prayer." Then R. Akivah changed [his opinion] and taught like Ben Azzai. כל יום שיש בו הלל, אין בו מעמד בשחרית.קרבן מוסף, אין בו בנעילה .קרבן עצים, אין בו במנחה, דברי רבי עקיבא.אמר לו בן עזאי, כך היה רבי יהושע שונה, קרבן מוסף, אין בו במנחה.קרבן עצים אין בו בנעילה.חזר רבי עקיבא להיות שונה כבן עזאי. The times [of the delivery] of wood [for the altar] by priests and people, were on nine appointed days; on the 1st of Nissan, the family Arah ben Jehudah [delivered]; on the 20th of Tamuz, the family of David ben Jehudah; on the 5th of Ab, the family of Parhos ben Jehudah; on the 7th, the family of Jonadab ben Rechab; on the 10th, the family of Sinha ben Benjamin; on the 15th, the family of Zatoo ben Jehudah, and with them priests and Levites, and all those who did not know from what tribe [they were descended], also the family of Gonebé Eli, and that of Kosehai Kesignot; and on the 20th, the family Pachat Moab ben Jehudah; on the 20th of Elul, the family Adeen ben Jehudah; on the 1st of Tebet, the family Parhos, for the second time. There was no meeting of the standing men on the 1st of Tebet; because "Hallel" was sung, and an additional sacrifice and wood-offering were brought [on that day]. זמן עצי כהנים והעם, תשעה.באחד בניסן, בני ארח בן יהודה .בעשרים בתמוז , בני דוד בן יהודה.בחמשה באב, בני פרעש בן יהודה.בשבעה בו, בני יונדב בן רכב.בעשרה בו, בני סנאה בן בנימין.בחמשה עשר בו, בני זתוא בן יהודה, ועמהם כהנים ולוים וכל מי שטעה בשבטו, ובני גונבי עלי בני קוצעי קציעות.בעשרים בו, בני פחת מואב בן יהודה.בעשרים באלול, בני עדין בן יהודה.באחד בטבת שבו בני פרעש שניה .באחד בטבת לא היה בו מעמד, שהיה בו הלל וקרבן מוסף וקרבן עצים. Five events befell out ancestors on the 17th of Tamuz and five on the Ninth of Av. On the 17th of Tamuz, the Tablets were broken, the Tamid offering was ended, the city walls were breached, Apaustamous burned the Torah, an idol was placed in the temple courtyard. On the Ninth of Av, it was decreed upon our ancestors that they would not be allowed to enter the Land of Israel, the First and Second temples were destroyed, Beitar was captured, The city of Jerusalem was plowed over. From when the month of Av starts, we reduce Joy. חמשה דברים ארעו את אבותינו בשבעה עשר בתמוז וחמשה בתשעה באב.בשבעה עשר בתמוז נשתברו הלוחות, ובטל התמיד , והבקעה העיר , ושרף אפסטמוס את התורה , והעמיד צלם בהיכל.בתשעה באב נגזר על אבותינו שלא יכנסו לארץ, וחרב הבית בראשונה ובשניה , ונלכדה ביתר , ונחרשה העיר .משנכנס אב, ממעטין בשמחה. During the week in which the 9th of Ab happens, it is prohibited to a person to shave himself, or to wash [his clothes 14], but on Thursday it is allowed in honour of the Sabbath. On the day before the 9th of Ab, a person may not partake of two [different kinds] of cookeries [or dishes], eat meat, or drink wine thereon. Rabbon Simeon ben Gamaliel says "[It is sufficient to] alter [from one's customary mode of living]." R. Jehudah considers it obligatory to turn over the bed places, but the sages do not agree in this. שבת שחל תשעה באב להיות בתוכה, אסור מלספר ומלכבס , ובחמישי מתרין מפני כבוד השבת.ערב תשעה באב לא יאכל אדם שני תבשילין לא יאכל בשר ולא ישתה יין.רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר, ישנה.רבי יהודה מחיב בכפית המטה, ולא הודו לו חכמים. Rabbon Simeon hen Gamaliel says, "Never were more joyous festivals in Israel than the 15th of Ab and the day of atonement, for on them the maidens of Jerusalem used to go out dressed in white garments—borrowed ones, in order not to cause shame to those who had them not of their own;—these clothes were also to be previously immersed, and thus they went out and danced in the vineyards, saying, Young men, look and observe well whom you are about to choose [as a spouse]; regard not beauty [alone], but rather look to a virtuous family, for 'Gracefulness is deceitful, and beauty is a vain thing, but the woman that feareth the Lord, she is worthy of praise' (Prov. 31:3); and it is also said (Prov. 31:31), 'Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her own works praise her in the gates.' And thus is it said [in allusion to this custom], 'Go out, maidens of Jerusalem, and look on King Solomon, and on the crown wherewith his mother has encircled [his head] on the day of his espousals, and on the day of the gladness of his heart' (Song of Songs 3:11); 'the day of his espousals,' alludes to the day of the gift of the law, and 'the day of the gladness of his heart,' was that when the building of the Temple was completed." May it soon be rebuilt in our days. Amen! אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל, לא היו ימים טובים לישראל כחמשה עשר באב וכיום הכפורים, שבהן בנות ירושלים יוצאות בכלי לבן שאולין, שלא לביש את מי שאין לו.כל הכלים טעונין טבילה.ובנות ירושלים יוצאות וחולות בכרמים.ומה היו אומרות, בחור, שא נא עיניך וראה, מה אתה בורר לך.אל תתן עיניך בנוי, תן עיניך במשפחה.(משלי לא) שקר החן והבל היפי, אשה יראת יי היא תתהלל .ואומר, תנו לה מפרי ידיה, ויהללוה בשערים מעשיה.וכן הוא אומר, (שיר השירים ג) צאינה וראינה בנות ציון במלך שלמה בעטרה שעטרה לו אמו ביום חתנתו וביום שמחת לבו.ביום חתנתו, זו מתן תורה.וביום שמחת לבו, זה בנין בית המקדש, שיבנה במהרה בימינו.אמן.
About Text
Notes
Texts
Add a New Text
Text or commentator name:
Add Cancel
Click a to add a Source.
Cancel
Add a Source to:
OK Choose again Cancel
Original Translation Copied Text
This text will be published with a CC-0 licence, effectively donating it to the Public Domain. Only submit texts as "Original Translation" that you have authored.
Copied texts must either be in the Public Domain or carry a Creative Commons license such as CC0, CC-BY, or CC-BY-SA. You can learn more about when a text passes into the Public Domain on this summary of Copyright Terms.
Version Title:
Copied from:
Language:
Sefaria doesn't yet know about the text "".
Please provide some basic information about this text.
?
The primary title of a text. Texts may have multiple titles which can be entered below, but this will be the default way of referring to this text.

