Vayishlach

(ד) וַיָּ֨רָץ עֵשָׂ֤ו לִקְרָאתוֹ֙ וַֽיְחַבְּקֵ֔הוּ וַיִּפֹּ֥ל עַל־צַוָּארָ֖ו וַׄיִּׄשָּׁׄקֵ֑ׄהׄוּׄ וַיִּבְכּֽוּ׃

(4) And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him; and they wept.

וירץ עשו לקראתו וישקהו - נקוד עליו. אמר ר' שמעון בן אלעזר: בכל מקום שאתה מוצא: הכתב רבה על הנקודה, אתה דורש את הכתב. הנקודה רבה על הכתב, אתה דורש את הנקודה. כאן לא כתב רבה על הנקודה, ולא נקודה רבה על הכתב, אלא מלמד, שנכמרו רחמיו באותה השעה, ונשקו בכל לבו. אמר לו ר' ינאי: אם כן, למה נקוד עליו? אלא מלמד, שלא בא לנשקו אלא לנשכו, ונעשה צוארו של אבינו יעקב של שיש, וקהו שיניו של אותו רשע. ומה ת"ל ויבכו? אלא זה בוכה על צוארו וזה בוכה על שיניו. ר' אבהו בשם ר' יוחנן, מייתי לה מן הכא (שיר ז): צוארך כמגדל השן וגו':
Rabbi Yannai said to him: If so, why is ['kissed'] dotted? On the contrary, it teaches that [Esau] came not to kiss [Jacob] but to bite him, but our ancestor Jacob's neck became like marble and that wicked man's teeth were blunted. Hence, 'and they wept' teaches that [Jacob] wept because of his neck and [Esau] wept because of his teeth.
וישם את השפחות ואת ילדיהן ראשונה - הדא אמרה: אחרון אחרון חביב. והוא עבר לפניהם, הה"ד (תהלים קג): כרחם אב על בנים. תני, ר' חייא: כרחמן שבאבות. ואי זה הוא רחמן שבאבות? ר' יהודה אמר: זה אברהם. אמר אברהם (בראשית יח): חלילה לך מעשות כדבר הזה. ר' לוי אמר: יעקב והוא עבר לפניהם, אמר: טב דיגע בי ולא בהון. וישתחו ארצה שבע פעמים למה שבע? על שם (משלי כד): כי שבע יפול צדיק וקם. דבר אחר: למה שבע? אמר לו: הוי רואה את עצמך כאלו את נתון לפנים משבעה קינקלין ויושב ודן, ואני נדון לפניך, ואת מתמלא עלי רחמים. אמר רבי חנינא בר יצחק: לא זז, משתטח והולך, משתטח והולך, עד שהכניס מידת הדין למידת רחמים:

...Esau ran to greet him. [He embraced Jacob and, falling on his neck,] he kissed him; [and they wept.] (Gen. 33:4). [The word] 'kissed' is dotted [above each letter in the Torah's writing]. Rabbi Simeon ben Elazar said . . . it teaches that [Esau] felt compassion in that moment and kissed [Jacob] with all his heart.

I tend to think that the may have been casual short lived sincerity, we have a saying blood is thicker than water. Regardless of bad blood between brothers a family member is a family member. As time spent together even a short time the old memories come flooding back and thats when it gets uncomfortable.

(כ) וַיַּצֶּב־שָׁ֖ם מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּ֨קְרָא־ל֔וֹ אֵ֖ל אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

(20) And he erected there an altar, and called it El-elohe-Israel.

ויקרא לו אל אלהי ישראל. לא שהמזבח קרוי אלהי ישראל, אלא על שם שהיה הקדוש ברוך הוא עמו והצילו קרא שם המזבח על שם הנס, להיות שבחו של מקום נזכר בקריאת השם, כלומר מי שהוא אל הוא הקדוש ברוך הוא הוא לאלהים לי ששמי ישראל, וכן מצינו במשה (שמות יז טו) ויקרא שמו ה' נסי, לא שהמזבח קרוי ה', אלא על שם הנס קרא שם המזבח, להזכיר שבחו של הקדוש ברוך הוא, ה' הוא נסי ורבותינו דרשוהו שהקדוש ברוך הוא קראו ליעקב אל. ודברי תורה (ירמיה כג כט) כפטיש יפצץ סלע, מתחלקים לכמה טעמים, ואני לישב פשוטו ושמועו של מקרא באתי:

and he named it, “God is the God of Israel.”: Not that the altar is called “the God of Israel,” but since the Holy One, blessed be He, had been with him and saved him, he named the altar because of the miracle. That is to say: He Who is God that is the Holy One, blessed be He-He is God to me, whose name is Israel. We find something similar in connection with Moses: “and he named it Hashem Nissi” (Exod. 17:15). Not that the altar was called Hashem, but because of the miracle he named the altar thus, to mention the praise of the Holy One, blessed be He: “The Lord is my miracle.” Our Rabbis (Meg. 18a) interpreted it to mean that the Holy One, blessed be He, called Jacob God [rendering: and the God of Israel called him God]. The words of Torah are“like a hammer that shatters a rock” (Jer. 23:29). They divide into many meanings, but I have come to establish the simple meaning of the verse.

