The Conversion Factor

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(יב) וְתִמְנַ֣ע ׀ הָיְתָ֣ה פִילֶ֗גֶשׁ לֶֽאֱלִיפַז֙ בֶּן־עֵשָׂ֔ו וַתֵּ֥לֶד לֶאֱלִיפַ֖ז אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֑ק אֵ֕לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י עָדָ֖ה אֵ֥שֶׁת עֵשָֽׂו׃

(12) Timna was a concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz; she bore Amalek to Eliphaz. Those were the descendants of Esau’s wife Adah.

דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב (בראשית לו, כט) אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה

Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse that we came to discuss, in any event, what is the significance of the phrase in the verse “And Lotan’s sister was Timna”? The Gemara explains: Timna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan” (Genesis 36:29), and: “The chief of Timna” (Genesis 36:40), and each chief is a member of a monarchy, albeit without a crown. That is why they are called chief and not king. Timna sought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said, referring to herself: It is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation. Ultimately, Amalek, son of Eliphaz, emerged from her, and that tribe afflicted the Jewish people. What is the reason that the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact that they should not have rejected her when she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant.

(א) בִשְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִכְנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִבְרִית. בְּמִילָה וּטְבִילָה וְקָרְבָּן:

(ב) מִילָה הָיְתָה בְּמִצְרַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מח) "וְכָל עָרֵל לֹא יֹאכַל בּוֹ". מָל אוֹתָם משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ שֶׁכֻּלָּם בִּטְּלוּ בְּרִית מִילָה בְּמִצְרַיִם חוּץ מִשֵּׁבֶט לֵוִי וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (דברים לג ט) "וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ":

(ג) וּטְבִילָה הָיְתָה בַּמִּדְבָּר קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יט י) "וְקִדַּשְׁתָּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר וְכִבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם". וְקָרְבָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כד ה) "וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עלֹת", עַל יְדֵי כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל הִקְרִיבוּם:

(ד) וְכֵן לְדוֹרוֹת כְּשֶׁיִּרְצֶה הָעַכּוּ''ם לְהִכָּנֵס לִבְרִית וּלְהִסְתּוֹפֵף תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה וִיקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל תּוֹרָה צָרִיךְ מִילָה וּטְבִילָה וְהַרְצָאַת קָרְבָּן. וְאִם נְקֵבָה הִיא טְבִילָה וְקָרְבָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו טו) "כָּכֶם כַּגֵּר". מָה אַתֶּם בְּמִילָה וּטְבִילָה וְהַרְצָאַת קָרְבָּן אַף הַגֵּר לְדוֹרוֹת בְּמִילָה וּטְבִילָה וְהַרְצָאַת קָרְבָּן:

(1) Israel entered the covenant [with God] with three acts: circumcision, immersion, and offering a sacrifice.

(2) Circumcision took place in Egypt, [before the Paschal sacrifice, of which Exodus 12:48] says: "No uncircumcised person shall partake of it." Moses our teacher circumcised [the people]. For with the exception of the tribe of Levi, the entire [people] neglected the covenant of circumcision in Egypt. Regarding this, [Deuteronomy 33:9 praises the Levites,] saying: "They upheld Your covenant."

(3) Immersion was performed in the desert before the Giving of the Torah, as [Exodus 19:10] states: "Sanctify them today and tomorrow, and have them wash their garments." Sacrifices [were also offered then], as [ibid. 24:5] states: "And he sent out the youth of the children of Israel and they brought burnt offerings." They offered them as agents of the entire Jewish people.

(4) Similarly, for [all] future generations, when a gentile desires to enter into the covenant, take shelter under the wings of the Divine presence, and accept the yoke of the Torah, he must undergo circumcision, immersion, and the offering of a sacrifice. A woman [who converts] must undergo immersion and bring a sacrifice, as [Numbers 15:15] states: "As it is for you, so shall it be for the convert." Just as you [entered the covenant] with circumcision, immersion, and the offering of a sacrifice; so, too, for future generations, a convert must undergo circumcision, immersion, and must bring a sacrifice.