Titles in this field must use Roman chacters, but may be transliterations. Add titles in Hebrew characters below.
Text Title
?
The primary title of a text in Hebrew characters. Alternate Hebrew titles may also be added under "Alternate Titles" below.
Hebrew Title(optional)
?
Alternate Titles can include alternate translations, alternate transliterations spellings, and abbreviations.

Enter each alternate separated by a comma.
Alternate Titles(optional)
?
A category for the text. Categories are used in searching and grouping texts.
Category
?
A Text's Structure is represented by the hieracrchy of different types of sections that make up the text.

For example, texts of the Tanach like Genesis are divided into "Chapters" which are then divided into "Verses".

Larger texts, such as the Mishneh Torah, may have more levels in their hierarchy, for example "Book" > "Section" > "Chapter" > "Law".
Text Structure
> X add level of structure
?
Shorthands are alternative ways of refering to a particular point or passage in a text.

For example "Rambam, Hilchot Tshuva" is shorter and more common way to refer to the 7th topic in the first book of Mishneh Torah. From Sefaria's perpective, this segment of text is "Mishneh Torah 1:7", but we we want to capture more human readable forms.

Shorthands are also used to capture multiple ways to refer to a text. For example, since Sefaria stores Genesis in terms of chapters and verses, "Parsha Toledot" is a shorthand for "Genesis 25:19-28:9".

Enter the shorthand text in the box on the left, then enter either a single reference or a range on the right.
Shorthands(optional)
X
add shorthand
Save Cancel

Please log in to add or edit.

Log In Sign Up
Cancel
Sefaria does not currently run on Internet Explorer.

Please try using Chrome, Firefox or Safari.

Sorry, there's just too much to do!