מִזְרָק אֶחָד כֶּסֶף (במדבר ז, יט), כְּנֶגֶד הַתּוֹרָה הַמְשׁוּלָה בְּיַיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, ה): וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי. וּלְפִי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַיַּיִן לִשְׁתּוֹת בְּמִזְרָק, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (עמוס ו, ו): הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן, לְכָךְ הֵבִיא מִזְרָק, (במדבר ז, יט): שִׁבְעִים שֶׁקֶל בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, לָמָּה, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיַּיִן חֶשְׁבּוֹנוֹ שִׁבְעִים, כָּךְ יֵשׁ שִׁבְעִים פָּנִים בַּתּוֹרָה. לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר בַּקְּעָרָה אַחַת, כְּנֶגֶד הַתּוֹרָה הַצְּרִיכָה לִהְיוֹת אַחַת, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא (במדבר טו, טז): תּוֹרָה אַחַת וּמִשְׁפָּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם. לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר בַּמִּזְרָק, אֶחָד, שֶׁדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב וְדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה כֻּלָּם נִתְּנוּ מֵרוֹעֶה אֶחָד, כֻּלָּם אֵל אֶחָד אֲמָרָן לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. לָמָּה הָיוּ שֶׁל כֶּסֶף, כְּנֶגֶד הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהּ (תהלים יב, ז): אִמְרוֹת ה' אֲמָרוֹת טְהֹרוֹת כֶּסֶף צָרוּף בַּעֲלִיל וגו'. (במדבר ז, יט): שְׁנֵיהֶם מְלֵאִים סֹלֶת, הַמִּקְרָא וְהַמִּשְׁנָה מְלֵאִים הֵם, שֶׁאֵין אֶחָד סוֹתֵר עַל חֲבֵרוֹ. סֹלֶת, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא (תהלים יט, יא): וְנֹפֶת צוּפִים, כַּסֹּלֶת שֶׁצָּפָה עַל גַּבֵּי נָפָה. (במדבר ז, יט): בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן, זוֹ הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לִבְלֹל בְּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, כְּהַהִיא דִּתְנֵינַן יָפֶה תַּלְּמוּד תּוֹרָה עִם דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ שֶׁיְגִיעַת שְׁנֵיהֶם מַשְׁכַּחַת עָוֹן. הֱוֵי (במדבר ז, יט): לְמִנְחָה, שֶׁאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הוּא נוֹשֵׂא נַחַת רוּחַ לְיוֹצְרוֹ, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאָדָם עוֹסֵק בְּתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה וְהוּא בַּעַל מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים וְשׁוֹמֵר עַצְמוֹ מִן הַחֵטְא. כַּף אַחַת (במדבר ז, כ), כְּנֶגֶד הַלּוּחוֹת שֶׁנִּכְתְּבוּ מִיַּד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (שמות לב, טז): וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים וגו'. (במדבר ז, כ): עֲשָׂרָה זָהָב, אֵלּוּ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ כְּתוּבִים בַּלּוּחוֹת, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (דברים י, ד): וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל הַלֻּחֹת כַּמִּכְתָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. זָהָב, כְּמָה דְּתֵימָא (שיר השירים ה, ה): יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים יט, יא): הַנֶּחְמָדִים מִזָּהָב וגו'. (במדבר ז, כ): מְלֵאָה קְטֹרֶת, שֶׁתרי"ג מִצְווֹת בְּלוּלוֹת בָּהֶן, וְכֵן אַתְּ מוֹצֵא תרי"ג אוֹתִיּוֹת יֵשׁ מִן (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי, עַד (שמות כ, יד): אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ, כְּנֶגֶד תרי"ג מִצְווֹת וְשֶׁבַע יְתֵרוֹת כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹלָם לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, הֱוֵי: מְלֵאָה קְטֹרֶת, שֶׁכֵּן ק' מִתְחֲלֶפֶת בְּד', א"ת ב"ש ג"ר ד"ק, וְעוֹלֶה חֶשְׁבּוֹן הַתֵּבָה אַחַר כֵּן לְמִנְיַן תרי"ג. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְלֵאָה קְטֹרֶת, שֶׁבֵּין כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר שֶׁהָיוּ כְּתוּבִים בַּלּוּחוֹת פָּרָשִׁיּוֹתֶיהָ וְדִקְדּוּקֶיהָ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה הָיוּ כְּתוּבִים. וְאַתְיָא כְּהַהִיא דְּאָמַר חֲנַנְיָה בֶּן אֲחִי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי לוּחוֹת הַבְּרִית שֶׁכָּתוּב עֲלֵיהֶן (שמות לא, יח) (דברים ט, י): כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים, גְּלִילֵי זָהָב, מָה הַגַּלִּים הַלָּלוּ בֵּין גַּל גָּדוֹל לְגַל גָּדוֹל גַּלִּים קְטַנִּים, כָּךְ בֵּין כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר פָּרָשִׁיּוֹתֶיהָ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה הָיוּ כְּתוּבִים וְדִקְדּוּקֶיהָ. (במדבר ז, כא): פַּר אֶחָד בֶּן בָּקָר, כְּנֶגֶד כֹּהֲנִים. (במדבר ז, כא): אַיִל אֶחָד, כְּנֶגֶד לְוִיִּם. (במדבר ז, כא): כֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד, כְּנֶגֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכֻּלָּם קִבְּלוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי. (במדבר ז, כב): שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת, כְּנֶגֶד הַגֵּרִים שֶׁעֲתִידִים לְהִתְגַּיֵּר, וְשֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, שֶׁכֻּלָּם רְאוּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח, ה): אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם, כֹּהֲנִים לְוִיִם וְיִשְׂרְאֵלִים לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא הָאָדָם, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים הַמִּתְגַיֵּר וְעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל. (במדבר ז, כג): וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים בָּקָר שְׁנַיִם, כְּנֶגֶד שְׁתֵּי תּוֹרוֹת, הַמִּקְרָא וְהַמִּשְׁנָה, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁמְּבַקֵּר וְזוֹבֵחַ יִצְרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל הַכָּתוּב בָּהֶן, הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁנֵי שְׁלוֹמוֹת, שָׁלוֹם לְמַעְלָה וְשָׁלוֹם לְמַטָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כז, ה): אוֹ יַחֲזֵק בְּמָעֻזִּי יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם לִי שָׁלוֹם יַעֲשֶׂה לִי. (במדבר ז, כג): אֵילִם חֲמִשָּׁה עַתֻּדִים חֲמִשָּׁה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי שָׁנָה חֲמִשָּׁה, כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלשָׁה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁבָּהֶם שִׁשָּׁה סִדְּרֵי מִשְׁנָה, וְהֵן מִן שְׁתַּיִם פִּסְקָה, וְכָל פִּסְקָה וּפִסְקָה מִן חָמֵשׁ תֵּבוֹת, וְאֵלּוּ הֵם (תהלים יט, ח י): תּוֹרַת ה' תְּמִימָה מְשִׁיבַת נָפֶשׁ, עֵדוּת ה' נֶאֱמָנָה מַחְכִּימַת פֶּתִי, פִּקּוּדֵי ה' יְשָׁרִים מְשַׂמְּחֵי לֵב, מִצְוַת ה' בָּרָה מְאִירַת עֵינָיִם, יִרְאַת ה' טְהוֹרָה עוֹמֶדֶת לָעַד, מִשְׁפְּטֵי ה' אֱמֶת צָדְקוּ יַחְדָּיו. לְכָךְ הִקְרִיבוּ לִשְׁלָמִים שְׁלשָׁה מִינֵי קָרְבָּנוֹת אֵלּוּ, כְּנֶגֶד הַשְּׁלשָׁה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁבָּהֶם שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, אַתְיָא כְּהַהִיא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא (תהלים יט, י): תּוֹרַת ה' תְּמִימָה מְשִׁיבַת נָפֶשׁ, שֶׁזֶּה סֵדֶר נָשִׁים, שֶׁמַּזְהִיר עַל הָאָדָם לִפְרשׁ מִן הָעֶרְוָה כְּדֵי לְהַצִּילוֹ מִן הַמִּיתָה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (משלי ה, ה): רַגְלֶיהָ יֹרְדוֹת מָוֶת וגו', וְאוֹמֵר (משלי ב, יט): כָּל בָּאֶיהָ לֹא יְשׁוּבוּן וְלֹא יַשִֹּׂיגוּ אָרְחוֹת חַיִּים, וְאוֹמֵר (משלי ב, טז): לְהַצִּילְךָ מֵאִשָּׁה זָרָה וגו'. עֵדוּת ה' נֶאֱמָנָה מַחְכִּימַת פֶּתִי, זֶה סֵדֶר זְרָעִים, שֶׁאָדָם מַאֲמִין בְּחַיָּיו שֶׁל עוֹלָם וְזוֹרֵעַ. פִּקּוּדֵי ה' יְשָׁרִים מְשַׂמְּחֵי לֵב, זֶה סֵדֶר מוֹעֵד, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כָּל הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת, שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶן (דברים טז, יד): וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּחַגֶּךָ. מִצְוַת ה' בָּרָה מְאִירַת עֵינָיִם, זֶה סֵדֶר קָדָשִׁים, שֶׁהוּא מֵאִיר עֵינַיִם בֵּין חֻלִּין לְקָדָשִׁים. יִרְאַת ה' טְהוֹרָה עוֹמֶדֶת לָעַד, זֶה סֵדֶר טַהֲרוֹת, שֶׁהוּא מַפְרִישׁ בֵּין טֻמְאָה לְטָהֳרָה. מִשְׁפְּטֵי ה' אֱמֶת צָדְקוּ יַחְדָּו, זֶה סֵדֶר נְזִיקִין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ רֹב הַדִּינִים, וּלְכָךְ הִקְרִיבוּ מִכָּל מִין וּמִין חֲמִשָּׁה חֲמִשָּׁה, כְּנֶגֶד חָמֵשׁ תֵּבוֹת הַכְּתוּבוֹת עַל כָּל סֵדֶר וָסֵדֶר. וְלָמָּה נִכְתְּבוּ חָמֵשׁ תֵּבוֹת עַל כָּל סֵדֶר וְסֵדֶר, כְּנֶגֶד הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהִיא חֲמִשָּׁה סְפָרִים, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁהֵם גּוּפֵי תּוֹרָה, לָמָּה שֵׁם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כָּתוּב בְּכָל סֵדֶר וְסֵדֶר, שֶׁהוּא מֵעִיד עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁמִּפִּיו אֲמָרָן לְמשֶׁה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָמַר חֲמִשָּׁה סִפְרֵי תּוֹרָה. (במדבר ז, כג): זֶה קָרְבַּן נְתַנְאֵל וגו', כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהִקְרִיב עַל סִדְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הִתְחִיל מְשַׁבֵּחַ אֶת קָרְבָּנוֹ, זֶה קָרְבַּן נְתַנְאֵל בֶּן צוּעָר.
