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Dance, Dance... Revolution?

Michal's Rebuke of David

Source Sheet by Zahava Stadler
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Created October 5, 2014 · 1171 Views · נוצר 5 October, 2014 · 1171 צפיות ·

  1. (א) וַיֹּסֶף עוֹד דָּוִד אֶת כָּל בָּחוּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁלֹשִׁים אָלֶף. (ב) וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד וְכָל הָעָם אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ מִבַּעֲלֵי יְהוּדָה לְהַעֲלוֹת מִשָּׁם אֵת אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא שֵׁם שֵׁם ה' צְבָאוֹת יֹשֵׁב הַכְּרֻבִים עָלָיו. (ג) וַיַּרְכִּבוּ אֶת אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל עֲגָלָה חֲדָשָׁה וַיִּשָּׂאֻהוּ מִבֵּית אֲבִינָדָב אֲשֶׁר בַּגִּבְעָה וְעֻזָּא וְאַחְיוֹ בְּנֵי אֲבִינָדָב נֹהֲגִים אֶת הָעֲגָלָה חֲדָשָׁה. (ד) וַיִּשָּׂאֻהוּ מִבֵּית אֲבִינָדָב אֲשֶׁר בַּגִּבְעָה עִם אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וְאַחְיוֹ הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי הָאָרוֹן. (ה) וְדָוִד וְכָל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מְשַׂחֲקִים לִפְנֵי ה' בְּכֹל עֲצֵי בְרוֹשִׁים וּבְכִנֹּרוֹת וּבִנְבָלִים וּבְתֻפִּים וּבִמְנַעַנְעִים וּבְצֶלְצֶלִים. (ו) וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד גֹּרֶן נָכוֹן וַיִּשְׁלַח עֻזָּא אֶל אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאחֶז בּוֹ כִּי שָׁמְטוּ הַבָּקָר. (ז) וַיִּחַר אַף ה' בְּעֻזָּה וַיַּכֵּהוּ שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים עַל הַשַּׁל וַיָּמָת שָׁם עִם אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים. (ח) וַיִּחַר לְדָוִד עַל אֲשֶׁר פָּרַץ ה' פֶּרֶץ בְּעֻזָּה וַיִּקְרָא לַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא פֶּרֶץ עֻזָּה עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. (ט) וַיִּרָא דָוִד אֶת ה' בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֹּאמֶר אֵיךְ יָבוֹא אֵלַי אֲרוֹן ה'. (י) וְלֹא אָבָה דָוִד לְהָסִיר אֵלָיו אֶת אֲרוֹן ה' עַל עִיר דָּוִד וַיַּטֵּהוּ דָוִד בֵּית עֹבֵד אֱדוֹם הַגִּתִּי. (יא) וַיֵּשֶׁב אֲרוֹן ה' בֵּית עֹבֵד אֱדֹם הַגִּתִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים וַיְבָרֶךְ ה' אֶת עֹבֵד אֱדֹם וְאֶת כָּל בֵּיתוֹ. (יב) וַיֻּגַּד לַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד לֵאמֹר בֵּרַךְ ה' אֶת בֵּית עֹבֵד אֱדֹם וְאֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ בַּעֲבוּר אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד וַיַּעַל אֶת אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים מִבֵּית עֹבֵד אֱדֹם עִיר דָּוִד בְּשִׂמְחָה. (יג) וַיְהִי כִּי צָעֲדוּ נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן ה' שִׁשָּׁה צְעָדִים וַיִּזְבַּח שׁוֹר וּמְרִיא. (יד) וְדָוִד מְכַרְכֵּר בְּכָל עֹז לִפְנֵי ה' וְדָוִד חָגוּר אֵפוֹד בָּד. ו) וְדָוִד וְכָל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעֲלִים אֶת אֲרוֹן ה' בִּתְרוּעָה וּבְקוֹל שׁוֹפָר. (טז) וְהָיָה אֲרוֹן ה' בָּא עִיר דָּוִד וּמִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל נִשְׁקְפָה בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַתֵּרֶא אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד מְפַזֵּז וּמְכַרְכֵּר לִפְנֵי ה' וַתִּבֶז לוֹ בְּלִבָּהּ. (יז) וַיָּבִאוּ אֶת אֲרוֹן ה' וַיַּצִּגוּ אֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל אֲשֶׁר נָטָה לוֹ דָּוִד וַיַּעַל דָּוִד עֹלוֹת לִפְנֵי ה' וּשְׁלָמִים. (יח) וַיְכַל דָּוִד מֵהַעֲלוֹת הָעוֹלָה וְהַשְּׁלָמִים וַיְבָרֶךְ אֶת הָעָם בְּשֵׁם ה' צְבָאוֹת. (יט) וַיְחַלֵּק לְכָל הָעָם לְכָל הֲמוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמֵאִישׁ וְעַד אִשָּׁה לְאִישׁ חַלַּת לֶחֶם אַחַת וְאֶשְׁפָּר אֶחָד וַאֲשִׁישָׁה אֶחָת וַיֵּלֶךְ כָּל הָעָם אִישׁ לְבֵיתוֹ. (כ) וַיָּשָׁב דָּוִד לְבָרֵךְ אֶת בֵּיתוֹ וַתֵּצֵא מִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל לִקְרַאת דָּוִד וַתֹּאמֶר מַה נִּכְבַּד הַיּוֹם מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר נִגְלָה הַיּוֹם לְעֵינֵי אַמְהוֹת עֲבָדָיו כְּהִגָּלוֹת נִגְלוֹת אַחַד הָרֵקִים. (כא) וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל מִיכַל לִפְנֵי ה' אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בִּי מֵאָבִיךְ וּמִכָּל בֵּיתוֹ לְצַוֹּת אֹתִי נָגִיד עַל עַם ה' עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשִׂחַקְתִּי לִפְנֵי ה'. (כב) וּנְקַלֹּתִי עוֹד מִזֹּאת וְהָיִיתִי שָׁפָל בְּעֵינָי וְעִם הָאֲמָהוֹת אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתְּ עִמָּם אִכָּבֵדָה. (כג) וּלְמִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל לֹא הָיָה לָהּ יָלֶד עַד יוֹם מוֹתָהּ.

