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  1. (יז) זָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ (יח) אֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כָּל־הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחַרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים׃

    (17) Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way as ye came forth out of Egypt; (18) how he met thee by the way, and smote the hindmost of thee, all that were enfeebled in thy rear, when thou wast faint and weary; and he feared not God.

  2. (א) אַחַ֣ר ׀ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה גִּדַּל֩ הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֜וֹשׁ אֶת־הָמָ֧ן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָ֛תָא הָאֲגָגִ֖י וַֽיְנַשְּׂאֵ֑הוּ וַיָּ֙שֶׂם֙ אֶת־כִּסְא֔וֹ מֵעַ֕ל כָּל־הַשָּׂרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ׃

    (1) After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that were with him.

  3. (טו) וַתֹּ֥אמֶר אֶסְתֵּ֖ר לְהָשִׁ֥יב אֶֽל־מָרְדֳּכָֽי׃ (טז) לֵךְ֩ כְּנ֨וֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִ֜ים הַֽנִּמְצְאִ֣ים בְּשׁוּשָׁ֗ן וְצ֣וּמוּ עָ֠לַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְל֨וּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּ֜וּ שְׁלֹ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ לַ֣יְלָה וָי֔וֹם גַּם־אֲנִ֥י וְנַעֲרֹתַ֖י אָצ֣וּם כֵּ֑ן וּבְכֵ֞ן אָב֤וֹא אֶל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־כַדָּ֔ת וְכַאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָבַ֖דְתִּי אָבָֽדְתִּי׃

    (15) Then Esther bade them return answer unto Mordecai: (16) ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’

  4. (י) וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לְהָמָ֗ן מַ֠הֵר קַ֣ח אֶת־הַלְּב֤וּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס֙ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבַּ֔רְתָּ וַֽעֲשֵׂה־כֵן֙ לְמָרְדֳּכַ֣י הַיְּהוּדִ֔י הַיּוֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּשַׁ֣עַר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ אַל־תַּפֵּ֣ל דָּבָ֔ר מִכֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּֽרְתָּ׃ (יא) וַיִּקַּ֤ח הָמָן֙ אֶת־הַלְּב֣וּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּ֔וּס וַיַּלְבֵּ֖שׁ אֶֽת־מָרְדֳּכָ֑י וַיַּרְכִּיבֵ֙הוּ֙ בִּרְח֣וֹב הָעִ֔יר וַיִּקְרָ֣א לְפָנָ֔יו כָּ֚כָה יֵעָשֶׂ֣ה לָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חָפֵ֥ץ בִּיקָרֽוֹ׃
    (10) Then the king said to Haman: ‘Make haste, and take the apparel and the horse, as thou hast said, and do even so to Mordecai the Jew, that sitteth at the king’s gate; let nothing fail of all that thou hast spoken.’ (11) Then took Haman the apparel and the horse, and arrayed Mordecai, and caused him to ride through the street of the city, and proclaimed before him: ‘Thus shall it be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honour.’
  5. (יא) בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא בָּ֣א מִסְפַּ֧ר הַֽהֲרוּגִ֛ים בְּשׁוּשַׁ֥ן הַבִּירָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ (ס) (יב) וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֗ה בְּשׁוּשַׁ֣ן הַבִּירָ֡ה הָרְגוּ֩ הַיְּהוּדִ֨ים וְאַבֵּ֜ד חֲמֵ֧שׁ מֵא֣וֹת אִ֗ישׁ וְאֵת֙ עֲשֶׂ֣רֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָ֔ן בִּשְׁאָ֛ר מְדִינ֥וֹת הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מֶ֣ה עָשׂ֑וּ וּמַה־שְּׁאֵֽלָתֵךְ֙ וְיִנָּ֣תֵֽן לָ֔ךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵ֥ךְ ע֖וֹד וְתֵעָֽשׂ׃ (יג) וַתֹּ֤אמֶר אֶסְתֵּר֙ אִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֔וֹב יִנָּתֵ֣ן גַּם־מָחָ֗ר לַיְּהוּדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּשׁוּשָׁ֔ן לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת כְּדָ֣ת הַיּ֑וֹם וְאֵ֛ת עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָ֖ן יִתְל֥וּ עַל־הָעֵֽץ׃ (יד) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְהֵֽעָשׂ֣וֹת כֵּ֔ן וַתִּנָּתֵ֥ן דָּ֖ת בְּשׁוּשָׁ֑ן וְאֵ֛ת עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָ֖ן תָּלֽוּ׃
    (11) On that day the number of those that were slain in Shushan the castle was brought before the king. (12) And the king said unto Esther the queen: ‘The Jews have slain and destroyed five hundred men in Shushan the castle, and the ten sons of Haman; what then have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces! Now whatever thy petition, it shall be granted thee; and whatever thy request further, it shall be done.’ (13) Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’ (14) And the king commanded it so to be done; and a decree was given out in Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons.
  6. These special communal Purims are called *Purim Katan ("minor Purim"), or Mo'ed Katan ("minor holiday") or Purim… (followed by the name of the community or the special event). In many cases special Purims were preceded by a fast comparable to the Fast of *Esther. In addition, on the Purim Katan itself the story of the personal or communal salvation was often read from a scroll (*megillah) in the course of a synagogue service in which special prayers of thanksgiving, in the style of piyyutim, were offered. Sometimes the *Al ha-Nissim prayer and the *Hallel were inserted into the ritual. The traditional Purim observances of enjoying a festive meal and giving charity to the poor were also applied to special Purims. (See Table: List of Special Purims.) -Encyclopedia Judaica