On the second day, brought (hikriv) Netanel, etc.: Why does it state, "brought" [only with Netanel]? Because Reuven came and appealed: He said, “It is enough that Yehudah should precede me with the encampments; I should bring [next] based on the order of birth! Moshe rebuked him and said to him, “It is from the mouth of the Holy One, blessed be He, that it was told to me – bring (hakrev, which is the ketiv – the way the word is spelled in the Torah) from the [order of the] encampments!” Another explanation: Hikriv (which also means ‘he put him forward’) – Moshe put him forward against the will of Reuven. Another explanation: As if he brought first (even before Yehudah). Why is this so? Since he merited to have the counsel of the princes [to offer wagons], the verse counts it as if he were the first one to bring [it] up. Abba Chanan says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, “Since he merited to have the counsel, he merited to have understanding given to his tribe, as it is stated (I Chronicles 12:33), ‘And from the children of Yissachar, who know understanding of times.’” And it is stated (Judges 5:15), “And Yissachar’s chiefs were with Deborah, etc.” And so does the verse recount his praise in the courts in Egypt, as it is stated (Numbers 26:24), “To Yashuv was the Yashuvite family” – and Yashuv is always [referring to] courts, as it is stated (Ezekiel 33:31), “They will come to you in crowds and sit (yeshvu) before you, etc.”; “and Yaakov was a simple man who sits (yoshev) in tents” (Genesis 25:27), and it states (Deuteronomy 33:18), “and Yissachar in his tents.” Brought his sacrifice, etc. – Rabbi Pinchas be Yair said, “Why did it add [the word,] hikriv and remove [the letter,] yod? Rather it is corresponding to the red heifer that they made that day. Therefore, it added [the word,] hikriv missing yod, and left the word with four letters – corresponding to the four things that the heifer required: red, complete, without a blemish, without the carrying of a yoke. As you would say (Numbers 19:2), ‘and they shall take to you a red heifer that is complete, etc.’” One silver bowl – the prince of Yissachar came and brought the offering for the sake of the Torah; as they love the Torah more than the other tribes, as it is stated (I Chronicles 12:33), “And from the children of Yissachar, who know understanding of times, etc.” What is “of times?” Rabbi Tanchuma said, “ Of holidays.” Rabbi Yose said, “Of intercalations.” [This verse in Chronicles continues,] “to know what Israel shall do” – on which day they shall make the holidays. [And further in the verse,] “their heads are two hundred” – these are the two hundred leaders of the Sanhedrin groomed by the tribe of Yissachar. [Still in the verse,] “and all of their brothers according to their mouths” – that they would agree to the law based on their mouths. And it states (Genesis 49:15), “bent his shoulder to haul” – since they would haul the yoke of Torah. [The verse in Genesis continues] "and he will be a conscripted worker" - as anyone who was mistaken in the law would ask it to the tribe of Yissachar and they would clarify it for them. A silver bowl – corresponding to the Torah that is called ‘bread,’ as it stated (Proverbs 19:5), “Come repast on my bread.” And it is said about the showbread (Exodus 25:29), “And you shall make its bowls and its ladles”; and we learned, “its bowls” - these are the molds, as they would make the showbread in molds. One hundred and thirty was its weight – go out and calculate: twenty-four books of the written Torah and eighty from the Mishnah; which begins with [the letter,] mem (which has a numerical equivalent