    (1) And David again gathered together all the chosen men of Israel, thirty thousand. (2) And David arose, and went with all the people that were with him, from Baale-judah, to bring up from thence the ark of God, whereupon is called the Name, even the name of the LORD of hosts that sitteth upon the cherubim. (3) And they set the ark of God upon a new cart, and brought it out of the house of Abinadab that was in the hill; and Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, drove the new cart. (4) And they brought it out of the house of Abinadab, which was in the hill, with the ark of God, and Ahio went before the ark. (5) And David and all the house of Israel played before the LORD with all manner of instruments made of cypress-wood, and with harps, and with psalteries, and with timbrels, and with sistra, and with cymbals. (6) And when they came to the threshing-floor of Nacon, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of God, and took hold of it; for the oxen stumbled. (7) And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Uzzah; and God smote him there for his error; and there he died by the ark of God. (8) And David was displeased, because the LORD had broken forth upon Uzzah; and that place was called Perez-uzzah, unto this day (9) And David was afraid of the LORD that day; and he said: ‘How shall the ark of the LORD come unto me?’ (10) So David would not remove the ark of the LORD unto him into the city of David; but David carried it aside into the house of Obed-edom the Gittite. (11) And the ark of the LORD remained in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite three months; and the LORD blessed Obed-edom, and all his house. (12) And it was told king David, saying: ‘The LORD hath blessed the house of Obed-edom, and all that pertaineth unto him, because of the ark of God.’ And David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obed-edom into the city of David with joy. (13) And it was so, that when they that bore the ark of the LORD had gone six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling. (14) And David danced before the LORD with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod. (15) So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of the LORD with shouting, and with the sound of the horn. (16) And it was so, as the ark of the LORD came into the city of David, that Michal the daughter of Saul looked out at the window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the LORD; and she despised him in her heart. (17) And they brought in the ark of the LORD, and set it in its place, in the midst of the tent that David had pitched for it; and David offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings before the LORD. (18) And when David had made an end of offering the burnt-offering and the peace-offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD of hosts. (19) And he dealt among all the people, even among the whole multitude of Israel, both to men and women, to every one a cake of bread, and a cake made in a pan, and a sweet cake. So all the people departed every one to his house. (20) Then David returned to bless his household. And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said: ‘How did the king of Israel get him honour to-day, who uncovered himself to-day in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovereth himself! ’ (21) And David said unto Michal: ‘Before the LORD, who chose me above thy father, and above all his house, to appoint me prince over the people of the LORD, over Israel, before the LORD will I make merry. (22) And I will be yet more vile than thus, and will be base in mine own sight; and with the handmaids whom thou hast spoken of, with them will I get me honour.’ (23) And Michal the daughter of Saul had no child unto the day of her death.