(יח) וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים קָשִׁים לָהֶם גֵּרִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּנֶגַע צָרַעַת שֶׁרֻבָּן חוֹזְרִין בִּשְׁבִיל דָּבָר וּמַטְעִין אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְקָשֶׁה הַדָּבָר לִפְרשׁ מֵהֶם אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרוּ. צֵא וּלְמַד מָה אֵרַע בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל וּבְקִבְרוֹת הַתַּאֲוָה וְכֵן רֹב הַנִּסְיוֹנוֹת הָאֲסַפְסוּף הָיוּ בָּהֶן תְּחִלָּה:

(18) For this reason, our Sages said: "Converts are as difficult for the Jewish people to bear as a leprous blemish." For most converts convert for an ulterior motive and [later] cause Jews to stray. It is difficult to separate from them once they have converted. Look at what happened in the desert at the worship of the Golden Calf and Kivrot HaTa'avah. Similarly, most of [the complaints in the instances when] our people tried God were instigated by the mixed multitude.

And even though this was the case, our Sages did not instruct to stop accepting converts, because the fear that a convert from whom righteous Jews would descend, and not be accepted, is much more serious than the fear they will accept converts who, in the first generations, did not behave properly. This is also what Rabbi Eliyahu Gutmacher wrote (Aderet Eliyahu, YD, 87), that the danger of rejecting a convert, who should be accepted, is more serious than the danger of accepting a convert who will return to his former ways. For indeed, our Sages said (Sanhedrin 99b) about Timna who was the daughter of kings, and wished to cling to Abraham’s seed and convert: “She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said, referring to herself: It is preferable to be a maidservant for this nation, and not be a noblewoman for another nation. Ultimately, Amalek, son of Eliphaz emerged from her, and that tribe afflicted the Jewish people.” In other words, as a punishment for not accepting her, the people who caused more trouble for Israel than any other people, were born.

Rabbi Eliyahu Gutmacher (Aderet Eliyahu YD 85) added that in our generations, in which many Jews learn from the Gentiles and follow in their ways, many converts often live more observantly than their Jewish spouses do. Incidentally, this was also the case in the kibbutzim, where the volunteers who converted raised the religious level of the kibbutzim, and apparently, their good influence continues to this day. See: The Lenient Opinion of Conversion Rav Eliezer Melamed

Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795-1874)

You should not refrain from circumcising a boy whose father is Jewish as we are commanded to grant him the opportunity to be circumcised immmediately at the directive of his father. Thus, when he grows up, he will quickly be able to perform the willl of his father by ritually immersing himself according to the Jewish law of conversion.

in a famous rcsponsum [Reproduced in the Dr. Solomon Carlebach Jubilee volume, pp. 265-278 Berlin 1910], he championed the rights of minors born to Gentile mothers and Jewish fathers to be circumcised at the request of the father. The inquiry came from New Orleans. The local rabbi, troubled by the problem of intermarriage, had prohibited circumcision in such cases. Kalischer ruled to the contrary, that it was a duty to do so. Every Gentile is potentially a member of the Jewish faith. This is certainly so in the case of a child whose father wished to rear him as a Jew. It is our duty to do everything possible to facilitate the integration of such families into the Jewish fold. The apprehension that his Gentile mother will not permit him to grow in Judaism should not prevent such conversion. Neither do we hesitate to circumcise a child of Jewish parents who violate some of the fundamental precepts of Judaism.

It is noteworthy that Kalischers decisions have been applied recently by rabbinic courts in the State of Israel where the problem of integrating the children of Gentile mothers and Jewish fathers became acute with the influx of Polish Jews with Gentile wives. Little did he imagine, however, that there would come the day when some of the leaders of a Jewish state would wish to declare such offspring Jews, without benefit of traditional conversion procedures such as tevilah and circumcision. * Those interested in the subjcct are advised to consult the answer given by Jewish authorities to Mr. Ben Gurion's inquiry circulated at the end of 1958. They were mimeographed by the Israeli Government's Prime Minister’s Office. An article summing up the answers, by the author of this article, appeared in the Dec. 1959 issue of Horizon.