of forty), “me’imatai korin et haShema, etc. and ends with mem, “Hashem yivarech et amo be’shalom”. Mem is forty and [another] mem is forty; behold eighty, [so] one hundred and four, as this is the count that the written Torah and the oral Torah come to. Another explanation: The beginnings of the six Orders of the Mishnah – the first letters come to eighty. Go out and calculate: Mem (forty) from “me’imatai” from the Order of Seeds; yod (ten) from “yitziot haShabbat” from the Order of Appointed Time; chet (eight) from “chamesh-esreh nashim” from the Order of Women; one (alef) from “arbaah avot nezikin” from the Order of Salvations (Damages); caf (twenty) from “kol haZevachim” from the Order of Holy Things; one (alef) from “avot haTumaot ” from the Order of Purities - behold eighty, [so] from here [you see that] the count of the written Torah and the oral Torah come to one hundred and four. And it was given in twenty-six generations which were from Adam to Moshe, through whom the Torah was given – behold, one hundred and thirty. Hence the weight of the bowl was one hundred and thirty. One basin of silver – corresponding to the Torah which is compared to wine, as it is stated (Proverbs 9:5), “and drink from the wine that I have mixed.” And since it is the custom of wine to be drunk form a basin, as you say (Amos 6:6), “Who drink from wine basins” – therefore, he brought “a basin that is seventy shekel of the holy shekels.” Why? Just like the numerical equivalent of wine is seventy, so too are there seventy faces to the Torah. Why does it state “one” about the bowl? Corresponding to the Torah that must be one, as you say (Numbers 15:16), “One Torah and one statute shall there be for you.” Why does it state “one” about the basin? Because the words of the written Torah and the words of the Oral Torah were all given by one shepherd – all of them were stated by one God to Moshe at Sinai. Why were they of silver? Corresponding to the Torah, about which it is stated (Psalms 12:7), “The words of the Lord are pure words, silver purged in a crucible, etc.” Both of them filled with fine flour, etc. – Scripture and Mishnah are full, since one does not contradict its fellow. Fine flour – as you say (Psalms 19:11), “drippings (nofet) of the comb” – like flour that one can see on top of the sieve (napah). Mixed with oil – that is Torah, which is required to be mixed with good deeds; like that which we learned (Avot 2:2),” Excellent is the study of the Torah together with a worldly occupation; for the exertion [expended] in both of them causes sin to be forgotten.” That is for the offering – as at that time, he brings a pleasantness of spirit to his Creator, when a man is involved in Torah study and is a master of good deeds and guards himself from sin. One ladle – corresponding to the tablets that were written by the hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, as you say (Exodus 32:16), “The tablets were God’s work, and the writing was God’s writing, etc.” Ten of gold – these are the ten statements (commandments) that were written on the tablets, as you say (Deuteronomy 10:4), “And He wrote on the tablets like the first writing, etc.” Gold – like you say (Song of Songs 5:14), “His hands are rods of gold”; and it states (Psalms 19:11), “More precious than gold, etc.” Full of incense – since the six hundred and thirteen commandments are mixed in them. And so do you find that there are six hundred and thirteen letters from “I” (the first word in the ten commandments) to “of your friend” (the last word), corresponding to the six hundred and thirteen commandments; and there are seven letters lacking, corresponding to the seven days of creation – to teach you that the whole world was only created in the merit of the Torah. That is full of incense (ketoret) – since the [letter] kof changes to a dalet [in] at-bash gar-dak (switching the early letters in the aleph-bet with the corresponding later letters), and the [numerical] count of the word then comes to six hundred and thirteen. Another explanation: full of incense – as