The Jewish Calendar - Hacking the Universe

(ב) וְיַעֲשׂ֧וּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־הַפָּ֖סַח בְּמוֹעֲדֽוֹ׃ (ג) בְּאַרְבָּעָ֣ה עָשָֽׂר־י֠וֹם בַּחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֜ה בֵּ֧ין הָֽעַרְבַּ֛יִם תַּעֲשׂ֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ בְּמֹעֲד֑וֹ כְּכׇל־חֻקֹּתָ֥יו וּכְכׇל־מִשְׁפָּטָ֖יו תַּעֲשׂ֥וּ אֹתֽוֹ׃ (ד) וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לַעֲשֹׂ֥ת הַפָּֽסַח׃ (ה) וַיַּעֲשׂ֣וּ אֶת־הַפֶּ֡סַח בָּרִאשׁ֡וֹן בְּאַרְבָּעָה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֥וֹם לַחֹ֛דֶשׁ בֵּ֥ין הָעַרְבַּ֖יִם בְּמִדְבַּ֣ר סִינָ֑י כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֤ה ה' אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֔ה כֵּ֥ן עָשׂ֖וּ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (ו) וַיְהִ֣י אֲנָשִׁ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָי֤וּ טְמֵאִים֙ לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֔ם וְלֹא־יָכְל֥וּ לַעֲשֹׂת־הַפֶּ֖סַח בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַֽיִּקְרְב֞וּ לִפְנֵ֥י מֹשֶׁ֛ה וְלִפְנֵ֥י אַהֲרֹ֖ן בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃ (ז) וַ֠יֹּאמְר֠וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֤ים הָהֵ֙מָּה֙ אֵלָ֔יו אֲנַ֥חְנוּ טְמֵאִ֖ים לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֑ם לָ֣מָּה נִגָּרַ֗ע לְבִלְתִּ֨י הַקְרִ֜יב אֶת־קׇרְבַּ֤ן ה' בְּמֹ֣עֲד֔וֹ בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (ח) וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֖ם מֹשֶׁ֑ה עִמְד֣וּ וְאֶשְׁמְעָ֔ה מַה־יְצַוֶּ֥ה ה' לָכֶֽם׃ {פ}
(ט) וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר ה' אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ (י) דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר אִ֣ישׁ אִ֣ישׁ כִּי־יִהְיֶֽה־טָמֵ֣א ׀ לָנֶ֡פֶשׁ אוֹ֩ בְדֶ֨רֶךְ רְחֹקָ֜הׄ לָכֶ֗ם א֚וֹ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְעָ֥שָׂה פֶ֖סַח לַה'׃ (יא) בַּחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֜י בְּאַרְבָּעָ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר י֛וֹם בֵּ֥ין הָעַרְבַּ֖יִם יַעֲשׂ֣וּ אֹת֑וֹ עַל־מַצּ֥וֹת וּמְרֹרִ֖ים יֹאכְלֻֽהוּ׃ (יב) לֹֽא־יַשְׁאִ֤ירוּ מִמֶּ֙נּוּ֙ עַד־בֹּ֔קֶר וְעֶ֖צֶם לֹ֣א יִשְׁבְּרוּ־ב֑וֹ כְּכׇל־חֻקַּ֥ת הַפֶּ֖סַח יַעֲשׂ֥וּ אֹתֽוֹ׃ (יג) וְהָאִישׁ֩ אֲשֶׁר־ה֨וּא טָה֜וֹר וּבְדֶ֣רֶךְ לֹא־הָיָ֗ה וְחָדַל֙ לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת הַפֶּ֔סַח וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵֽעַמֶּ֑יהָ כִּ֣י ׀ קׇרְבַּ֣ן ה' לֹ֤א הִקְרִיב֙ בְּמֹ֣עֲד֔וֹ חֶטְא֥וֹ יִשָּׂ֖א הָאִ֥ישׁ הַהֽוּא׃

