of woman born

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(א) וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר ה' אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ (ב) דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אִשָּׁה֙ כִּ֣י תַזְרִ֔יעַ וְיָלְדָ֖ה זָכָ֑ר וְטָֽמְאָה֙ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים כִּימֵ֛י נִדַּ֥ת דְּוֺתָ֖הּ תִּטְמָֽא׃ (ג) וּבַיּ֖וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֑י יִמּ֖וֹל בְּשַׂ֥ר עׇרְלָתֽוֹ׃ (ד) וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וּשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב בִּדְמֵ֣י טׇהֳרָ֑הֿ בְּכׇל־קֹ֣דֶשׁ לֹֽא־תִגָּ֗ע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תָבֹ֔א עַד־מְלֹ֖את יְמֵ֥י טׇהֳרָֽהּ׃ (ה) וְאִם־נְקֵבָ֣ה תֵלֵ֔ד וְטָמְאָ֥ה שְׁבֻעַ֖יִם כְּנִדָּתָ֑הּ וְשִׁשִּׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וְשֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב עַל־דְּמֵ֥י טׇהֳרָֽהֿ׃ (ו) וּבִמְלֹ֣את ׀ יְמֵ֣י טׇהֳרָ֗הּ לְבֵן֮ א֣וֹ לְבַת֒ תָּבִ֞יא כֶּ֤בֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ֙ לְעֹלָ֔ה וּבֶן־יוֹנָ֥ה אוֹ־תֹ֖ר לְחַטָּ֑את אֶל־פֶּ֥תַח אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֖ד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן׃ (ז) וְהִקְרִיב֞וֹ לִפְנֵ֤י ה' וְכִפֶּ֣ר עָלֶ֔יהָ וְטָהֲרָ֖הֿ מִמְּקֹ֣ר דָּמֶ֑יהָ זֹ֤את תּוֹרַת֙ הַיֹּלֶ֔דֶת לַזָּכָ֖ר א֥וֹ לַנְּקֵבָֽה׃
(1) ה' spoke to Moses, saying: (2) Speak to the Israelite people thus: When a woman at childbirth bears a male, she shall be impure seven days; she shall be impure as at the time of her condition of menstrual separation.— (3) On the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.— (4) She shall remain in a state of blood purification for thirty-three days: she shall not touch any consecrated thing, nor enter the sanctuary until her period of purification is completed. (5) If she bears a female, she shall be impure two weeks as during her menstruation, and she shall remain in a state of blood purification for sixty-six days. (6) On the completion of her period of purification, for either son or daughter, she shall bring to the priest, at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, a lamb in its first year for a burnt offering, and a pigeon or a turtledove for a sin offering. (7) He shall offer it before ה' and make expiation on her behalf; she shall then be pure from her flow of blood. Such are the rituals concerning her who bears a child, male or female.
שאלו תלמידיו את רבי שמעון בן יוחי מפני מה אמרה תורה יולדת מביאה קרבן אמר להן בשעה שכורעת לילד קופצת ונשבעת שלא תזקק לבעלה לפיכך אמרה תורה תביא קרבן
The students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai asked him: For what reason does the Torah say that a woman after childbirth brings an offering? He said to them: At the time that a woman crouches to give birth, her pain is so great that she impulsively takes an oath that she will not engage in intercourse with her husband ever again, so that she will never again experience this pain. Therefore, the Torah says that she must bring an offering for violating her oath and continuing to engage in intercourse with her husband.
ומפני מה אמרה תורה זכר לשבעה ונקבה לארבעה עשר זכר שהכל שמחים בו מתחרטת לשבעה נקבה שהכל עצבים בה מתחרטת לארבעה עשר
And the students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai further inquired of him: For what reason does the Torah say that a woman who gives birth to a male is ritually impure for seven days, but a woman who gives birth to a female is impure for fourteen days? Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai answered them: When a woman gives birth to a male, over which everyone is happy, she regrets her oath, that she will never again engage in intercourse with her husband, already seven days after giving birth. By contrast, after giving birth to a female, over which everyone is unhappy, she regrets her oath only fourteen days after giving birth.
רש"א הראשון לנחלה והשני לחמש סלעים ר"ש לטעמיה דאמר (ויקרא יב, ה) תלד לרבות יוצא דופן
§ The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon says: The first son is a firstborn with regard to inheritance if he is his father’s first son, and the second son is a firstborn with regard to redemption from a priest for five sela coins. The Gemara explains: The verse states: “And they have borne him children,” and a caesarean section is not called a birth. Rabbi Shimon conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as he says with regard to a verse that deals with the ritual impurity of a woman after childbirth: “But if she bears a girl” (Leviticus 12:5), that the apparently superfluous term “she bears” serves to include a child born by caesarean section, and the same applies with regard to a firstborn for inheritance.
אמר קרא תלד הוסיף לה הכתוב לידה אחרת בנקבה
The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael’s derivation is that the verse states: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male…and if she gives birth to a female” (Leviticus 12:2–5). The verse adds another explicit mention of childbirth with regard to a female, besides the mention of childbirth in the case of a male, when it could have simply stated: And if it is a female. Rabbi Yishmael derives from here that not only are the periods of ritual impurity and purity of one who gives birth to a female double those of a woman who gives birth to a male, but the formation of a female embryo also takes twice the time.
ה״א טהרה. נח נעלם והי׳‎ ראוי להראות כה״א ויקרא לה נבח. וטעם דמי טהרה. שהוא דם טוהר כנגד דם נדה ואיננו מטמא והשם גזר על הזכר כמספר הזכר אשר תשלם צורתו בבטן והנקבה כפלים וזה דבר ברורה ומנוסה:
[PURIFICATION.] The heh of tohorah (purification) is unsounded. It should have been pronounced. It is like the heh in lah (it) in and called it Nobah (Num. 32:43). The meaning of deme tohorah (the blood of purification) is clean blood. This blood, in contrast to dam niddah (menstrual blood), is clean. It does not cause uncleanliness. The forty days that God decreed regarding a male child corresponds to the time it takes for the form of the male to be completed in the womb. It takes double that time for a female. This is clear and tested.