וְאָקִים תַּמָן מַדְבְּחָא וְתַמָן יְהַב מַעְשְרַיָא דְאַפְרֵישׁ מִן כָּל דִילֵיהּ קֳדָם אֵל אֱלָהָא דְיִשְרָאֵל

And he erected there an altar,.... To offer sacrifice upon to God, by way of thanksgiving, for the many mercies he had received since he went out of the land of Canaan, whither he was now returned; and especially for his safety in journeying hither from Padanaram, and for deliverance from Laban and Esau, and for all other favours that he and his had been partakers of. And this he also erected for the sake of religious worship, to be continued in his family; he intending to reside here for some time, as appears by the purchase he had made, and as it is certain he did:

and called it Elelohe-Israel: God, the God of Israel; that is, he called the altar the altar of God, who is the God of Israel, who had been his God, his preserver and protector; and had lately given him the name of Israel, and had made good what answered to it, and was designed by it, that as he had had power with God, and prevailed, so he should with man; and as a memorial of all these favours and mercies, he erected this altar, and devoted it to God and his service, and called it by this name: or "he called upon God, the God of Israel", as the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions; he prayed unto him at the time he offered sacrifice on the altar, and gave him praise for all the great and good things he had done for him. Jacob must have stayed at Succoth, and at this place, many years, especially at the latter; since, when he came into those parts, Dinah was a child of little more than six years of age, and Simeon and Levi were very young, not above eleven or twelve years of age; and yet, before he left Shechem, Dinah was marriageable, and Simeon and Levi were grown strong and able bodied men, and did a most strange exploit in slaying all the males in Shechem, as recorded in the next chapter.


(א) וַתֵּצֵ֤א דִינָה֙ בַּת־לֵאָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָלְדָ֖ה לְיַעֲקֹ֑ב לִרְא֖וֹת בִּבְנ֥וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ׃ (ב) וַיַּ֨רְא אֹתָ֜הּ שְׁכֶ֧ם בֶּן־חֲמ֛וֹר הַֽחִוִּ֖י נְשִׂ֣יא הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּקַּ֥ח אֹתָ֛הּ וַיִּשְׁכַּ֥ב אֹתָ֖הּ וַיְעַנֶּֽהָ׃ (ג) וַתִּדְבַּ֣ק נַפְשׁ֔וֹ בְּדִינָ֖ה בַּֽת־יַעֲקֹ֑ב וַיֶּֽאֱהַב֙ אֶת־הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ וַיְדַבֵּ֖ר עַל־לֵ֥ב הַֽנַּעֲרָֽ׃ (ד) וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁכֶ֔ם אֶל־חֲמ֥וֹר אָבִ֖יו לֵאמֹ֑ר קַֽח־לִ֛י אֶת־הַיַּלְדָּ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לְאִשָּֽׁה׃ (ה) וְיַעֲקֹ֣ב שָׁמַ֗ע כִּ֤י טִמֵּא֙ אֶת־דִּינָ֣ה בִתּ֔וֹ וּבָנָ֛יו הָי֥וּ אֶת־מִקְנֵ֖הוּ בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וְהֶחֱרִ֥שׁ יַעֲקֹ֖ב עַד־בֹּאָֽם׃ (ו) וַיֵּצֵ֛א חֲמ֥וֹר אֲבִֽי־שְׁכֶ֖ם אֶֽל־יַעֲקֹ֑ב לְדַבֵּ֖ר אִתּֽוֹ׃ (ז) וּבְנְ֣י יַעֲקֺ֗ב בָּ֤אוּ מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה֙ כְּשָׁמְעָ֔ם וַיִּֽתְעַצְּבוּ֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וַיִּ֥חַר לָהֶ֖ם מְאֹ֑ד כִּֽי נְבָלָ֞ה עָשָׂ֣ה בְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־בַּֽת־יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְכֵ֖ן לֹ֥א יֵעָשֶֽׂה׃

כָּל־יֹצְאֵ֖י שַׁ֣עַר עִיר֑וֹ וַיִּמֹּ֙לוּ֙ כָּל־זָכָ֔ר כָּל־יֹצְאֵ֖י שַׁ֥עַר עִירֽוֹ׃ (כה) וַיְהִי֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֜י בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֣ם כֹּֽאֲבִ֗ים וַיִּקְח֣וּ שְׁנֵֽי־בְנֵי־יַ֠עֲקֹב שִׁמְע֨וֹן וְלֵוִ֜י אֲחֵ֤י דִינָה֙ אִ֣ישׁ חַרְבּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ עַל־הָעִ֖יר בֶּ֑טַח וַיַּֽהַרְג֖וּ כָּל־זָכָֽר׃ (כו) וְאֶת־חֲמוֹר֙ וְאֶת־שְׁכֶ֣ם בְּנ֔וֹ הָרְג֖וּ לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב וַיִּקְח֧וּ אֶת־דִּינָ֛ה מִבֵּ֥ית שְׁכֶ֖ם וַיֵּצֵֽאוּ׃ (כז) בְּנֵ֣י יַעֲקֹ֗ב בָּ֚אוּ עַל־הַ֣חֲלָלִ֔ים וַיָּבֹ֖זּוּ הָעִ֑יר אֲשֶׁ֥ר טִמְּא֖וּ אֲחוֹתָֽם׃ (כח) אֶת־צֹאנָ֥ם וְאֶת־בְּקָרָ֖ם וְאֶת־חֲמֹרֵיהֶּ֑ם וְאֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִ֛יר וְאֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֖ה לָקָֽחוּ׃

(1) And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. (2) And Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her; and he took her, and lay with her, and humbled her. (3) And his soul did cleave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spoke comfortingly unto the damsel. (4) And Shechem spoke unto his father Hamor, saying: ‘Get me this damsel to wife.’ (5) Now Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; and his sons were with his cattle in the field; and Jacob held his peace until they came.

(27) The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister. (28) They took their flocks and their herds and their asses, and that which was in the city and that which was in the field;

The sin of the two brothers that killed the man of Shechem was not the revenge killing, for the rape as they deserved it according to customs, but rather to the fact that the brothers made the inhabitants of Shechem part of the covenant of circumcision and then broke the covenant by killing their own kind. The greater sin sin was braking a covenant . The consequences are fare more serious than we can possible understand with our western mentality.