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Wine & Intoxication

Source Sheet by דף מקורות מאת Dr. Samuel J Kessler

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Created February 20, 2017 · 375 Views · נוצר 20 February, 2017 · 375 צפיות ·

  1.  (כ) וַיָּ֥חֶל נֹ֖חַ אִ֣ישׁ הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה וַיִּטַּ֖ע כָּֽרֶם׃ (כא) וַיֵּ֥שְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּ֖יִן וַיִּשְׁכָּ֑ר וַיִּתְגַּ֖ל בְּת֥וֹךְ אָהֳלֹֽה׃ (כב) וַיַּ֗רְא חָ֚ם אֲבִ֣י כְנַ֔עַן אֵ֖ת עֶרְוַ֣ת אָבִ֑יו וַיַּגֵּ֥ד לִשְׁנֵֽי־אֶחָ֖יו בַּחֽוּץ׃ (כג) וַיִּקַּח֩ שֵׁ֨ם וָיֶ֜פֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָ֗ה וַיָּשִׂ֙ימוּ֙ עַל־שְׁכֶ֣ם שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ אֲחֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית וַיְכַסּ֕וּ אֵ֖ת עֶרְוַ֣ת אֲבִיהֶ֑ם וּפְנֵיהֶם֙ אֲחֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית וְעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲבִיהֶ֖ם לֹ֥א רָאֽוּ׃ (כד) וַיִּ֥יקֶץ נֹ֖חַ מִיֵּינ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֕דַע אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָ֥שָׂה־ל֖וֹ בְּנ֥וֹ הַקָּטָֽן׃ (כה) וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָר֣וּר כְּנָ֑עַן עֶ֥בֶד עֲבָדִ֖ים יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְאֶחָֽיו׃ 

    (20) Noah, the tiller of the soil, was the first to plant a vineyard. (21) He drank of the wine and became drunk, and he uncovered himself within his tent. (22) Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father’s nakedness and told his two brothers outside. (23) But Shem and Japheth took a cloth, placed it against both their backs and, walking backward, they covered their father’s nakedness; their faces were turned the other way, so that they did not see their father’s nakedness. (24) When Noah woke up from his wine and learned what his youngest son had done to him, (25) he said, “Cursed be Canaan; The lowest of slaves Shall he be to his brothers.” 

  2. עירובין ס״ה א:ב׳

    מיתיבי שיכור מקחו מקח וממכרו ממכר עבר עבירה שיש בה מיתה ממיתין אותו מלקות מלקין אותו כללו של דבר הרי הוא כפיקח לכל דבריו אלא שפטור מן התפלה

    [With regard to one who is] intoxicated, his acquisition is an acquisition; and his sale is a sale. If he committed a transgression for which [he is liable to receive] death, he is executed; [if] lashes, he is flogged. The principle is: he is like a sober person in all matters, except that he is exempt from prayer.

  3. עירובין ס״ה ב:ב׳
    א"ר אילעאי בשלשה דברים אדם ניכר בכוסו ובכיסו ובכעסו ואמרי ליה אף בשחקו:

    Rabbi Elai said: In three matters a person’s [character is] ascertained: in his cup, in his pocket, and in his anger. And some say: also in his laughter.

  4. תענית ז׳ א:ט״ז
    ואמר רבי אושעיא למה נמשלו דברי תורה לשלשה משקין הללו במים וביין ובחלב דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) לכו שברו ואכלו ולכו שברו בלא כסף ובלא מחיר יין וחלב לומר לך מה שלשה משקין הללו אין מתקיימין אלא בפחות שבכלים אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה

    And Rabbi Oshaya said: Why are matters of Torah likened to these three liquids: To water, wine and milk? As it is written: Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” and it is written: “Come, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.” [This comes] to tell you: Just as these three liquids can be retained only in the least of vessels, so too, matters of Torah are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly.

  5. פסחים קי״ג א:י״ב
    אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה מנוחלי העוה"ב אלו הן הדר בא"י והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והמבדיל על היין במוצאי שבתות מאי היא דמשייר מקידושא לאבדלתא

    Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Three [types of people are] among those who inherit the World-to-Come: One who lives in Eretz Yisrael; one who raises his children to Torah study; and one who recites havdala over wine at the conclusion of Shabbat. What is [of special importance for] that? [This is referring to an individual] who leaves some for havdala.

  6. בבא בתרא צ״ו ב:ג׳
    ת"ר אחד שכר תמרים ואחד שכר שעורים ואחד שמרי יין מברכין עליהם שהכל נהיה בדברו אחרים אומרים שמרים שיש בהם טעם יין מברך עליהן בורא פרי הגפן רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו אין הלכה כאחרים

    § The Sages taught: Whether date beer, or barley beer, or pomace wine, one recites over them the blessing: By Whose word all things came to be.