as noted by Iain Lonie (1932-1988), an expert on classical medicine from Otago University, this belief about embryonic development was a general tenet of Greek medicine, widely accepted among Greek natural philosophers:

The belief that male embryos both develop and quicken more rapidly than female was general in antiquity. Galen says that “almost all physicians” were agreed in the opinion, and quotes the statement of Rufus that Diogenes of Apollonia was the sole exception. Extant evidence suggests that the belief, at least in its scientific form, goes back to Empedocles who, according to Oribasius, believed that the male is articulated earlier than the female…

Similarly, Shlomo Naeh, Professor of Rabbinics at Hebrew University, notes that the connection between the post-partum flow and the amount of time it takes for a fetus to form goes back to Hippocrates (5th cent. B.C.E.) On the Nature of the Child:

I brought all of these [details] in to demonstrate that the period when the limbs of the child are articulated occurs at the latest at day 42 for a female and 30 for a male. The proof for this is from the [period of] cleansing from the flow of blood after birth, which lasts for forty-two days after a female and thirty days after a male at the latest.

quoted by: Dr. Rabbi Zev Farber in Postpartum Impurity: Why Is the Duration Double for a Girl?

וידוע כי האשה היולדת אחר עבור עליה כל אלו המכאובות על חבלי יולדה, אם יולדת זכר הכל נשכח. ומיד מתחרטת בשמחת הזכר. והיתה רצונה להזדווג מיד עם בעלה להוליד זכר אחר. והשם יתברך היודע הלבבות. צוה בזכר וטמאה שבעת ימים. לפי שהיא מתחרטת מיד. אבל בנקבה שעברו עליה צירים וחבלים ביום ובלילה. ואחר כך ילדה בת. היא עצובת רוח בעצב כפול.... ולכן אינה מתחרטת משבועתה ומהעולה על לבה. אבל היא מקיימת הדבר. ובאותו זמן אומרת שלעד לעולם לא תזדווג לבעלה. ולכן התורה שירדה לסוף דעתה. צוותה עליה וטמאה שבועים כנדתה. בענין שבזה הזמן תתחרט.