(2) Let the Israelite people offer the passover sacrifice at its set time: (3) you shall offer it on the fourteenth day of this month, at twilight, at its set time; you shall offer it in accordance with all its rules and rites. (4) Moses instructed the Israelites to offer the passover sacrifice; (5) and they offered the passover sacrifice in the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight, in the wilderness of Sinai. Just as the LORD had commanded Moses, so the Israelites did. (6) But there were some men who were unclean by reason of a corpse and could not offer the passover sacrifice on that day. Appearing that same day before Moses and Aaron, (7) those men said to them, “Unclean though we are by reason of a corpse, why must we be debarred from presenting the LORD’s offering at its set time with the rest of the Israelites?” (8) Moses said to them, “Stand by, and let me hear what instructions the LORD gives about you.” (9) And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying: (10) Speak to the Israelite people, saying: When any of you or of your posterity who are defiled by a corpse or are on a long journey would offer a passover sacrifice to the LORD, (11) they shall offer it in the second month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight. They shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, (12) and they shall not leave any of it over until morning. They shall not break a bone of it. They shall offer it in strict accord with the law of the passover sacrifice. (13) But if a man who is clean and not on a journey refrains from offering the passover sacrifice, that person shall be cut off from his kin, for he did not present the LORD’s offering at its set time; that man shall bear his guilt.

(ב) הַחֹ֧דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם רֹ֣אשׁ חֳדָשִׁ֑ים רִאשׁ֥וֹן הוּא֙ לָכֶ֔ם לְחׇדְשֵׁ֖י הַשָּׁנָֽה׃

(2) This month shall mark for you the beginning of the months; it shall be the first of the months of the year for you.

(יח) בָּרִאשֹׁ֡ן בְּאַרְבָּעָה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֤וֹם לַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב תֹּאכְל֖וּ מַצֹּ֑ת עַ֠ד י֣וֹם הָאֶחָ֧ד וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ בָּעָֽרֶב׃

(18) In the first month, from the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the month at evening.