ZVI HIRSCH KALISCHER — FATHER OF THE THIRD RETURN TO ZION, Aryeh Newman ,Tradition: A Journal of Orthodox Jewish Thought, Vol. 5, No. 1 (FALL 1962), pp. 76-89 (14 pages) Published by: Rabbinical Council of America (RCA)

אָמַר מָר: גֵּר שֶׁבָּא לְהִתְגַּיֵּיר, אוֹמְרִים לוֹ: מָה רָאִיתָ שֶׁבָּאתָ לְהִתְגַּיֵּיר? וּמוֹדִיעִים אוֹתוֹ מִקְצָת מִצְוֹת קַלּוֹת וּמִקְצָת מִצְוֹת חֲמוּרוֹת. מַאי טַעְמָא? דְּאִי פָּרֵישׁ — נִפְרוֹשׁ. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ: קָשִׁים גֵּרִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּסַפַּחַת, דִּכְתִיב: ״וְנִלְוָה הַגֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם וְנִסְפְּחוּ עַל בֵּית יַעֲקֹב״.
The Gemara analyzes the baraita. The Master said in the baraita: With regard to a potential convert who comes to a court in order to convert, the judges of the court say to him: What did you see that motivated you to come to convert? And they inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to say this to him? It is so that if he is going to withdraw from the conversion process, let him withdraw already at this stage. He should not be convinced to continue, as Rabbi Ḥelbo said: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scab [sappaḥat] on the skin, as it is written: “And the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [venispeḥu] to the house of Jacob” (Isaiah 14:1). This alludes to the fact that the cleaving of the convert to the Jewish people is like a scab.

Rabbi Eliezer Melamed (Israel, 21st Century)

The question is as follows: In order to avoid intermarriage can a rabbi convert a non-Jew to observe a traditional Jewish lifestyle without a commitment to complete observance of the mitzvah?

In recent years, I have come to the conclusion that one may convert a non-Jew who will observe a traditional Jewish life in order to avoid intermarriage.

Conversion is Dependent on Jewish Identity

According to the lenient opinion, although conversion is conditional on “acceptance of the mitzvot,” the notion of “acceptance” is interpreted differently. The acceptance is the general consent of the convert that when he converts, he undertakes to enter Clal Yisrael which is bound by the Torah and mitzvot – their reward, and their punishment – as explained in the Written and Oral Torah, but without a personal obligation to keep all the mitzvot. This is a general acceptance of Israel’s religion, and that from that day on, when asked who he is, he will answer unequivocally to all those who ask: I am a Jew!

Proof of This

This is what emerges from the instruction of our Sages (Yevamot 47b) to inform the convert before conversion “a few of the lighter mitzvot and a few of the more stringent mitzvot.” And if the conversion depends on the convert committing to keep all the mitzvot, he should be taught them all, because there may be a mitzvah that he cannot commit to keeping, or because he has a very strong yetzer (inclination) to transgress it, or because in his mind, he does not agree to it. Rather, it is enough that he knows the Jewish religion and wants to join it, in order to convert him. See: The Lenient Opinion of Conversion Rav Eliezer Melamed

