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Mishnah Bekhorot 4.1 משנה בכורות
How long must an Israelite tend to the first born? Thirty days for a sheep or goat, and fifty days for a cow. Rabbi Yossi says: Three months for a sheep or goat. If the priest says to [the owner] during that time: "Give it to me", [the owner] does not give it to [the priest]. If it was blemished and [the priest] says to [the owner]: "Give it to me so I can eat it", it is permitted [to give it to the priest]. During the time of the Temple, if it is unblemished, and [the priest] says to [the owner]: "Give it to me so I can offer it", it is permitted [to give it to the priest]. The first born is eaten year by year, whether unblemished or blemished, as it is said (Deuteronomy 15:20): "You will eat it before God year by year". עד כמה ישראל חיבים להטפל בבכור. בבהמה דקה, עד שלשים יום. ובגסה, חמשים יום. רבי יוסי אומר, בדקה שלשה חדשים. אמר לו הכהן בתוך זמן זה תנהו לי, הרי זה לא יתנו לו. אם היה בעל מום, אמר לו תן לי שאוכלנו, מתר. ובשעת המקדש, אם היה תמים, אמר לו תן לי שאקריבנו, מתר. הבכור נאכל שנה בשנה בין תמים בין בעל מום, שנאמר (דברים טו), לפני ה' אלהיך תאכלנו שנה בשנה. If it develops a blemish within its first year, [the owner] is permitted to keep it the entire first year. [If it develops a blemish] after the first year, [the owner] is allowed to keep it only thirty days. נולד לו מום בתוך שנתו, מתר לקימו כל שנים עשר חדש.לאחר שנתו, אינו רשאי לקימו אלא עד שלשים יום. If one slaughters a first born and reveals its blemish, Rabbi Yehudah permits it [to be eaten]. Rabbi Meir says: Since it was not slaughtered by word of an expert, it is forbidden. השוחט הבכור ומראה את מומו, רבי יהודה מתיר. רבי מאיר אומר, הואיל והוא נשחט שלא על פי ממחה, אסור. If one is not an expert and sees a firstborn, and it is slaughtered by his word, it is buried and one pays from one's own funds. If one judges a case and declared a liable [animal] innocent, an innocent [animal] liable, a pure [animal] impure, or an impure [animal] pure, what is done is done, and one pays from one's own funds. If one is an expert of the court one is exempt from paying. It once happened that Rabbi Tarfon fed a cow whose womb was taken out to the dogs. The case came before the Sages and they permitted it. Todos the doctor said: No cow or pig leaves Alexandria until they cut out its womb so it cannot give birth. Rabbi Tarfon [then] said: Your donkey has left you, Tarfon! Rabbi 'Akiva said to him: Rabbi Tarfon, you are exempt because you are an expert of the court, and experts of the court are exempt from payment. מי שאינו ממחה וראה את הבכור ונשחט על פיו, הרי זה יקבר, וישלם מביתו. דן את הדין, זכה את החיב וחיב את הזכאי, טמא את הטהור וטהר את הטמא, מה שעשה עשוי וישלם מביתו. ואם היה ממחה לבית דין, פטור מלשלם. מעשה בפרה שנטלה האם שלה, והאכילה רבי טרפון לכלבים, ובא מעשה לפני חכמים והתירוה. אמר תודוס הרופא, אין פרה וחזירה יוצאה מאלכסנדריא עד שהם חותכין את האם שלה, בשביל שלא תלד. אמר רבי טרפון, הלכה חמורך טרפון. אמר לו רבי עקיבא, רבי טרפון, פטור אתה, שאתה ממחה לבית דין, וכל הממחה לבית דין פטור מלשלם. We do not slaughter by the advice of one who takes a fee to see firstborn [animals for blemishes], unless the expert is like Ilah of Yavneh, whom the sages permitted to take four issarot [small-denomination coins] for a sheep or goat and six for a cow, whether it was unblemished or blemished. הנוטל שכרו להיות רואה בכורות, אין שוחטין על פיו, אלא אם כן היה ממחה כאילא ביבנה, שהתירו לו חכמים להיות נוטל ארבעה אסרות בבהמה דקה, וששה בגסה, בין תמים בין בעל מום. If one takes a fee to judge, one's rulings are invalid. [If one takes a fee] to testify, one's testimony is invalid. [If one takes a fee] to sprinkle [ashes of the red heifer] or to mix [them with water], the water is like cave water and the ashes are the ashes of a regular fire. If a priest was made impure to eat Terumah [by the one who took the fee], one must feed him, give him drink and anoint him. If the person was old, one must transport him on a donkey give him his wages like a worker [idled from his work]. הנוטל שכרו לדון, דיניו בטלים. להעיד, עדותיו בטלין. להזות ולקדש, מימיו מי מערה ואפרו אפר מקלה. אם היה כהן וטמאהו מתרומתו, מאכילו ומשקו וסכו. ואם היה זקן, מרכיבו על החמור. ונותן לו שכרו כפועל. If one is suspect regarding firstborns, venison or untreated hides may not be bought from that person. Rabbi Eli'ezer says: Hides of female animals may be bought. Bleached or dirty wool may not be bought, but spun wool and clothes may be bought. החשוד על הבכורות, אין לוקחין ממנו בשר צבאים ולא עורות שאינן עבודין. רבי אליעזר אומר, לוקחים ממנו עורות של נקבה, ואין לוקחין ממנו צמר מלבן וצואי, אבל לוקחין ממנו טווי ובגדים. If one is suspect regarding [observing] Shevi'it, flax may not be bought from that person even if it is combed, but spun or woven flax may be bought. החשוד על השביעית אין לוקחין ממנו פשתן ואפלו סרק, אבל לוקחין ממנוי טווי ואריג. If one is suspect regarding selling Terumah as non-sacred produce, even water or salt may not be bought from that person, according to Rabbi Yehudah. Rabbi Shim'on says: Anything which might be liable to Terumah and tithing may not be bought. החשוד להיות מוכר תרומה לשם חלין, אין לוקחין ממנו אפלו מים או מלח, דברי רבי יהודה. רבי שמעון אומר, כל שיש בו זקת תרומות ומעשרות, אין לוקחין ממנו. One who is suspect regarding [observing] Shevi'it is not automatically suspect regarding tithes. One who is suspect regarding tithes is not automatically suspect regarding Shevi'it. One who is suspect on both is suspect on regarding purity. There is one who is suspect regarding purity but is not suspect regarding either of the others. The rule is that anyone who is suspect regarding something may not judge or give testimony about it. החשוד על השביעית, אינו חשוד על המעשרות. החשוד על המעשרות, אינו חשוד על השביעית. החשוד על זה ועל זה, חשוד על הטהרות. ויש שהוא חשוד על הטהרות, ואינו חשוד לא על זה ולא על זה. זה הכלל, כל החשוד על הדבר, לא דנו ולא מעידו.
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