  2. רדק על שמואל ב ו׳:י״ד

    (יד) מכרכר בכל עוז - מרקד בכל כחו וכוונתו וי"ת משבח:

    (1) "And David danced before HaShem with all his might" - Danced with all his strength and concentration. And Yontatan translated it as "praised."

  3. ודוד כו' בטל כבודו מפני כבוד ה' בג' ענינים, א. בגופו שכרכר ורץ בכל עז לפני ארון ה', ב. במלבושיו שהיה (ד) חגור אפוד בד כלבוש הכהנים ועובדי ה' לא לבוש מלכות שלא להראות גאוה לפני ה', ובשני אלה התיחד דוד מן העם, כי לפי גדולתו צריך הוא להראות הכנעה לפני הבורא כמ''ש (ברכות לד)

    המלך כיון שכורע שוב אינו זוקף, ועל זה אמר 

    ודוד, ג. מה שהשתתף עם כלל ישראל שעל זה אמר, (טו) ודוד וכל בית ישראל מעלים את ארון ה' בתרועה ובקול שופר לעורר שמחה וגיל :

    AND DAVID sacrificed his own honor for the honor of Hashem in three ways:A) In his body, that HE DANCED and ran WITH ALL HIS MIGHT BEFORE THE ARK OF HASHEM; B) in his dress, that he was WEARING A LINEN EPHOD, like the clothing of priests and servants of Hashem, and not the clothing of a king, so as not to show his pride before Hashem; and in these two, David was separate from the people, for because of his status, he had to show his submission before the creator, as it is written, "The king, once having bowed, does not straighten [until the prayer is complete]" (BT Brachot 34b). And on this, it is written AND DAVID, C) that all of Israel joined with him, as it is written, AND DAVID AND ALL OF THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL BROUGHT UP THE ARK OF HASHEM, WITH TRUMPET-SOUNDS (or SINGING) AND THE CALL OF THE SHOFAR, to awaken happiness and joy.

  4. (א) ותבז לו בלבה . בזתה אותו בלבה , כי חשבה שאין זה מדרך המלך , ואף לפני הארון :

    "And she despised him in her heart"- She despised him in her heart because she thought that this was not conduct for the king, even before the ark.

  5. רדק על שמואל ב ו׳:ט״ז

    ותבז לו בלבה - כראותה אותו מן החלון בזתה אותו בלבה כי חשבה כי אין כבוד המלך להתנהג כמנהג הדיוט אפי' לפני הארון ואח"כ כשהלך לביתו אמרה בפיה מה נכבד היום וגו':

    "And she despised him in her heart"- When she saw him from the window, she despised him in her heart because she thought it was not honorable for the king to behave in the manner of the common people, even before the ark, and afterwards, when he went to his house, she said directly, "What was honored today...?"

  6. (א) והנה מרוב השמחה היה דוד מרקד ומפזז לפני ה' כאילו לא היה מלך ולזה בזתהו בלבה מיכל בת שאול :

    And David was dancing and leaping before Hashem as though he were not the king, and for this, Michal, the daughter of Shaul, despised him in her heart.