  7. ברכות נ״ד א:י״ח

    מברך על הרעה מעין על הטובה ועל הטובה מעין על הרעה

    One says the benediction for a calamity apart from any attendant good, and for good fortune apart from any attendant evil ;

  8. (ח) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הָמָן֙ לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ יֶשְׁנ֣וֹ עַם־אֶחָ֗ד מְפֻזָּ֤ר וּמְפֹרָד֙ בֵּ֣ין הָֽעַמִּ֔ים בְּכֹ֖ל מְדִינ֣וֹת מַלְכוּתֶ֑ךָ וְדָתֵיהֶ֞ם שֹׁנ֣וֹת מִכָּל־עָ֗ם וְאֶת־דָּתֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֵינָ֣ם עֹשִׂ֔ים וְלַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֵין־שֹׁוֶ֖ה לְהַנִּיחָֽם׃ (ט) אִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֔וֹב יִכָּתֵ֖ב לְאַבְּדָ֑ם וַעֲשֶׂ֨רֶת אֲלָפִ֜ים כִּכַּר־כֶּ֗סֶף אֶשְׁקוֹל֙ עַל־יְדֵי֙ עֹשֵׂ֣י הַמְּלָאכָ֔ה לְהָבִ֖יא אֶל־גִּנְזֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ (י) וַיָּ֧סַר הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶת־טַבַּעְתּ֖וֹ מֵעַ֣ל יָד֑וֹ וַֽיִּתְּנָ֗הּ לְהָמָ֧ן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָ֛תָא הָאֲגָגִ֖י צֹרֵ֥ר הַיְּהוּדִֽים׃ (יא) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְהָמָ֔ן הַכֶּ֖סֶף נָת֣וּן לָ֑ךְ וְהָעָ֕ם לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת בּ֖וֹ כַּטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ׃

    (8) And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus: ‘There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws are diverse from those of every people; neither keep they the king’s laws; therefore it profiteth not the king to suffer them. (9) If it please the king, let it be written that they be destroyed; and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver into the hands of those that have the charge of the king’s business, to bring it into the king’s treasuries.’ (10) And the king took his ring from his hand, and gave it unto Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the Jews’enemy. (11) And the king said unto Haman: ‘The silver is given to thee, the people also, to do with them as it seemeth good to thee.’

