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Mishnah Bikkurim 2:7 משנה ביכורים
For Terumah (tithes given to the priest) and Bikkurim (the First Fruit offering), [a non-priest who eats them on purpose] is liable to be killed, and [a non-priest who eats them by accident] is obligated to add a fifth of the value. And they are forbidden to non-priests, and they are the property of the priest, and they are nullified in 101 [parts], and they require the hands to be washed and [a priest who became impure and then immersed himself to become pure again must wait until] sunset [to eat them]. This is all true for Terumah and Bikkurim, and not for Maaser (tithes given to a Levite). התרומה והבכורים, חיבים עליהן מיתה וחמש, ואמורים לזרים, והם נכסי כהן, ועולין באחד ומאה, וטעונין רחיצת ידים והערב שמש, הרי אלו בתרומה ובכורים, מה שאין כן במעשר. Maaser(tithing) and Bikkurim (first fruit offering) share qualities which are lacking in Terumah; namely, that Maaser and Bikkurim must be brought to a specific place, require verbal recitation, and are prohibited to an immediate mourner (Rabbi Shimon permits in this case). They both require removal (Rabbi Shimon doesn't require it). Any bit of them [when mixed with normal food] eaten in Jerusalem is prohibited. Any growth which comes from them may not be eaten in Jerusalem, nor by a non-Jew, nor an animal (Rabbi Shimon permits in these cases). All these qualities are true for Maaser and Bikkurim, but not for Terumah. יש במעשר ובכורים מה שאין כן בתרומה, שהמעשר והבכורים טעונים הבאת מקום, וטעונים ודוי, ואסורין לאונן.רבי שמעון מתיר.וחיבין בבעור.ורבי שמעון פוטר.ואסורין כל שהן מלאכול בירושלים.וגדוליהן אסורים מלאכול בירושלים או לזרים ולבהמה.ורבי שמעון מתיר.הרי אלו במעשר ובבכורים, מה שאין כן בתרומה . Terumah and Maaser share qualities which are lacking in Bikkurim; namely, that Terumah and Maaser's threshing-floor remains are prohibited; they have a specified amount to be given; they are taken from all produce, both in Temple times and in post-Temple times; they are applied to produce of rentors, lessors, those who have seized property, and thieves. All these qualities are true for Terumah and Maaser, but not for Bikkurim. יש בתרומה ומעשר מה שאין כן בבכורים, שהתרומה והמעשר אוסרין את הגרן, ויש להם שעור, ונוהגים בכל הפרות, בפני הבית ושלא בפני הבית , ובאריסין ובחכורות ובסקריקון ובגזלן.הרי אלו בתרומה ובמעשר, מה שאין כן בבכורים. Bikkurim has qualities that neither Terumah nor Maaser have; namely, that Bikkurim can be designated while still in the ground; a person may make their entire field into Bikkurim; one would be liable for their replacements; they require a sacrifice, waving, and staying over in Jerusalem. ויש בבכורים מה שאין כן בתרומה ובמעשר, שהבכורים נקנין במחובר לקרקע, ועושה אדם כל שדהו בכורים, וחיב באחריותם, וטעונים קרבן ושיר ותנופה ולינה. Terumat Maaser (the part of the tithe given to a Levite that the Levite must give to a priest) is similar to Bikkurim in two ways, and to Terumah in two ways. It may be taken from pure produce to [permit] unpure produce [to be eaten], and [it may be taken] from produce that is not in proximity [to the produce it is making permissible], like Bikkurim. And it makes what is on the threshing floor forbidden [before it is separated], and it has a required amount, like Terumah. תרומת מעשר שוה לבכורים בשתי דרכים, ולתרומה בשתי דרכים, נטלת מן הטהור על הטמא, ושלא מן המקף , כבכורים .ואוסרת את הגרן, ויש לה שעור, כתרומה. An Etrog is [halachically considered] like a fruit tree in three ways, and like a vegetable in one. Its like a fruit tree in that it necessitates Orlah and the laws of the fourth year, as well as Shemitta. Its like a vegetable in one way, in that its Maaser time is determined by when it is picked - these are the words of Rabban Gamliel. Rabbi Eliezer says, its like a fruit tree in all ways. אתרוג שוה לאילן בשלשה דרכים, ולירק בדרך אחד .שוה לאילן בערלה וברבעי , ובשביעית.ולירק בדרך אחד, שבשעת לקיטתו עשורו, דברי רבן גמליאל.רבי אליעזר אומר, שוה לאילן בכל דבר. Human blood is like animal blood regarding the laws of agricultural impurity, and like insect blood in that it doesn't render one impure [in the Temple]. דם מהלכי שתים, שוה לדם בהמה, להכשיר את הזרעים, ודם השרץ, אין חיבין עליו. A koy is like a wild animal in some ways, and like a domestic animal in other ways, and like both in some ways, and like neither in other ways. כוי יש בו דרכים שוה לחיה, ויש בו דרכים שוה לבהמה, ויש בו דרכים שוה לבהמה ולחיה, ויש בו דרכים שאינו שוה לא לבהמה ולא לחיה. How is it like a wild animal? [If slaughtered], its blood must be buried like that of a wild animal; it may not be slaughtered on Yom Tov - and if slaughtered then, the blood should not be covered. Its prohibited fats cause impurity through "N'veila impurity" like a wild animal; its impurity is doubtful. It cannot be redeemed through the redemption of a donkey. כיצד שוה לחיה, דמו טעון כסוי כדם חיה, ואין שוחטין אותו ביום טוב, ואם שחטו, אין מכסין את דמו, וחלבו מטמא בטמאת נבלה כחיה, וטמאתו בספק, ואין פודין בו פטר חמור. How is it like a domesticated animal? Its prohibited fats are prohibited like that of a domesticated animal, while eating of it doesn't induce Karet; it cannot be purchased with tithe money to be eaten in Jerusalem; the Kohanim are entitled to its shank, cheeks, and stomach. Rabbi Eliezer exempts this, due to the law that if one possesses an item, it is incumbent on the other [who desires it] to prove his claim to it. כיצד שוה לבהמה, חלבו אסור כחלב בהמה, ואין חיבין עליו כרת, ואינו נלקח בכסף מעשר לאכול בירושלים, וחיב בזרוע ולחיים וקבה.רבי אליעזר פוטר, שהמוציא מחברו עליו הראיה. How is it unlike both a wild animal and a domesticated animal? It is forbidden to mate it or yoke it with a wild animal and with a domesticated animal (see Leviticus 19:19 and Deuteronomy 22:10). If one writes that his wild animal or domesticated animal will pass to his son, he did not write over the Koy. If one said "I shall be a Nazirite if it is a wild animal," or [he says "I shall be a Nazirite if it is] a domesticated animal," he becomes a Nazirite. And in all other matters, it is equal to a wild animal and to a domesticated animal, and requires ritual slaughter like both of them, and its corps defiles (see Leviticus 11:8), and [one is liable for] eating a limb taken from it while it is still alive like both of them. כיצד אינו שוה לא לחיה ולא לבהמה, אסור משום כלאים עם החיה ועם הבהמה.הכותב חיתו ובהמתו לבנו, לא כתב לו את הכוי.אם אמר הריני נזיר שזה חיה או בהמה, הרי הוא נזיר.ושאר כל דרכיו שוים לחיה ולבהמה, וטעון שחיטה כזה וכזה, ומטמא משום נבלה ומשום אבר מן החי כזה וכזה.
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