  7. ילקוט שמעוני שמואל ב רמז קמג

    והיה ארון ה' בא עיר דוד ומיכל בת שאול וגו' אמרה לו משפחתו של בית אבא היתה נאה ממך חלילה להם שנראה מימיהן פסת יד ופסת רגל ועקב מגולין, אלא כולם היו מכובדין ממך, ומה אמר לה דוד לפני ה' אשר בחר בי וגו' אלא בית אביך היו מבקשין כבוד עצמם ומניחין כבוד שמים ואני איני עושה כן אלא מניח אני כבוד עצמי ומבקש אני כבוד שמים. והייתי שפל בעיני ועם האמהות, אמר לה אין את נקראת מן האימהות אלא מן האמהות:

    Yalkut Shimoni on II Samuel, no. 143

    "And as the ark of Hashem came into the city of David, that Michal the daughter of Saul..." She said to him, the family of my father's household was more refined than you; it was a disgrace to them if in their days a bit of hand and foot and heel were revealed, but they were all more honorable than you.  And when David said to her,  "Before Hashem who chose me...", [he implied,] the members of your father's house were seeking honor for themselves and disregarding the honor of heaven, and I disregard my own honor and seek the honor of heaven.  And I will be lowly in my own eyes, and [be] with the maidservants. He said to her, you aren't called "from the Matriarchs," but from the "maidservants."

  8. ומי הוו למיכל בני והכתיב (שמואל ב ו, כג) ולמיכל בת שאול לא היה לה ולד עד יום מותה... דכתיב (שמואל ב ו, טז) ומיכל בת שאול נשקפה בעד החלון ותרא את המלך דוד מפזז ומכרכר לפני ה' ותבז ואמר רב יהודה ואיתימא רב יוסף שקלתה מיכל למיטרפסה.

    And did Michal ever have children?  And it is written, "And Michal the daughter of Saul did not have a child until the day of her death."  [...] as it is written, "And MIchal the daughter of Saul looked out through the window, and she saw King David leaping and dancing before Hashem, and she despised..." And Rav Yehuda said (and some say it was Rav Yosef) that Michal received her due [for despising David]. 

  9. Abarbanel on Shmuel Bet 6 (summary of relevant parts; see printouts for full Hebrew text.)

     

    After Uzzah's death, David was troubled, and afraid to continue to bring to ark to Jerusalem, lest he also act inappropriately and be punished, so he left it at the home of Edom the Gittite.  When David heard that Hashem had blessed Edom's household, he decided it was time to bring the ark to Jerusalem.  The first time they had tried to bring the ark, the David and all of Israel were described as "misachkim," rejoicing in the more frivolous sense (see v.5).  However, this time, they brought the ark with "simcha," a more appropriate form of joy, having abandoned the schok and frivolity that characterized their first effort.  (Abarbanel references Kohelet to explain that "schok" is a happiness of the body, while "simcha" is a happiness of the soul.)  Note that this procession also used different instruments, shofar and trumpet/singing only, which have positive and religious connotations in other parts of Tanakh, rather than the harps, cymbals, and other instruments that were played the first time.  The second effort also involved the ark being carried by Levites rather than on a wagon, and the verses here and in Divrei Hayamim indicate that the ark was "carrying itself"-- that is, was not difficut for the Levites to carry-- demonstrating Hashem's approval.  It's also explained that David was "leaping and dancing with all high might before Hashem."  While on the first try, all of the people were "misachkim," now David separated himself to dance alone, wearing the ephod of those doing divine service (which he was not the first time).  

     

    When the ark approached Jerusalem, Michal looked from the window and saw David leaping and dancing and despised him for it, thinking he was degrading the monarchy by acting in a common fashion.  When he returned home, she rebuked him in a scornful manner, asking, "How did the king of Israel get honored...?"  That is to say, it was dishonorable for him to be so exposed, dancing and leaping in front of all the maidservants, because she thought that this was the way of schok and frivolity with the maidservants.  David responded that, had he been dancing to honor another person, that would have been degrading, because his was the highest status among man.  But there is nothing degrading about dancing before Hashem, whose honor makes kings look like common people.  In this way he explained to her that it was not schok, but spiritual simcha, emphasized by the words "before Hashem."

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