It is known that after a woman gives birth, and all of the birthing pains have passed, if she gives birth to a boy everything is forgotten. She immediately regrets [the vow] in her happiness over having a boy, and wishes to be intimate with her husband and have another boy. Hence, God, who knows the souls of people, commanded that for a boy she be impure only for one week, since she immediately regrets [her vow]. However, for a girl [it is different]. After going through birthing pains day and night and afterwards giving birth to a girl, [the mother] becomes doubly depressed… Therefore, she does not [immediately] regret her vow and the thoughts that inspired it, rather, she remains with them. At that time, she believes that she will never be intimate with her husband again. Therefore, the Torah, which understands her mind, commanded that she be impure like a menstruant for two weeks, since it will take this long for her to regret [the vow].

Tzeror Ha-Mor of R. Abraham Saba (1440–1508) quoted by: Dr. Rabbi Zev Farber in Postpartum Impurity: Why Is the Duration Double for a Girl?

וכפר עליה. אין לשון כפרה נופל כי אם על החטא, ולפיכך קרבן זה של יולדת מחודש כקרבן הנזיר, כי מה חטאה בזמן הלידה שתצריכנה התורה קרבן, ואם זה הקרבן הוא על שבאה בסכנה ונצלה מהמיתה, היה ראוי לה שתביא תודה, ולמה תביא עולה וחטאת. ויתכן לפרש שאין הקרבן הזה מצד חטא של עצמה רק מצד אמה שהיא היתה אם כל חי, כי לולא החטא ההוא היה האדם מוליד עם אשתו שלא בדרך תאוה וחשק אלא בדרך הטבע הגמור, כטבע האילן המוציא פירותיו בכל שנה שלא בתאוה, והיולדת הזו כאמה בתה במעשה החטא, כי הענפים הם מקולקלים בקלקול השורש, ועל כן יצריכנה הכתוב קרבן לכפר על החטא הקדמוני, שכן נצטוה בסבת אותו החטא על שלש מצות, והן נדה וחלה והדלקת הנר. ולפי שהחטא ההוא היה תחלה במחשבה ואח"כ במעשה ומפני זה הזכיר בקרבן יולדת אחד לעולה ואחד לחטאת, כנגד חטא המחשבה וחטא המעשה, ומפני זה הקדים עולה לחטאת, מה שאין כן בשאר הקרבנות שהחטאת קודמת לעולה בכולן, וזה ששנינו בזבחים אחד לעולה ואחד לחטאת, לא הקדימו הכתוב אלא למקראה, והכוונה שלא הקדים הכתוב עולה לחטאת להיותה קודמת במעשה. אבל הענין הקדימה במקראה הוא מטעם זה, לרמוז על חטא המחשבה ההיא שקדם לחטא המעשה, ולדעת רז"ל חטא היולדת הוא שעברה על השבועה, ממה שאמרו בשעה שהיא כורעת לילד קופצת ונשבעת לא אזקק עוד לבעלי, ולפי שהיא נשבעת מתוך הצער ואין השבועה ראויה שתתקיים מפני שהיא משועבדת לבעלה, על כן יצריכנה הכתוב קרבן לכפר על חטא המחשבה.

