דְּתַנְיָא: שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה מִדַּעְתּוֹ, וְהִסְכִּים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עִמּוֹ. הוֹסִיף יוֹם אֶחָד מִדַּעְתּוֹ, וּפֵירַשׁ מִן הָאִשָּׁה, וְשָׁבַר אֶת הַלּוּחוֹת. הוֹסִיף יוֹם אֶחָד מִדַּעְתּוֹ, מַאי דְּרַשׁ? ״הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר״ — הַיּוֹם כְּמָחָר. מָה לְמָחָר לֵילוֹ עִמּוֹ, אַף הַיּוֹם לֵילוֹ עִמּוֹ. וְלַיְלָה דְּהָאִידָּנָא נְפַק לֵיהּ, שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ תְּרֵי יוֹמֵי לְבַר מֵהָאִידָּנָא. וּמְנָלַן דְּהִסְכִּים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יָדוֹ — דְּלָא שְׁרַאי שְׁכִינָה עַד צַפְרָא דְשַׁבְּתָא. וּפֵירַשׁ מִן הָאִשָּׁה, מַאי דְּרַשׁ? נָשָׂא קַל וָחוֹמֶר בְּעַצְמוֹ, אָמַר: וּמָה יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא דִּבְּרָה שְׁכִינָה עִמָּהֶן אֶלָּא שָׁעָה אַחַת, וְקָבַע לָהֶן זְמַן, אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה: ״וְהָיוּ נְכֹנִים וְגוֹ׳ אַל תִּגְּשׁוּ״. אֲנִי, שֶׁכׇּל שָׁעָה וְשָׁעָה שְׁכִינָה מְדַבֶּרֶת עִמִּי, וְאֵינוֹ קוֹבֵעַ לִי זְמַן — עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. וּמְנָלַן דְּהִסְכִּים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יָדוֹ? — דִּכְתִיב: ״לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם שׁוּבוּ לָכֶם לְאׇהֳלֵיכֶם״, וּכְתִיב בָּתְרֵיהּ: ״וְאַתָּה פֹּה עֲמֹד עִמָּדִי״. וְאִית דְּאָמְרִי: ״פֶּה אֶל פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר בּוֹ״.
The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Moses added one day to the number of days that God commanded based on his own perception, as it was taught in a baraita: Moses did three things based on his own perception, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with him. He added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai based on his own perception. And he totally separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai. And he broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. The Gemara discusses these cases: He added one day based on his own perception. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned that since the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: “Sanctify them today and tomorrow,” the juxtaposition of the two days teaches that today is like tomorrow; just as tomorrow the men and women will separate for that day and the night preceding it, so too, today requires separation for the day and the night preceding it. Since God spoke to him in the morning, and the night of that day already passed, Moses concluded: Derive from it that separation must be in effect for two days besides that day. Therefore, he extended the mitzva of separation by one day. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with his interpretation? It is derived from the fact that the Divine Presence did not rest upon Mount Sinai until Shabbat morning, as Moses had determined. And he totally separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned an a fortiori inference by himself and said: If Israel, with whom the Divine Presence spoke only one time and God set a specific time for them when the Divine Presence would be revealed, and yet the Torah stated: “Prepare yourselves for three days, do not approach a woman” (Exodus 19:15); I, with whom the Divine Presence speaks all the time and God does not set a specific time for me, all the more so that I must separate from my wife. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with him? As it is written after the revelation at Sinai: “Go say to them: Return to your tents” (Deuteronomy 5:26), meaning to your homes and wives. And afterward it is written that God told Moses: “And you, stand here with Me” (Deuteronomy 5:27), indicating that Moses was not allowed to return home, as he must constantly be prepared to receive the word of God. And some say a different source indicating that God agreed with his reasoning. When Aaron and Miriam criticized Moses’ separation from his wife, God said: “With him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the Lord does he behold; why then were you not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?” (Numbers 12:8). This indicates that God agreed with his reasoning. And he broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? Moses said: With regard to the Paschal lamb, which is only one of six hundred and thirteen mitzvot, the Torah stated: “And the Lord said unto Moses and Aaron: This is the ordinance of the Paschal offering; no alien shall eat of it” (Exodus 12:43), referring not only to gentiles, but to apostate Jews as well. Regarding the tablets, which represented the entire Torah, and Israel at that moment were apostates, as they were worshipping the calf, all the more so are they not worthy of receiving the Torah. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with his reasoning? As it is stated: “The first tablets which you broke [asher shibarta]” (Exodus 34:1), and Reish Lakish said: The word asher is an allusion to the phrase: May your strength be true [yishar koḥakha] due to the fact that you broke the tablets.