(א) וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח יְחִזְקִיָּ֜הוּ עַל־כׇּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל וִיהוּדָ֗ה וְגַֽם־אִגְּרוֹת֙ כָּתַב֙ עַל־אֶפְרַ֣יִם וּמְנַשֶּׁ֔ה לָב֥וֹא לְבֵית־ה' בִּירוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת פֶּ֔סַח לַה' אֱלֹקֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (ב) וַיִּוָּעַ֨ץ הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ וְשָׂרָ֛יו וְכׇל־הַקָּהָ֖ל בִּירוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת הַפֶּ֖סַח בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִֽי׃ (ג) כִּ֣י לֹ֧א יָכְל֛וּ לַעֲשֹׂת֖וֹ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֑יא כִּ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ לֹֽא־הִתְקַדְּשׁ֣וּ לְמַדַּ֔י וְהָעָ֖ם לֹא־נֶאֶסְפ֥וּ לִירוּשָׁלָֽ͏ִם׃ (ד) וַיִּישַׁ֥ר הַדָּבָ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֣י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וּבְעֵינֵ֖י כׇּל־הַקָּהָֽל׃ (ה) וַיַּעֲמִ֣ידוּ דָבָ֗ר לְהַעֲבִ֨יר ק֤וֹל בְּכׇל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִבְּאֵֽר־שֶׁ֣בַע וְעַד־דָּ֔ן לָב֞וֹא לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת פֶּ֛סַח לַה' אֱלֹהֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בִּירוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם כִּ֣י לֹ֥א לָרֹ֛ב עָשׂ֖וּ כַּכָּתֽוּב׃ (ו) וַיֵּלְכוּ֩ הָרָצִ֨ים בָּאִגְּר֜וֹת מִיַּ֧ד הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ וְשָׂרָ֗יו בְּכׇל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה וּכְמִצְוַ֥ת הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לֵאמֹ֑ר בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שׁ֚וּבוּ אֶל־ה' אֱלֹקֵי֙ אַבְרָהָם֙ יִצְחָ֣ק וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְיָשֹׁב֙ אֶל־הַפְּלֵיטָ֔ה הַנִּשְׁאֶ֣רֶת לָכֶ֔ם מִכַּ֖ף מַלְכֵ֥י אַשּֽׁוּר׃ (ז) וְאַל־תִּֽהְי֗וּ כַּאֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶם֙ וְכַ֣אֲחֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָעֲל֔וּ בַּה' אֱלֹקֵ֣י אֲבוֹתֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּתְּנֵ֣ם לְשַׁמָּ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר אַתֶּ֥ם רֹאִֽים׃ (ח) עַתָּ֕ה אַל־תַּקְשׁ֥וּ עׇרְפְּכֶ֖ם כַּאֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם תְּנוּ־יָ֣ד לַה' וּבֹ֤אוּ לְמִקְדָּשׁוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִקְדִּ֣ישׁ לְעוֹלָ֔ם וְעִבְדוּ֙ אֶת־ה' אֱלֹקֵיכֶ֔ם וְיָשֹׁ֥ב מִכֶּ֖ם חֲר֥וֹן אַפּֽוֹ׃ (ט) כִּ֣י בְשׁוּבְכֶ֞ם עַל־ה' אֲחֵיכֶ֨ם וּבְנֵיכֶ֤ם לְרַֽחֲמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י שֽׁוֹבֵיהֶ֔ם וְלָשׁ֖וּב לָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֑את כִּֽי־חַנּ֤וּן וְרַחוּם֙ ה' אֱלֹקֵיכֶ֔ם וְלֹֽא־יָסִ֤יר פָּנִים֙ מִכֶּ֔ם אִם־תָּשׁ֖וּבוּ אֵלָֽיו׃ {ס} (י) וַיִּהְי֨וּ הָרָצִ֜ים עֹבְרִ֨ים מֵעִ֧יר ׀ לָעִ֛יר בְּאֶרֶץ־אֶפְרַ֥יִם וּמְנַשֶּׁ֖ה וְעַד־זְבֻל֑וּן וַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ מַשְׂחִיקִ֣ים עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וּמַלְעִגִ֖ים בָּֽם׃ (יא) אַךְ־אֲנָשִׁ֛ים מֵאָשֵׁ֥ר וּמְנַשֶּׁ֖ה וּמִזְּבֻל֑וּן נִֽכְנְע֔וּ וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ לִירוּשָׁלָֽ͏ִם׃ (יב) גַּ֣ם בִּיהוּדָ֗ה הָֽיְתָה֙ יַ֣ד הָאֱלֹקִ֔ים לָתֵ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם לֵ֣ב אֶחָ֑ד לַעֲשׂ֞וֹת מִצְוַ֥ת הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְהַשָּׂרִ֖ים בִּדְבַ֥ר ה'׃ (יג) וַיֵּאָסְפ֤וּ יְרוּשָׁלַ֙͏ִם֙ עַם־רָ֔ב לַעֲשׂ֛וֹת אֶת־חַ֥ג הַמַּצּ֖וֹת בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֑י קָהָ֖ל לָרֹ֥ב מְאֹֽד׃ (יד) וַיָּקֻ֕מוּ וַיָּסִ֙ירוּ֙ אֶת־הַֽמִּזְבְּח֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֖ר בִּירוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם וְאֵ֤ת כׇּל־הַֽמְקַטְּרוֹת֙ הֵסִ֔ירוּ וַיַּשְׁלִ֖יכוּ לְנַ֥חַל קִדְרֽוֹן׃ (טו) וַיִּשְׁחֲט֣וּ הַפֶּ֔סַח בְּאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֑י וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֨ים וְהַלְוִיִּ֤ם נִכְלְמוּ֙ וַיִּֽתְקַדְּשׁ֔וּ וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ עֹל֖וֹת בֵּ֥ית ה'׃ (טז) וַיַּעַמְד֤וּ עַל־עׇמְדָם֙ כְּמִשְׁפָּטָ֔ם כְּתוֹרַ֖ת מֹשֶׁ֣ה אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹקִ֑ים הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ זֹרְקִ֣ים אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם מִיַּ֖ד הַלְוִיִּֽם׃ (יז) כִּי־רַבַּ֥ת בַּקָּהָ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־הִתְקַדָּ֑שׁוּ וְהַלְוִיִּ֞ם עַל־שְׁחִיטַ֣ת הַפְּסָחִ֗ים לְכֹל֙ לֹ֣א טָה֔וֹר לְהַקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַה'׃ (יח) כִּ֣י מַרְבִּ֣ית הָעָ֡ם רַ֠בַּ֠ת מֵאֶפְרַ֨יִם וּמְנַשֶּׁ֜ה יִשָּׂשכָ֤ר וּזְבֻלוּן֙ לֹ֣א הִטֶּהָ֔רוּ כִּֽי־אָכְל֥וּ אֶת־הַפֶּ֖סַח בְּלֹ֣א כַכָּת֑וּב כִּי֩ הִתְפַּלֵּ֨ל יְחִזְקִיָּ֤הוּ עֲלֵיהֶם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר ה' הַטּ֖וֹב יְכַפֵּ֥ר בְּעַֽד׃ (יט) כׇּל־לְבָב֣וֹ הֵכִ֔ין לִדְר֛וֹשׁ הָאֱלֹקִ֥ים ׀ ה' אֱלֹקֵ֣י אֲבוֹתָ֑יו וְלֹ֖א כְּטׇהֳרַ֥ת הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ׃ {ס} (כ) וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע ה' אֶל־יְחִזְקִיָּ֔הוּ וַיִּרְפָּ֖א אֶת־הָעָֽם׃ {ס} (כא) וַיַּעֲשׂ֣וּ בְנֵֽי־יִ֠שְׂרָאֵ֠ל הַנִּמְצְאִ֨ים בִּירוּשָׁלַ֜͏ִם אֶת־חַ֧ג הַמַּצּ֛וֹת שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים בְּשִׂמְחָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה וּֽמְהַלְלִ֣ים לַ֠ה' י֣וֹם ׀ בְּי֞וֹם הַלְוִיִּ֧ם וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֛ים בִּכְלֵי־עֹ֖ז לַה'׃ {ס} (כב) וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְחִזְקִיָּ֗הוּ עַל־לֵב֙ כׇּל־הַלְוִיִּ֔ם הַמַּשְׂכִּילִ֥ים שֵֽׂכֶל־ט֖וֹב לַה' וַיֹּאכְל֤וּ אֶת־הַמּוֹעֵד֙ שִׁבְעַ֣ת הַיָּמִ֔ים מְזַבְּחִים֙ זִבְחֵ֣י שְׁלָמִ֔ים וּמִ֨תְוַדִּ֔ים לַה' אֱלֹקֵ֥י אֲבוֹתֵיהֶֽם׃ {ס} (כג) וַיִּוָּֽעֲצוּ֙ כׇּל־הַקָּהָ֔ל לַעֲשׂ֕וֹת שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים וַיַּעֲשׂ֥וּ שִׁבְעַת־יָמִ֖ים שִׂמְחָֽה׃ (כד) כִּ֣י חִזְקִיָּ֣הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְ֠הוּדָ֠ה הֵרִ֨ים לַקָּהָ֜ל אֶ֣לֶף פָּרִים֮ וְשִׁבְעַ֣ת אֲלָפִ֣ים צֹאן֒ {ס} וְהַשָּׂרִ֞ים הֵרִ֤ימוּ לַקָּהָל֙ פָּרִ֣ים אֶ֔לֶף וְצֹ֖אן עֲשֶׂ֣רֶת אֲלָפִ֑ים וַיִּֽתְקַדְּשׁ֥וּ כֹהֲנִ֖ים לָרֹֽב׃ (כה) וַֽיִּשְׂמְח֣וּ ׀ כׇּל־קְהַ֣ל יְהוּדָ֗ה וְהַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ וְהַלְוִיִּ֔ם וְכׇל־הַקָּהָ֖ל הַבָּאִ֣ים מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהַגֵּרִ֗ים הַבָּאִים֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהַיּוֹשְׁבִ֖ים בִּיהוּדָֽה׃ (כו) וַתְּהִ֥י שִׂמְחָֽה־גְדוֹלָ֖ה בִּירוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם כִּ֠י מִימֵ֞י שְׁלֹמֹ֤ה בֶן־דָּוִיד֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א כָזֹ֖את בִּירוּשָׁלָֽ͏ִם׃ {ס} (כז) וַיָּקֻ֜מוּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֤ים הַלְוִיִּם֙ וַיְבָרְכ֣וּ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַיִּשָּׁמַ֖ע בְּקוֹלָ֑ם וַתָּב֧וֹא תְפִלָּתָ֛ם לִמְע֥וֹן קׇדְשׁ֖וֹ לַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃ {פ}