  7. סנהדרין ע׳ א:ב׳
    מתני׳ מאימתי חייב משיאכל תרטימר בשר וישתה חצי לוג יין האיטלקי ר' יוסי אומר מנה בשר ולוג יין
    MISHNA: From when is a stubborn and rebel-lious son liable? From when he eats a tarteimar of meat and drinks a half-log of Italian wine. Rabbi Yosei says: From when he eats a maneh of meat and drinks a log of wine.
  8. סנהדרין ע׳ א:ד׳
    אכל דבר שהוא מצוה ודבר שהוא עבירה אכל כל מאכל ולא אכל בשר שתה כל משקה ולא שתה יין אינו נעשה בן סורר ומורה עד שיאכל בשר וישתה יין שנאמר (דברים כא, כ) זולל וסובא ואע"פ שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר שנאמר (משלי כג, כ) אל תהי בסובאי יין בזוללי בשר למו:
    The mishna summarizes: If he ate an item that involves performing a mitzva or an item that involves committing a transgression, or if he ate any food in the world but did not eat meat, or if he drank any beverage but did not drink wine, he does not become a stubborn and rebellious son, unless he actually eats meat and actually drinks wine, as it is stated: “This son of ours is stubborn and rebellious; he does not listen to our voice; he…is a glutton [zolel] and a drunkard [vesovei]” (Deuteronomy 21:20). One is not called a glutton and a drunkard unless he eats meat and drinks wine. And although there is no explicit proof to the matter that the reference in the Torah is to meat and wine, there is an allusion to the matter in another verse, as it is stated: “Be not among wine drinkers [besovei], among gluttonous eaters [bezolelei] of meat” (Proverbs 23:20).
  9. סנהדרין ע׳ א:י״ב
    א"ר חנן לא נברא יין בעולם אלא לנחם אבלים ולשלם שכר לרשעים שנא' (משלי לא, ו) תנו שכר לאובד ויין למרי נפש
    § The Gemara’s discussion turns to wine in general. Rav Ḥanan says: Wine was created in the world only to comfort mourners in their distress, and to reward the wicked in this world so that they will have no reward left in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, and wine to the bitter of soul” (Proverbs 31:6). “Him that is ready to perish” is referring to the wicked, who will perish from this world, while “the bitter of soul” denotes mourners.
  10. סנהדרין ע׳ א:י״ג
    א"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי כג, לא) אל תרא יין כי יתאדם אל תרא יין שמאדים פניהם של רשעים בעוה"ז ומלבין פניהם לעוה"ב רבא אמר אל תרא יין כי יתאדם אל תרא יין שאחריתו דם
    Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Look not upon wine when it is red” (Proverbs 23:31)? Look not upon wine that reddens the faces of the wicked in this world when they drink it, and whitens their faces, i.e., embarrasses them, in the World-to-Come. Rava says that this is how the verse should be understood: “Look not upon wine that reddens [yitaddam]” means: Look not upon wine, as it leads to bloodshed [dam], indicating that one who drinks wine will end up committing an act of killing or will be killed because of it.
  11. סנהדרין ע׳ א:י״ג
    א"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי כג, לא) אל תרא יין כי יתאדם אל תרא יין שמאדים פניהם של רשעים בעוה"ז ומלבין פניהם לעוה"ב רבא אמר אל תרא יין כי יתאדם אל תרא יין שאחריתו דם
    Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Look not upon wine when it is red” (Proverbs 23:31)? Look not upon wine that reddens the faces of the wicked in this world when they drink it, and whitens their faces, i.e., embarrasses them, in the World-to-Come. Rava says that this is how the verse should be understood: “Look not upon wine that reddens [yitaddam]” means: Look not upon wine, as it leads to bloodshed [dam], indicating that one who drinks wine will end up committing an act of killing or will be killed because of it.
  12. סנהדרין ע׳ א:י״ג
    א"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי כג, לא) אל תרא יין כי יתאדם אל תרא יין שמאדים פניהם של רשעים בעוה"ז ומלבין פניהם לעוה"ב רבא אמר אל תרא יין כי יתאדם אל תרא יין שאחריתו דם
    Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Look not upon wine when it is red” (Proverbs 23:31)? Look not upon wine that reddens the faces of the wicked in this world when they drink it, and whitens their faces, i.e., embarrasses them, in the World-to-Come. Rava says that this is how the verse should be understood: “Look not upon wine that reddens [yitaddam]” means: Look not upon wine, as it leads to bloodshed [dam], indicating that one who drinks wine will end up committing an act of killing or will be killed because of it.
  13. סנהדרין ע׳ א:י״ז
    דריש עובר גלילאה י"ג ווי"ן נאמרו ביין (בראשית ט, כ) ויחל נח איש האדמה ויטע כרם וישת מן היין וישכר ויתגל בתוך אהלו וירא חם אבי כנען את ערות אביו ויגד לשני אחיו בחוץ ויקח שם ויפת את השמלה וישימו על שכם שניהם וילכו אחורנית ויכסו את ערות אביהם ופניהם וגו' וייקץ נח מיינו וידע את אשר עשה לו בנו הקטן