between each and every statement written on the tablets, the sections and the details were written. And it comes out like that which Chananiah the son of the brother of Rabbi Yehoshua said: “His hands are rods of gold” – these are the two tablets of the covenant upon which were written, ‘written by the finger of God.' “Rods of gold” – just like these rods, between one large rod and another large rod, there are small rods; so too, between each and every statement, the sections of the Torah were written and its details. One bull of the herd – corresponding to the priests; one ram – corresponding to the Levites; one lamb – corresponding to Israel, as they all accepted the Torah as Sinai. One goat for a sin offering – corresponding to the converts that would convert in the future and were there; as everyone is fitting, as it is stated (Leviticus 18: 5), “which a man shall do and live by them.” It does not state, “priests, Levites and Israelites,” but rather “a man.” [This] teaches that, behold, even an idolater that converts and is involved in Torah is like a high priest. And for peace offerings, two oxen (bakar) – corresponding to the two Torahs; as anyone who checks (mevaker) and sacrifices his inclination to do everything that is written in them is making peace twice – peace above and peace below; as it is stated (Isaiah 27:5), “But if he holds fast to My refuge, peace will he make with Me, with Me he will make peace.” Five rams, five he-goats, and five yearling lambs - corresponding to three verses of the Torah in which the six Orders of the Mishnah are [indicated]. And they are [each] of two sections, and each and every section is made of five words, and these are them (Psalms 19:8-10): “The Torah of the Lord is perfect, restoring the soul; the decrees of the Lord, etc.... The ordinances of the Lord, etc.; the commandments of the Lord, etc.... The fear of the Lord, etc.; the judgments of the Lord, etc.” Hence they offered these three types of sacrifices as peace offerings, corresponding to the three verses in which the six Orders of the Mishnah are [indicated]. It comes out like that which Rabbi Tanchuma said: “The Torah of the Lord is perfect, [restoring the soul], etc.” – this is the Order of Women that warns a man to separate from sexual prohibitions in order to save him from death, like the one that says (Proverbs 5:19), “All who go to her cannot return and find again the paths of life.” And it states (Proverbs 5:16), “It will save you from the forbidden woman, etc.” “The decrees of the Lord [are trustworthy], etc.” – this is the Order of Seeds, as one has trust in the world’s Life and sows. “The ordinances of the Lord, [are just, rejoicing the heart], etc.” – this is the Order of Appointed Time that has all of the holidays in it, about which it is written (Deuteronomy 16:14), “And you shall rejoice in your holidays.” “The commandments of the Lord [are lucid, making the eyes light up,]. etc.” – this is the Order of Holy Things, which enlightens the eyes [to differentiate] between profane things and holy things. “The fear of the Lord [is pure], etc.” – this is the Order of Purities, which separates between purity and impurity. “The judgments of the Lord, etc.” – this is the Order of Damages, in which there are most of the laws. And hence they offered five of each type corresponding to the five words written for each and every Order. And why were five words written for each and every order? Corresponding to the Torah which is five books, [in order] to teach you that [the sections of the Mishnah] are bodies of Torah. Why is the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, written in [the section of the verse relating to] each and every Order? Since He testifies upon them, that He stated them to Moshe from His mouth, in the same way that He stated the five books of the Torah. That was the offering of Netanel, etc. - once the Holy One, blessed be He, saw that he brought offerings according to the Orders of the Torah, He began to praise his sacrifice – “that was the offering of Netanel son of Tzuar.”