(1) Hezekiah sent word to all Israel and Judah; he also wrote letters to Ephraim and Manasseh to come to the House of the LORD in Jerusalem to keep the Passover for the LORD God of Israel. (2) The king and his officers and the congregation in Jerusalem had agreed to keep the Passover in the second month, (3) for at the time, they were unable to keep it, for not enough priests had sanctified themselves, nor had the people assembled in Jerusalem. (4) The king and the whole congregation thought it proper (5) to issue a decree and proclaim throughout all Israel from Beer-sheba to Dan that they come and keep the Passover for the LORD God of Israel in Jerusalem—not often did they act in accord with what was written. (6) The couriers went out with the letters from the king and his officers through all Israel and Judah, by order of the king, proclaiming, “O you Israelites! Return to the LORD God of your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and He will return to the remnant of you who escaped from the hand of the kings of Assyria. (7) Do not be like your fathers and brothers who trespassed against the LORD God of their fathers and He turned them into a horror, as you see. (8) Now do not be stiffnecked like your fathers; submit yourselves to the LORD and come to His sanctuary, which He consecrated forever, and serve the LORD your God so that His anger may turn back from you. (9) If you return to the LORD, your brothers and children will be regarded with compassion by their captors, and will return to this land; for the LORD your God is gracious and merciful; He will not turn His face from you if you return to Him.” (10) As the couriers passed from town to town in the land of Ephraim and Manasseh till they reached Zebulun, they were laughed at and mocked. (11) Some of the people of Asher and Manasseh and Zebulun, however, were contrite, and came to Jerusalem. (12) The hand of God was on Judah, too, making them of a single mind to carry out the command of the king and officers concerning the ordinance of the LORD. (13) A great crowd assembled at Jerusalem to keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the second month, a very great congregation. (14) They set to and removed the altars that were in Jerusalem, and they removed all the incense stands and threw them into Wadi Kidron. (15) They slaughtered the paschal sacrifice on the fourteenth of the second month. The priests and Levites were ashamed, and they sanctified themselves and brought burnt offerings to the House of the LORD. (16) They took their stations, as was their rule according to the Teaching of Moses, man of God. The priests dashed the blood [which they received] from the Levites. (17) Since many in the congregation had not sanctified themselves, the Levites were in charge of slaughtering the paschal sacrifice for everyone who was not clean, so as to consecrate them to the LORD. (18) For most of the people—many from Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun—had not purified themselves, yet they ate the paschal sacrifice in violation of what was written. Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, “The good LORD will provide atonement for (19) everyone who set his mind on worshiping God, the LORD God of his fathers, even if he is not purified for the sanctuary.” (20) The LORD heard Hezekiah and healed the people. (21) The Israelites who were in Jerusalem kept the Feast of Unleavened Bread seven days, with great rejoicing, the Levites and the priests praising the LORD daily with powerful instruments for the LORD. (22) Hezekiah persuaded all the Levites who performed skillfully for the LORD to spend the seven days of the festival making offerings of well-being, and confessing to the LORD God of their fathers. (23) All the congregation resolved to keep seven more days, so they kept seven more days of rejoicing. (24) King Hezekiah of Judah contributed to the congregation 1,000 bulls and 7,000 sheep. And the officers contributed to the congregation 1,000 bulls and 10,000 sheep. And the priests sanctified themselves in large numbers. (25) All the congregation of Judah and the priests and the Levites and all the congregation that came from Israel, and the resident aliens who came from the land of Israel and who lived in Judah, rejoiced. (26) There was great rejoicing in Jerusalem, for since the time of King Solomon son of David of Israel nothing like it had happened in Jerusalem. (27) The Levite priests rose and blessed the people, and their voice was heard, and their prayer went up to His holy abode, to heaven.