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: מַעֲשֶׂה בְּגוֹי אֶחָד שֶׁבָּא לִפְנֵי שַׁמַּאי. אָמַר לוֹ: כַּמָּה תּוֹרוֹת יֵשׁ לָכֶם? אָמַר לוֹ: שְׁתַּיִם, תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב וְתוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה. אָמַר לוֹ: שֶׁבִּכְתָב אֲנִי מַאֲמִינְךָ, וְשֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה — אֵינִי מַאֲמִינְךָ. גַּיְּירֵנִי עַל מְנָת שֶׁתְּלַמְּדֵנִי תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב. גָּעַר בּוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ בִּנְזִיפָה. בָּא לִפְנֵי הִלֵּל, גַּיְירֵיהּ. יוֹמָא קַמָּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ: א״ב ג״ד. לִמְחַר אֲפֵיךְ לֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: וְהָא אֶתְמוֹל לָא אֲמַרְתְּ לִי הָכִי! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: לָאו עֲלַי דִּידִי קָא סָמְכַתְּ? דְּעַל פֶּה נָמֵי סְמוֹךְ עֲלַי. שׁוּב מַעֲשֶׂה בְּגוֹי אֶחָד שֶׁבָּא לִפְנֵי שַׁמַּאי. אָמַר לוֹ: גַּיְּירֵנִי עַל מְנָת שֶׁתְּלַמְּדֵנִי כׇּל הַתּוֹרָה כּוּלָּהּ כְּשֶׁאֲנִי עוֹמֵד עַל רֶגֶל אַחַת! דְּחָפוֹ בְּאַמַּת הַבִּנְיָן שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ. בָּא לִפְנֵי הִלֵּל, גַּיְירֵיהּ. אָמַר לוֹ: דַּעֲלָךְ סְנֵי לְחַבְרָךְ לָא תַּעֲבֵיד — זוֹ הִיא כׇּל הַתּוֹרָה כּוּלָּהּ, וְאִידַּךְ פֵּירוּשַׁהּ הוּא, זִיל גְּמוֹר. שׁוּב מַעֲשֶׂה בְּגוֹי אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵר אֲחוֹרֵי בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ, וְשָׁמַע קוֹל סוֹפֵר שֶׁהָיָה אוֹמֵר: ״וְאֵלֶּה הַבְּגָדִים אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשׂוּ חוֹשֶׁן וְאֵפוֹד״. אָמַר: הַלָּלוּ לְמִי? אָמְרוּ לוֹ: לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל. אָמַר אוֹתוֹ גּוֹי בְּעַצְמוֹ: אֵלֵךְ וְאֶתְגַּיֵּיר בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיְּשִׂימוּנִי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל. בָּא לִפְנֵי שַׁמַּאי, אָמַר לוֹ: גַּיְּירֵנִי עַל מְנָת שֶׁתְּשִׂימֵנִי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל. דְּחָפוֹ בְּאַמַּת הַבִּנְיָן שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ. בָּא לִפְנֵי הִלֵּל, גַּיְירֵיהּ. אָמַר לוֹ: כְּלוּם מַעֲמִידִין מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּא מִי שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ טַכְסִיסֵי מַלְכוּת, לֵךְ לְמוֹד טַכְסִיסֵי מַלְכוּת. הָלַךְ וְקָרָא. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ ״וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת״, אָמַר לֵיהּ: מִקְרָא זֶה עַל מִי נֶאֱמַר? אָמַר לוֹ: אֲפִילּוּ עַל דָּוִד מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל. נָשָׂא אוֹתוֹ גֵּר קַל וָחוֹמֶר בְּעַצְמוֹ: וּמַה יִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ בָּנִים לַמָּקוֹם וּמִתּוֹךְ אַהֲבָה שֶׁאֲהָבָם קְרָא לָהֶם: ״בְּנִי בְּכוֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל״, כְּתִיב עֲלֵיהֶם ״וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת״ — גֵּר הַקַּל שֶׁבָּא בְּמַקְלוֹ וּבְתַרְמִילוֹ, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. בָּא לִפְנֵי שַׁמַּאי, אָמַר לוֹ: כְּלוּם רָאוּי אֲנִי לִהְיוֹת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל? וַהֲלֹא כְּתִיב בַּתּוֹרָה: ״וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת״. בָּא לִפְנֵי הִלֵּל, אָמַר לוֹ: עַנְוְותָן הִלֵּל, יָנוּחוּ לְךָ בְּרָכוֹת עַל רֹאשְׁךָ, שֶׁקֵּרַבְתַּנִי תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה. לְיָמִים נִזְדַּוְּוגוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּן לִמְקוֹם אֶחָד, אָמְרוּ: קַפְּדָנוּתוֹ שֶׁל שַׁמַּאי בִּקְּשָׁה לְטוֹרְדֵנוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם, עִנְוְותָנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הִלֵּל קֵרְבַתְנוּ תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה.
The Sages taught: There was an incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai. The gentile said to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah. The gentile said to him: With regard to the Written Torah, I believe you, but with regard to the Oral Torah, I do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach me only the Written Torah. Shammai scolded him and cast him out with reprimand. The same gentile came before Hillel, who converted him and began teaching him Torah. On the first day, he showed him the letters of the alphabet and said to him: Alef, bet, gimmel, dalet. The next day he reversed the order of the letters and told him that an alef is a tav and so on. The convert said to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that. Hillel said to him: You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. Didn’t you rely on me? Therefore, you should also rely on me with regard to the matter of the Oral Torah, and accept the interpretations that it contains. There was another incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai and said to Shammai: Convert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot. Shammai pushed him away with the builder’s cubit in his hand. This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile came before Hillel. He converted him and said to him: That which is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study. There was another incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study hall and heard the voice of a teacher who was teaching Torah to his students and saying the verse: “And these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an efod, and a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle” (Exodus 28:4). The gentile said: These garments, for whom are they designated? The students said to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammai and said to him: Convert me on condition that you install me as High Priest. Shammai pushed him with the builder’s cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him. Hillel said to him, to the convert: Is it not the way of the world that only one who knows the protocols [takhsisei] of royalty is appointed