  9. Selected observances from Encyclopedia Judaica

    Purim of…

    Observed

    Established 

    Reason for Observance

    Algiers (called Purim Edom)

    4th Ḥeshvan

    1540

    Saved from destruction in Spanish-Algerian wars of 1516–1517 and 1542.

    Algiers (called Purim Tammuz)

    11th Tammuz

    1774

    Saved from danger.

    Breche (Champagne, France)

    14th Adar

    1191

    Chief Jew-baiter executed.

    Cavaillon (Provence)

    25th Iyyar

    1631

    Plague ended.

    Ditto

    29th Sivan

    1677

    Saved from blood libel accusation.

    Cento (Italy)

    12th Av

    1820

    Escaped from fire.

    Chieri (Italy)

    1st Av

    1797

    Saved from danger of war.

    Ditto

    18th Iyyar

    1799

    Escaped war riots.

    Fez

    22nd Kislev

    1840

    Saved from destruction.

    Gumeldjina (Thrace) called: Purim de los ladrones ("Purim of the thiefs")

    22nd Elul

    1786

    Saved from collective punishment for instigating robbers to sack town.

    Hebron

    1st Av

    ?

    Saved from collective punishment and execution by Ibrahim Pasha.

    Ditto, called Purim Takka ("Window Purim")

    14th Tevet

    1741

    Saved from annihilation by miraculous ransom money on the windowsill of synagogue.

    Leghorn

    12th Shevat

    1742

    Saved from destruction in earthquake.





    Mstislavl (Russia)

    4th Shevat

    1744

    Saved from slaughter by Cossacks.

    Ditto

    3rd Kislev

    1844

    Saved from collective punishment for alleged rebellion against authorities.





    Prague

    14th Ḥeshvan

    1620

    Saved from sacking and riots by protection of Emperor Ferdinand.

    Sarajevo

    4th Ḥeshvan

    1819

    10 leaders of Jewish community freed from prison and saved from execution.

    Senigallia (Italy)/see also: Urbino and Pesaro

    15th Sivan

    1799

    Saved from annihilation during war by escaping to Ancona.





    Shiraz, called Purim Mo'ed Katan

    2nd Heshvan

    1200 

    Permitted to practice Judaism after having being forced to convert to Islam.

    Tunisia, called: Purim Sheleg ("Purim of Snow")

    24th Tevet

    1891

    Jewish quarter saved from natural disaster

    Vilna

    15th Av

    1794

    Saved from destruction during  war.





    Family Purims




    Altschul family of Prague

    22nd Tevet

    1623

    Head of family, Hanokh Moses, saved from death.

    Brandeis family of Jungbunzlau (Bohemia), called Povidl Purim "Plum Jam Purim"

    10th Adar

    1731

    David Brandeis and family saved from accusation of having killed gentiles by poisoning plum jam.

    Danzig family of Vilna, called Pulverpurim ("Powder Purim")

    15th Kislev

    1804

    Family of Abraham Danzig author of "Ḥayyei Adam" saved from explosion of magnesium.

    Elyashar family of Jerusalem

    2nd Nisan

    ?

    Saved from death.

    Heller family of Prague

    1st Adar

    1629

    Head of family, Yom Tov Lipman, rabbi of Prague saved from death sentence.

    Maimon family of Lithuania

    ?

    1750

    Grandfather of Solomon Mimon saved from death sentence for blood libel.

    Meyuḥas family of Jerusalem

    16th Adar

    1724

    Head of family, Raphael Meyuhas, escaped death by highwaymen.

    Samuel Ha-Nagid of Spain

    1st Elul

    1039

    Saved from death plot of conspirators.

    Segal family of Cracow

    1st Iyyar

    1657

    Family saved from drowning in river while escaping from pogrom.