וכפר עליה, “and atone for her, etc.” The word כפרה, “atonement,” is never used except when applicable to a sin. This is why the very institution of the sin-offering which the woman who has given birth has to bring strikes one as just as unique as that which the Torah demanded of the Nazir, the person who voluntarily abstained from wine, grape-associated products, and impurity (Numbers 6,14). What sin did the woman commit at the time she gave birth that the Torah should impose upon her the need to offer a sin-offering? If this sacrifice were meant to express her gratitude that she was saved from the danger attending every birth, the Torah should have prescribed that she bring a קרבן תודה, a thanksgiving offering! Why demand that she bring a sin-offering? It is possible to understand the reason for this offering as not so much related to her as to her “mother,” i.e. the first woman Chavah, who had committed the first sin as a result of which all women subsequently had to endure painful deliveries, pains of menstruation, separation from their husbands, etc. Had Chavah not been guilty of introducing disobedience to G’d’s command women would have been spared all this. The whole process of giving birth would have remained as natural a process as for trees to yield their fruit. Trees do not have to experience desire in order to become fertilized and to yield their fruit year after year. This woman who gave birth now may be perceived as the branch of a contaminated root, daughter of a corrupted mother and as such some of the mother’s contamination was transmitted to her. Hence the Torah requires that she atones for this by bringing a sin-offering after giving birth. By doing so she does her part in helping to atone for the original sin of Chavah.
In fact, we find that we are taught in Shabbat 31 that women have been commanded to observe three commandments specifically to help undo the spiritual damage caused to the species of man by their original “mother.” They are 1) the observance of a state of impurity with subsequent purification during their regular menstruation cycles. 2) חלה, the separating (and while the Temple was standing giving to the Priest) of the first part of any dough they bake from the five species of grain (Numbers 15,20-21), and 3) the lighting of the Shabbat candles every Friday night. [The last two commandments devolve on the male when there is no woman at hand. Ed.] In fact, according to the Talmud there, failure to observe these three commandments meticulously may result in their dying during childbirth. Seeing that that particular sin was preceded by the sinful thought before it was actually carried out, the woman offers both a burnt-offering and a sin-offering after giving birth; the first offering atones for the sinful thought and the second for the sinful deed (compare verse 5). This is the reason the Torah wrote of the requirement for the woman to bring a burnt-offering before mentioning the need for her to bring a sin-offering. In all other instances where the sin-offering has to be brought on account of a sin committed by the person bringing the offering, the Torah demands that he first cleanse himself spiritually by atoning for the deed before bringing the burnt-offering.
When the Talmud Zevachim 90 states that when the Torah wrote the words אחד לעולה ואחד לחטאת, “one as a burnt-offering and one as a sin-offering,” (verse 8) that the actual presentation of these two offerings does not follow the order in which the two offerings are listed here, this supports our contention that the reason the Torah reversed the order in which the legislation is written is meant to teach us the lesson we mentioned, i.e. that the sinful intention preceded Chavah’s eating of the fruit of that tree, i.e. the offering we speak of here was not in penitence for an unintentional inadvertently committed sin as are most other sin-offerings.
According to the opinion of our sages (Niddah 31) the reason for the sin-offering the mother has to bring is that she presumably was guilty of swearing off marital relations with her husband seeing that the experience of giving birth was so painful and the pregnancy so uncomfortable. Her offering atones for such a lapse on her part. Seeing her oath at the time was due to her being in pain, and she is not a free agent allowed to deny her husband his marital rights, she has committed a culpable sin, i.e. she needs to atone with a burnt-offering for her sinful intent.

אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר. ארז"ל (נדה לא) איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר, והמפרשים כתבו שזה ענין טבעי, וק"ל מה צורך בהודעת ענין זה בפרשה זו המדברת מטומאת יולדת שבעה לזכר וי"ד לנקבה, ועוד מה ענין מצות המילה לכאן אע"פ שנוכל לומר שרצה ליתן טעם למה נתנה המילה בשמיני והוא כדי שלא יהיו הכל שמחים ואביו ואמו עצבים (שם לא;) שהרי יש לה טומאת ז' מ"מ כדי ליישב כל הקושיות בדרך אחד אומר אני שכל זה נמשך בדרך טבע מן חטא הקדום כמ"ש וטהרה ממקור דמיה, כי החטא הקדום של חוה הוא מקור נפתח לדמים טמאים אלו לחטאת ולנדה כמו שמצינו (בעירובין ק:) אמר רב יצחק בר אבדימי הרבה ארבה עצבונך. אלו שני טיפי דמים דם נדה ודם בתולים כו', וכן משמע בירושלמי פרק במה מדליקין (הל' ו) שחטא של חוה הוא מקור לדם נדה, לכך נאמר וטהרה ממקור דמיה כי כל הנשים צריכין טהרה על חטא ראשון אשר ממנו נתפשטה הטומאה והזוהמא בעולם וגרם לכל הנולדים טומאת ז', כי אילו לא חטא האדם היה כמלאך אלקים למעלה מן מערכת ז' כוכבי לכת ובחטאו הוסר ממנו הרוחניות ונפל תחת ממשלת המערכה אשר מצדם נמשכה הטומאה לאדם כי כל דבר גשמי נופל תחת מספר ז' כוכבי לכת, וז' ימי בראשית, וכל שמיני רוחני כי הוא למעלה מז' כמבואר למעלה פר' שמיני (ט א).

I say that all of this stems naturally from the ancient sin, as it says: “and she will be purified from the source of her blood,” for the ancient sin of Eve is the source which opened all of these impure bloods… For all women need purification for the ancient sin from which the impurity and the filth spread across the world, and caused all who are born a seven-day impurity…

And the reason for the two week impurity for the woman herself who gives birth to a female is that it is reasonable that a woman should have double the impurity parallel to the two females, for the seven day impurity is spread to each female from the ancient sin, upon all females in the world. Therefore, it is fitting that she be impure for fourteen days: Seven for herself and another seven for her daughter, since she has now added an extra impurity in the world in addition to her own impurity…

A similar notion appears in the commentary of Moses Alshekh (d. after 1593), who writes: “The impurity of the daughter is doubled, because by means of the woman impurity enters the world, and by bearing a daughter, she increases impurity through her.”

Moses Alshekh, Torat Moshe (5 vols.; Jerusalem: Vagshel, 1990) 3:75. On Alshekh, see Shimon Shalem, Rabbi Moshe Alsheikh (in Hebrew) (Studies and Texts; Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 1966). cited in: A Medieval Jewish Version of Original Sin: Ephraim of Luntshits on Leviticus 12* Alan Cooper Jewish Theological Seminary and Union Theological Seminary

In view of the topic of this paper, the most interesting feature of the Keli yeqar on Leviticus 12 is Ephraim’s wholesale appropriation of Christian anthropology. One observes, for example, parallelsin John Calvin’s commentary. Calvin remarks that while cohabitation without offspring is obviously shameful, here, in Leviticus 12, “the procreation of children, which should remove this indecency, is accounted the cause of pollution, because the whole race of Adam is full of contagion.” Calvin goes on to suggest that the double period of purification for baby girls might be “because the woman was the beginning of the rebellion, when, being deceived by the serpent, she destroyed her husband with her, and drew her posterity into the same ruin.” [John Calvin, Commentaries on the Last Four Books of Moses Arranged in the Form of a Harmony (trans. Charles William Bingham; Calvin’s Commentaries 2; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1979) 499.] Although that is not Calvin’s preferred interpretation, it does seem fair to suggest that the Keli yeqar exemplifi es a broad trend in the interpretation of Leviticus 12 in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. As I continue my research, in addition to discerning clearer lines of connection among Jewish commentators, I also hope to find better evidence of contact between Jewish and Christian commentary.