king? Go and learn the royal protocols by engaging in Torah study. He went and read the Bible. When he reached the verse which says: “And the common man that draws near shall be put to death” (Numbers 1:51), the convert said to Hillel: With regard to whom is the verse speaking? Hillel said to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an a fortiori inference himself: If the Jewish people are called God’s children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: “Israel is My son, My firstborn” (Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless it is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who came without merit, with nothing more than his staff and traveling bag, all the more so that this applies to him, as well. The convert came before Shammai and told him that he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: Am I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hillel and said to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence. The Gemara relates: Eventually, the three converts gathered together in one place, and they said: Shammai’s impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel’s patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: גֵּר שֶׁבָּא לְהִתְגַּיֵּיר בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה, אוֹמְרִים לוֹ: מָה רָאִיתָ שֶׁבָּאתָ לְהִתְגַּיֵּיר? אִי אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה דְּווּיִים, דְּחוּפִים, סְחוּפִים וּמְטוֹרָפִין, וְיִסּוּרִין בָּאִין עֲלֵיהֶם? אִם אוֹמֵר: יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי, וְאֵינִי כְּדַאי — מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד. וּמוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ מִקְצָת מִצְוֹת קַלּוֹת וּמִקְצָת מִצְוֹת חֲמוּרוֹת, וּמוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ עֲוֹן לֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וּמַעְשַׂר עָנִי. וּמוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ עׇנְשָׁן שֶׁל מִצְוֹת. אוֹמְרִים לוֹ: הֱוֵי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁעַד שֶׁלֹּא בָּאתָ לְמִדָּה זוֹ, אָכַלְתָּ חֵלֶב — אִי אַתָּה עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת. חִלַּלְתָּ שַׁבָּת — אִי אַתָּה עָנוּשׁ סְקִילָה. וְעַכְשָׁיו, אָכַלְתָּ חֵלֶב — עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת, חִלַּלְתָּ שַׁבָּת — עָנוּשׁ סְקִילָה. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמּוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ עׇנְשָׁן שֶׁל מִצְוֹת, כָּךְ מוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן. אוֹמְרִים לוֹ: הֱוֵי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא אֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי אֶלָּא לְצַדִּיקִים, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה אֵינָם יְכוֹלִים לְקַבֵּל
§ The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a potential convert who comes to a court in order to convert, at the present time, when the Jews are in exile, the judges of the court say to him: What did you see that motivated you to come to convert? Don’t you know that the Jewish people at the present time are anguished, suppressed, despised, and harassed, and hardships are frequently visited upon them? If he says: I know, and although I am unworthy of joining the Jewish people and sharing in their sorrow, I nevertheless desire to do so, then the court accepts him immediately to begin the conversion process. And the judges of the court inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot, and they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one’s field, and about the poor man’s tithe. And they inform him of the punishment for transgressing the mitzvot, as follows: They say to him: Be aware that before you came to this status and converted, had you eaten forbidden fat, you would not be punished by karet, and had you profaned Shabbat, you would not be punished by stoning, since these prohibitions do not apply to gentiles. But now, once converted, if you have eaten forbidden fat you are punished by karet, and if you have profaned Shabbat, you are punished by stoning. And just as they inform him about the punishment for transgressing the mitzvot, so too, they inform him about the reward granted for fulfilling them. They say to him: Be aware that the World-to-Come is made only for the righteous, and if you observe the mitzvot you will merit it, and be aware that the Jewish people, at the present time, are unable to receive their full reward in this world;
לֹא רוֹב טוֹבָה וְלֹא רוֹב פּוּרְעָנוּת. וְאֵין מַרְבִּין עָלָיו, וְאֵין מְדַקְדְּקִין עָלָיו. קִיבֵּל — מָלִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד. נִשְׁתַּיְּירוּ בּוֹ צִיצִין הַמְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַמִּילָה — חוֹזְרִים וּמָלִין אוֹתוֹ שְׁנִיָּה. נִתְרַפֵּא — מַטְבִּילִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד. וּשְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים עוֹמְדִים עַל גַּבָּיו וּמוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ מִקְצָת מִצְוֹת קַלּוֹת וּמִקְצָת מִצְוֹת חֲמוּרוֹת. טָבַל וְעָלָה — הֲרֵי הוּא כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְכׇל דְּבָרָיו.
they are not able to receive either an abundance of good nor an abundance of calamities, since the primary place for reward and punishment is in the World-to-Come. And they do not overwhelm him with threats, and they are not exacting with him about the details of the mitzvot. If he accepts upon himself all of these ramifications, then they circumcise him immediately. If there still remain on him shreds of flesh from the foreskin that invalidate the circumcision, they circumcise him again a second time to remove them. When he is healed from the circumcision, they immerse him immediately, and two Torah scholars stand over him at the time of his immersion and inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. Once he has immersed and emerged, he is like a born Jew in every sense.