נכלמו. על מה שאחרו להתקדש עד הנה ובעבורם עברו השנה:

The priests and Levites were ashamed. Because they delayed purification until then and their account the year was intercalated (leap year).

תנו רבנן אין מעברין את השנה מפני הטומאה רבי יהודה אומר מעברין אמר רבי יהודה מעשה בחזקיה מלך יהודה שעיבר את השנה מפני הטומאה ובקש רחמים על עצמו דכתיב (דברי הימים ב ל, יח) כי מרבית העם רבת מאפרים ומנשה יששכר וזבולון לא הטהרו (דה"ב ל, יח) כי אכלו את הפסח בלא ככתוב כי התפלל חזקיהו עליהם לאמר ה' הטוב יכפר בעד רבי שמעון אומר אם מפני הטומאה עיברוה מעוברת אלא מפני מה ביקש רחמים על עצמו שאין מעברין אלא אדר והוא עיבר ניסן בניסן ר' שמעון בן יהודה אומר משום ר"ש מפני שהשיא את ישראל לעשות פסח שני:

§ The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 2:10): The court may not intercalate the year due to ritual impurity, i.e., in the event that most of the Jewish people are in a state of impurity, to give them enough time to become ritually pure before Passover. Rabbi Yehuda says: The court may intercalate the year due to ritual impurity. Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving Hezekiah, king of Judea, who intercalated the year due to ritual impurity (II Chronicles 30:2). And after doing so, he requested compassion for himself, as it is written: “For a multitude of the people, even many of Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, [12b] yet they ate the Paschal lamb not as is written. For Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying: May the good Lord pardon everyone who sets his heart to seek God…though he not be cleansed according to the purification that pertains to sacred items” (II Chronicles 30:18–19). Rabbi Shimon says: If the court intercalated the year due to ritual impurity, it is indeed intercalated. But if ritual impurity is ultimately a legitimate reason for intercalating the year, for what reason did Hezekiah request compassion for himself? Because the court may intercalate only the month of Adar, and he intercalated the month of Nisan during the month of Nisan itself. Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: The incident did not involve the intercalation of the year; rather he appealed for mercy because he encouraged the Jewish people to bypass the standard first Pesaḥ and instead to perform the second Pesaḥ.

ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה אלא אם כן ירצה נשיא ומעשה ברבן גמליאל שהלך ליטול רשות אצל שלטון אחד שבסוריא ושהה לבא ועיברו את השנה על מנת שירצה רבן גמליאל וכשבא ר"ג ואמר רוצה אני נמצאת שנה מעוברת תנו רבנן אין מעברין את השנה אלא אם כן היתה צריכה מפני הדרכים ומפני הגשרים ומפני תנורי פסחים ומפני גליות ישראל שנעקרו ממקומן ועדיין לא הגיעו אבל לא מפני השלג ולא מפני הצינה ולא מפני גליות ישראל שלא עקרו ממקומן ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה לא מפני הגדיים ולא מפני הטלאים ולא מפני הגוזלות שלא פירחו אבל עושין אותן סעד לשנה

§ The Gemara returns to the discussion about intercalation of the year. The Sages taught: The year may be intercalated only if the Nasi of the Sanhedrin wants to intercalate it. And there was once an incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who went to ask permission for some communal matter from an officer [hegmon] in Syria, and he tarried in returning until after it was too late to intercalate the year. And because they did not know what his opinion on the matter was, they intercalated the year on the condition that Rabban Gamliel would want to do so. And when Rabban Gamliel came back and said: I want to intercalate the year, the year was found to be retroactively intercalated. The Sages taught: The year may be intercalated only if it is necessary due to damage to the roads, if the rain has damaged them in such a way that they are inaccessible for those ascending to Jerusalem for Passover; or due to the bridges that are likewise in disrepair; or due to the ovens for the Paschal offerings that are damaged and unfit for roasting the offerings; or due to the Diaspora Jews who have left their homes and still have not arrived due to delays in travel. But the year may not be intercalated due to the snow, and not due to the cold, and not due to the Diaspora Jews who have not yet left from their homes, even if they no longer have enough time to reach Jerusalem for the Festival. The Sages taught: The year may not be intercalated due to the young goats and not due to the lambs, to allow them to grow larger before they are to be sacrificed as Paschal offerings; and not due to the fledgling doves who have not yet developed sufficiently to fly, so that there won’t be enough of them to supply all those who wish to bring bird offerings at the Festival. But all these considerations may be made supporting factors in the decision to intercalate the year.

A Muslim Perspective

Before Islam, Pagan Arabs used a lunisolar calendar system to calculate their month and years. The months were calculated according to the lunar cycle; however, they would add 10-11 days to the lunar calendar to align with the solar calendar. Hence, the pre-Islamic Arabian calendar started and ended in the fall of each year.