A Medieval Jewish Version of Original Sin: Ephraim of Luntshits on Leviticus 12* Alan Cooper Jewish Theological Seminary and Union Theological Seminary

ורבנן האי מבעי ליה לרבות טומטום ואנדרוגינוס דסלקא דעתך אמינא זכר ונקבה כתיב זכר ודאי נקבה ודאית ולא טומטום ואנדרוגינוס קמ"ל

The Gemara asks: And what do the Rabbis derive from this superfluous expression? The Gemara answers: In their opinion, that expression is necessary to include the birth of a child whose sexual organs are indeterminate [tumtum] or a hermaphrodite. As it might enter your mind to say that as the words “male” (Leviticus 12:2) and “female” (Leviticus 12:5) are written in the passage, these halakhot apply only to a definite male and a definite female, but not to a tumtum or a hermaphrodite. Therefore, the term “she gives birth” teaches us that it is the birth itself, not the sex of the offspring, that matters.
אינו ידוע תשב לזכר ולנקבה
If the sex of the fetus is unknown, she observes the strictures of a woman who gave birth both to a male and to a female. Accordingly, it is prohibited for her to engage in intercourse for the fourteen days after birth, after which she immerses in a ritual bath. After that she is permitted to engage in intercourse despite any discharge of uterine blood until the fortieth day after birth, i.e., for thirty-three days following the seven days she would have been prohibited from engaging in intercourse if the fetus was male. The prohibition against entering the Temple, however, continues until eighty days have passed from the birth.
טִימְטֵם (Pilp. of טָמַם) 1) to knead into a cohesive shapeless mass, contrad. to גלגל to roll and shape the dough. Ḥall. III, 1 טִימְטְמָהּ בשעורים after one has formed a lump of barley flour; Tosef. ib. I, 11; a. e. —2) to thicken, obstruct, esp. to blunt the understanding. Pes. 42ᵃ מְטַמְטֵם את הלב obstructs the heart (makes a person dull). Yoma 39ᵃ עבירה מְטַמְטֶמֶת … ונְטַמֹּתֶם Ms. (ed. ונטמטם, corr. acc.) sin dulls the heart of man, read not (Lev. XI, 43) v’nitmethem (you will be defiled) but un’tammothem (from טָמַם) (you will become dull-hearted); Yalk. Lev. 545.—Ch. טַמְטֵם.
Hithpalp. - הִיטַּמְטֵם to become a shapeless mass. Ḥall. l. c. ותִטַּמְטֵם; Tosef. ib. l. c. יתִיטַּמְטֵים.

The Importance of Gendering

On a simple level, gendering is about dividing people based on their physical sex, and the Hebrew terms used for male and female in this chapter highlight this. The term used here for the male child, זכר (zakhar), means “phallus” in some Semitic languages—in context, shorthand for “the one with the phallus.”

The term used here for female, נקבה (neqavah), comes from the root נ.ק.ב, meaning “to pierce” or “to bore through.” It is likely a reference to the woman’s perceived passive role in sex; literally, she is the one who will be pierced. Note the parallel term in Akkadian, naqābu, which means “to deflower” or “to rape.” Alternatively, the word could be referencing the shape of female genitalia, that she is one who has been pierced.[7]

While it may seem vulgar to present females in this way, it highlights the connection between sex and gender as understood by ancient Semitic peoples. But in most societies, and certainly for ancient Israelites, gender not only concerns a person’s physical sex, but their social role.

I suggest that the ritual here, even though it is technically about the purity of the mother, is actually about ritually gendering the child. ... Leviticus 12 thus uses the seclusion laws to highlight, and perhaps even reinforce, a child’s gender. By systematically linking the mother’s impurity to the sex of the child, the family publicly announces a child’s gender: “My house has a newborn boy” or “My house has a newborn a girl.” Thus, the re-entry of the Israelite woman into society on day forty or eighty also functioned as an introduction to the newborn boy or girl respectively.

Gendering a Child with Ritual, Dr. Kristine Henriksen Garroway

אלו שאין מביאות כו' ר' שמעון מחייב ביוצא דופן: מ"ט דר"ש אמר ר"ל אמר קרא (ויקרא יב, ה) ואם נקבה תלד לרבות לידה אחרת מאי היא יוצא דופן

§ The mishna teaches: And these women do not bring a sin offering, and among them are a woman who gives birth by caesarean section. Rabbi Shimon deems a woman liable to bring an offering in a case where she gives birth by caesarean section. The Gemara asks: What is the reason of Rabbi Shimon? Reish Lakish said that the verse states: “But if she bears a girl” (Leviticus 12:5). The term “she bears” is superfluous in the context of the passage, and it serves to include another type of birth, and what is it? This is a birth by caesarean section.