    A visitor from the Galilee expounded: The conversive vav is stated thirteen times in the passage concerning wine, as it is stated: “And Noah began [vayyaḥel] to be a farmer, and he planted [vayyita] a vineyard, and he drank [vayyesht] of the wine, and was drunk [vayyishkar]; and he was uncovered [vayyitgal] within his tent. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw [vayyar] the nakedness of his father, and told [vayyagged] his two brothers outside. And Shem and Japheth took [vayyikaḥ] the garment, and laid it [vayyasimu] upon both their shoulders, and went [vayyelekhu] backward, and covered [vaykhassu] the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they did not see their father’s nakedness. And Noah awoke [vayyiketz] from his wine, and knew [vayyeda] what his younger son had done to him” (Genesis 9:20–24). All thirteen instances of the conversive vav here are followed by the letter yod. Together they form the word vay, meaning woe, and allude to the suffering and misfortune caused by uncontrolled drinking.
  14. סנהדרין ע׳ א:י״ח
    רב ושמואל חד אמר סרסו וח"א רבעו
    Having cited the passage discussing Noah, the Gemara enters into a discussion about what was actually done to him by his younger son, Ham. Rav and Shmuel disagreed: One says that Ham castrated Noah and one says that Ham sodomized him.
  15. סנהדרין ע׳ א:י״ט
    מאן דאמר סרסו מתוך שקלקלו ברביעי קללו ברביעי ומאן דאמר רבעו גמר וירא וירא כתיב הכא וירא חם אבי כנען את ערות אביו וכתיב התם (בראשית לד, ב) וירא אותה שכם בן חמור וגו'
    The Gemara explains: The one who says that Ham castrated Noah adduces the following proof: Since he injured Noah with respect to the possibility of conceiving a fourth son, which Noah wanted but could no longer have, therefore Noah cursed him by means of Ham’s fourth son. Ham’s sons were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan (see Genesis 10:6), and of all of these, it was Canaan whom Noah cursed (see Genesis 9:25–28). And the one who says that Ham sodomized Noah learned this from a verbal analogy between the words “and he saw” and “and he saw.” Here it is written: “And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father”; and there it is written: “And Shechem, son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, and he took her, and lay with her, and afflicted her” (Genesis 34:2). This indicates that the term “saw” alludes to sexual intercourse.
  16. סנהדרין ע׳ א:כ׳
    בשלמא למ"ד סרסו משום הכי קללו ברביעי אלא למ"ד רבעו מאי שנא רביעי נלטייה בהדיא הא והא הואי
    The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that Ham castrated Noah, it is due to that reason that Noah cursed Ham by means of Ham’s fourth son. But according to the one who says that Ham sodomized him, what is different about his fourth son? He should have cursed Ham directly. The Gemara answers: This Sage holds that both this offense and that offense were committed. All agree that Ham castrated Noah, and some say that Ham also sodomized him.
  17. סנהדרין ע׳ א:כ״א
    ויחל נח איש האדמה ויטע כרם אמר רב חסדא אמר רב עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא א"ר זכאי א"ל הקב"ה לנח נח לא היה לך ללמד מאדם הראשון שלא גרם לו אלא יין כמאן דאמר אותו אילן שאכל ממנו אדם הראשון גפן היה
    The Gemara continues to analyze the passage relating to Noah. The verse states: “And Noah began to be a farmer, and he planted a vineyard.” In explanation of this matter, Rav Ḥisda says that Rav Ukva says, and some say that Mar Ukva says that Rabbi Zakkai says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Noah: Noah, shouldn’t you have learned from Adam the first man, whose banishment from the Garden of Eden was caused only by wine? The Gemara notes: This is in accordance with the opinion of the one who says that the tree from which Adam the first man ate was a grapevine.
  18. סנהדרין ע׳ א:כ״ב
    דתניא ר"מ אומר אותו אילן שאכל אדם הראשון ממנו גפן היה
    As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Meir says: The tree from which Adam the first man ate was a grapevine,
  19. סנהדרין ע׳ ב:א׳
    שאין לך דבר שמביא יללה לאדם אלא יין ר' יהודה אומר חטה היה שאין התינוק יודע לקרוא אבא ואימא עד שיטעום טעם דגן רבי נחמיה אומר תאנה היה שבדבר שקלקלו בו נתקנו שנאמר (בראשית ג, ז) ויתפרו עלה תאנה
    as, even today, nothing except wine brings wailing and trouble upon a person; most sins are caused by drunkenness. Rabbi Yehuda says: The Tree of Knowledge was the wheat plant. This is proven by the fact that, even today, an infant does not know how to call out to his father or mother until he tastes the taste of grain, and for this reason wheat is called “the Tree of Knowledge.” Rabbi Neḥemya says: The Tree of Knowledge was a fig tree, because it was with the matter with which they sinned that they were rehabilitated, as it is stated: “And they sewed together fig leaves, and made for themselves loincloths” (Genesis 3:7).
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