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Mishnah Bikkurim.2.7 משנה ביכורים
Terumah [a portion of a crop given to a Kohen, priest; pl. Kohanim, which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household] and Bikkurim [first-fruits that must be brought to the Temple in Jerusalem and given to the Kohen] are subject to the [laws of the] death penalty [if a non-Kohen deliberately consumes them] and the Chomesh [the penalty of an additional fifth added to the repayment of one who accidentally ate sanctified food], and they are forbidden to non-Kohanim, and they are the property of the Kohen, and they are neutralized in one hundred and one [of non-sanctified foodstuff], and they require hand-washing [before handling] and [a Kohen who became impure and then immersed himself to become pure again may eat them only] after sunset. All of the above is all for Terumah and Bikkurim, and not for Ma'aser [Sheni, the second tithe of produce, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there]. התרומה והבכורים, חיבים עליהן מיתה וחמש, ואמורים לזרים, והם נכסי כהן, ועולין באחד ומאה, וטעונין רחיצת ידים והערב שמש, הרי אלו בתרומה ובכורים, מה שאין כן במעשר. Ma'aser and Bikkurim share [laws] that are lacking in Terumah: that Ma'aser and Bikkurim must be brought to a [specific] place, require verbal recitation, and are prohibited to an Onen [a person whose close relative has died but has not yet been buried], while Rabbi Shim'on permits. They both require removal [from one's home], while Rabbi Shim'on exempts. Any amount of them [when mixed with normal food] is prohibited to eaten in Jerusalem. Any growth that comes from them may not be eaten in Jerusalem, neither by a non-Kohen, nor an animal, while Rabbi Shim'on permits. All of the above is for Ma’aser and Bikkurim, but not for Terumah. יש במעשר ובכורים מה שאין כן בתרומה, שהמעשר והבכורים טעונים הבאת מקום, וטעונים ודוי, ואסורין לאונן. רבי שמעון מתיר. וחיבין בבעור. ורבי שמעון פוטר. ואסורין כל שהן מלאכול בירושלים. וגדוליהן אסורים מלאכול בירושלים או לזרים ולבהמה. ורבי שמעון מתיר. הרי אלו במעשר ובבכורים, מה שאין כן בתרומה. Terumah and Ma’aser share [laws] that are lacking in Bikkurim: that Terumah and Ma’aser's threshing-floor remains are prohibited, and they have a specified amount to be given, and they are taken from all [species of] produce, [and their laws apply] both in Temple times and in post-Temple times and they are applied to produce of sharecroppers, renters, Sikrikonim [those who forced another to give up land at the threat of death], and thieves. All of the above is for Terumah and Ma’aser, but not for Bikkurim. יש בתרומה ומעשר מה שאין כן בבכורים, שהתרומה והמעשר אוסרין את הגרן, ויש להם שעור, ונוהגים בכל הפרות, בפני הבית ושלא בפני הבית, ובאריסין ובחכורות ובסקריקון ובגזלן. הרי אלו בתרומה ובמעשר, מה שאין כן בבכורים. Bikkurim has qualities that neither Terumah nor Ma’aser have: that Bikkurim may be designated while still in the ground and a person may make their entire field into Bikkurim and one is responsible for their end [i.e., bringing them to Jerusalem], and they require a sacrifice, singing, waving, and staying over the night [in Jerusalem]. ויש בבכורים מה שאין כן בתרומה ובמעשר, שהבכורים נקנין במחובר לקרקע, ועושה אדם כל שדהו בכורים, וחיב באחריותם, וטעונים קרבן ושיר ותנופה ולינה. Terumat Ma’aser [a tenth of the tithe given to a Levite which must, in turn, be given to a Kohen and which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household] is similar to Bikkurim in two ways, and to Terumah in two ways. It may be taken from pure produce to [permit] impure produce [to be eaten], and [it may be taken] from produce that is not in proximity [to the produce it is making permissible], like Bikkurim. And it makes what is on the threshing floor forbidden [before it is separated], and it has a required amount, like