המונח 'יוצא דופן'[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

כיום רגילים לכנות דבר חריג או שונה במילים 'יוצא דופן'. מקור המונח הוא בביטוי התלמודי, המתאר לידה שאינה רגילה 'חריגה', מכאן נתגלגל הביטוי לשאר הדברים שהם חריגים.

מַתְנִי׳ הַמַּדִּיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים שְׁתֵּי שַׁבָּתוֹת בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים שַׁבָּת אַחַת
MISHNA: With regard to one who vows that his wife may not derive benefit from marital relations with him, Beit Shammai say: He may maintain this situation for up to two weeks, but beyond that he must divorce her and give her the payment for her marriage contract. Beit Hillel say: He must divorce her if it continues beyond one week.
גְּמָ׳ מַאי טַעְמָא דְּבֵית שַׁמַּאי גָּמְרִי מִיּוֹלֶדֶת נְקֵבָה וּבֵית הִלֵּל גָּמְרִי מִיּוֹלֶדֶת זָכָר
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason that Beit Shammai say a husband may force abstinence on his wife by a vow for a period of up to two weeks without being compelled to divorce her? They derive this from the halakha that a woman who gave birth to a female is ritually impure and prohibited from engaging in conjugal relations with her husband for two weeks after childbirth (see Leviticus 12:5). From this they derive that a period of up to two weeks of abstinence is not deemed undue suffering. And from where do Beit Hillel derive their opinion? They derive it from a woman who gave birth to a male, as she is ritually impure for one week (see Leviticus 12:1–4).
הַתַּלְמִידִים יוֹצְאִין לְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּת שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הַפּוֹעֲלִים שַׁבָּת אַחַת הָעוֹנָה הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה הַטַּיָּילִין בְּכׇל יוֹם הַפּוֹעֲלִים שְׁתַּיִם בְּשַׁבָּת הַחַמָּרִים אַחַת בְּשַׁבָּת הַגַּמָּלִים אַחַת לִשְׁלשִׁים יוֹם הַסַּפָּנִים אַחַת לְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר
Apropos the husband’s obligation to his wife regarding marital relations, the Gemara mentions other aspects of this issue: Students may leave their homes and travel in order to learn Torah without their wives’ permission for up to thirty days, and laborers may leave their homes without their wives’ permission for up to one week. The set interval defining the frequency of a husband’s conjugal obligation to his wife stated in the Torah (see Exodus 21:10), unless the couple stipulated otherwise, varies according to the man’s occupation and proximity to his home: Men of leisure, who do not work, must engage in marital relations every day, laborers must do so twice a week, donkey drivers once a week, camel drivers once every thirty days, and sailors once every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer.

More than a 1,00 years before the published findings of The Kinsey Reports on Sexual Behavior in the Human Female[2] (1953) and the findings of Masters and Johnson, the rabbis gave women the rights to sexual fulfillment.

גמ׳ א"ר מני בר פטיש מאי טעמייהו דרבנן אמר קרא (ויקרא יב, ב) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר עד שתלד במקום שהיא מזרעת
GEMARA: The mishna cites a dispute as to whether or not a birth by caesarean section is considered a birth with regard to the halakhot pertaining to childbirth. Rabbi Mani bar Patish said: What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis, who say that it is not considered a birth? It is because the verse states: “If a woman emitted seed and gave birth to a male, then she shall be impure seven days…And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt offering, and a pigeon or a dove for a sin offering” (Leviticus 12:2–6). It is derived from here that the halakhot mentioned in that passage do not apply unless she gives birth through the place where she emits seed.