the choreographed conversation that the court has with the prospective convert focuses much more on the historical experience of the Jew than on any theological issues. Note that the questions that he is asked are not intended to be impossible to answer. He is not being interrogated rigorously; if anything, the qucstions are an opportunity for the presiding rabbinic court to engage in a conversation about Jewish life and identity. Indeed, the court may be checking only whether
the prospective convert is willing to endure the sufferings of the Jewish people. Shaye Cohen suggests that the authors of the baraita .. were not interested in discovering reasons to reject the convert. Their primary concern was not to verify that the convert accepted all the commandmcnts but that he knew what awaited him, and for this purpose instruction in a few' (representative) commandments would suffice. The rest he would learn later.

Shaye J.D. Cohen, “The Rabbinic Conversion Ceremony,” Journal of Jewish Studies, vol. 41, no. 2 (Autumn 1990): 177-203 p 198

Quoted in: Pledges of Jewish Allegiance: Conversion, Law, and Policymaking in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Orthodox Responsa (Stanford Studies in Jewish History and Culture) 1st Edition

by David Ellenson (Author), Daniel Gordis (Author)

Letter Signed by 40 Israeli Rabbis, May 2022

A series of articles have come to our attention where a rabbi has permitted conversion of non-Jews who will not aceept to live bound by all the mitzvot but only as a traditional Jew. This view is very dangerous since it will allow non-Jews to enter the community even though their conversion is inadequate. No conversion can be performed without a commitment to live a life of complete observance of mitzvot.

See: Rabbi Adam Mintz Sefaria Source Sheet: Conversion: Is It Good for the Jews?

(יט) וְלָבָ֣ן הָלַ֔ךְ לִגְזֹ֖ז אֶת־צֹאנ֑וֹ וַתִּגְנֹ֣ב רָחֵ֔ל אֶת־הַתְּרָפִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְאָבִֽיהָ׃
(19) Meanwhile Laban had gone to shear his sheep, and Rachel stole her father’s household idols.

"The foreign woman who married an Israclite husband was supposed to leave her gods in her father's house, but even if she did not, it never oCcurred to anyOne to argue that her children were not Israclites. Since the idea of conversion to Judaism did not yet exist never occurred to anyone to demand that the foreign woman undergo some ritual to indicate her acceptance into the religion of Israel."

The Origins of the Matrilineal Principle in Rabbinic Law, Shaye J. D. Cohen, AJS Review, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring, 1985), pp. 19-53 (35 pages), p 21. Published By: University of Pennsylvania Press