Terumah. תרומת מעשר שוה לבכורים בשתי דרכים, ולתרומה בשתי דרכים, נטלת מן הטהור על הטמא, ושלא מן המקף, כבכורים. ואוסרת את הגרן, ויש לה שעור, כתרומה. An Etrog [a yellow citron] is similar to a fruit tree in three ways, and to a vegetable in one way. It is similar to a fruit tree in that [it is obligated in] Orlah [the fruit of a tree during the first three years after its planting, the consumption or usage of which is forbidden] and [Neta] Reva'i [the fruit of a tree in the fourth year after its planting, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there], and the Sabbatical year. It is similar to a vegetable in one way, in that its Ma’aser time is determined by when it is picked; these are the words of Rabban Gamliel. Rabbi Eliezer says, it is similar to a fruit tree in all ways. אתרוג שוה לאילן בשלשה דרכים, ולירק בדרך אחד. שוה לאילן בערלה וברבעי, ובשביעית. ולירק בדרך אחד, שבשעת לקיטתו עשורו, דברי רבן גמליאל. רבי אליעזר אומר, שוה לאילן בכל דבר. Human [lit., biped] blood is similar to animal blood with regard to the laws of agricultural impurity, and like insect blood in that one is not liable [for its consumption]. דם מהלכי שתים, שוה לדם בהמה, להכשיר את הזרעים, ודם השרץ, אין חיבין עליו. A Koy [animal of ambiguous status, exhibiting characteristics of wild and domesticated animals] is similar to a wild animal in some ways, and is similar to a domestic animal in other ways, and is similar to both in some ways, and is like neither in other ways. כוי יש בו דרכים שוה לחיה, ויש בו דרכים שוה לבהמה, ויש בו דרכים שוה לבהמה ולחיה, ויש בו דרכים שאינו שוה לא לבהמה ולא לחיה. How is it similar to a wild animal? [If slaughtered], its blood requires burial as that of a wild animal and it may not be slaughtered on a Festival; though if slaughtered, its blood should not be covered. Its [prohibited] fats cause impurity as a Nevelah [an improperly slaughtered animal of a permitted species] like a wild animal, and its impurity is doubtful and a firstborn donkey cannot be redeemed through it. כיצד שוה לחיה, דמו טעון כסוי כדם חיה, ואין שוחטין אותו ביום טוב, ואם שחטו, אין מכסין את דמו, וחלבו מטמא בטמאת נבלה כחיה, וטמאתו בספק, ואין פודין בו פטר חמור. How is it similar to a domesticated animal? Its [prohibited] fats are prohibited like that of a domesticated animal, while eating of it doesn't induce Karet [to be cut off, spiritually, from the Jewish nation]. It cannot be purchased with tithe money to be eaten in Jerusalem. [The Kohanim] are entitled to its shank, cheeks, and stomach; Rabbi Eliezer exempts this, [due to the law] that if one possesses an item, it is incumbent on the other [who desires it] to prove his claim to it. כיצד שוה לבהמה, חלבו אסור כחלב בהמה, ואין חיבין עליו כרת, ואינו נלקח בכסף מעשר לאכול בירושלים, וחיב בזרוע ולחיים וקבה. רבי אליעזר פוטר, שהמוציא מחברו עליו הראיה. How is it unlike both a wild animal and a domesticated animal? It is forbidden as Kilayim [the product of forbidden crossbreeding or working of certain animals with one another] with a wild animal and with a domesticated animal. If one writes that his wild animal or domesticated animal will pass to his child, he did not write over the Koy. If one said "I am hereby a Nazirite if it is a wild animal or a domesticated animal," one becomes a Nazirite. And in all other matters, it is similar to a wild animal and to a domesticated animal, and requires ritual slaughter like both of them, and imparts impurity as Nevelah, and [one is liable for eating] a limb from it [while it is still] alive like both of them. כיצד אינו שוה לא לחיה ולא לבהמה, אסור משום כלאים עם החיה ועם הבהמה. הכותב חיתו ובהמתו לבנו, לא כתב לו את הכוי. אם אמר הריני נזיר שזה חיה או בהמה, הרי הוא נזיר. ושאר כל דרכיו שוים לחיה ולבהמה, וטעון שחיטה כזה וכזה, ומטמא משום נבלה ומשום אבר מן החי כזה וכזה.
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