The pre-Islamic Arabic months’ names are the same as the one we use in the Islamic calendar, and some scholars note that the Arabs inherited this calendar system from Prophet Abraham and his son Prophet Ismaeel when they settled in Arabia. The proof for this is that the Arabs had the same four sacred months in their calendar as those in the Islamic calendar with very similar rituals, e.g., Hajj would be in Dhul-Hijja, and fighting was prohibited during the sacred months.

However, the Pagan Arabs manipulated these 12 months and each sacred month’s position to align with business and political interests. This manipulation of the months of the year was what Islam referred to as Al-Nasi’ (or in English intercalation) and was forbidden in the Quran. Allah says in the Quran:

إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ ۖ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِّيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ فَيُحِلُّوا مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ ۚ زُيِّنَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ أَعْمَالِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

“Indeed, the (nasi’) – postponing [of restriction within sacred months]- is an increase in disbelief by which those who have disbelieved are led [further] astray. They make it lawful one year and unlawful another year to correspond to the number made unlawful by Allah and [thus] make lawful what Allah has made unlawful. Made pleasing to them is the evil of their deeds, and Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.” [Quran 9: 37]

According to Tafseer Maududi: “The pagan Arabs practiced nasi’ in two ways:

  1. Whenever it suited them, they would declare a sacred month to be an ordinary month in which fighting, robbery, and murder in retaliation were lawful for them. Then they would declare an ordinary month to be a sacred month in order to make up for the missed sacred month.
  2. The other way of nasi’ was the addition of a month in order to harmonize the lunar with the solar year so that the Hajj would always fall in the same season and they would be saved from the inconvenience of the shifting Hajj seasons that are experienced by its observance according to the lunar year.”

Why The Islamic Calendar Matters More Than You Think, Mohammed Faris, Mon 6 Dhul Hijjah 1441AH 27-7-2020AD

The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Hebrew calendar used by the Jews, since intercalation was announced by the Nasi, meaning "prince", or "ruler".[10] The Hebrew calendar commanded by Moses son of Amram, Mūsā bin ʿImrān, in Exodus 12, is necessarily lunisolar, because the lunar new year is fixed to the month of Aviv, or spring, and cannot rotate through the year. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasi%27#cite_ref-10

אָמַר רַבִּי דּוֹסָא בֶּן הוֹרְכִּינָס עֵדֵי שֶׁקֶר הֵן הֵיאַךְ מְעִידִים עַל הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּלְדָה וּלְמָחָר כְּרֵיסָהּ בֵּין שִׁינֶּיהָ אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ רוֹאֶה אֲנִי אֶת דְּבָרֶיךָ שָׁלַח לוֹ רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל גּוֹזְרַנִי עָלֶיךָ שֶׁתָּבֹא אֶצְלִי בְּמַקֶּלְךָ וּבִמְעוֹתֶיךָ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹנֶךָ הָלַךְ וּמְצָאוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מֵיצֵר אָמַר לוֹ יֵשׁ לִי לִלְמוֹד שֶׁכׇּל מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל עָשׂוּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אֵלֶּה מוֹעֲדֵי ה׳ מִקְרָאֵי קֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּקְרְאוּ אֹתָם בֵּין בִּזְמַנָּן בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בִּזְמַנָּן אֵין לִי מוֹעֲדוֹת אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ
Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas disagreed and said: They are false witnesses; how can witnesses testify that a woman gave birth and the next day her belly is between her teeth, i.e., she is obviously still pregnant? If the new moon was already visible at its anticipated time, how could it not be seen a day later? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: I see the logic of your statement; the New Moon must be established a day later. Upon hearing that Rabbi Yehoshua had challenged his ruling, Rabban Gamliel sent a message to him: I decree against you that you must appear before me with your staff and with your money on the day on which Yom Kippur occurs according to your calculation; according to my calculation, that day is the eleventh of Tishrei, the day after Yom Kippur. Rabbi Akiva went and found Rabbi Yehoshua distressed that the head of the Great Sanhedrin was forcing him to desecrate the day that he maintained was Yom Kippur. In an attempt to console him, Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yehoshua: I can learn from a verse that everything that Rabban Gamliel did in sanctifying the month is done, i.e., it is valid. As it is stated: “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, sacred convocations, which you shall proclaim in their season” (Leviticus 23:4). This verse indicates that whether you have proclaimed them at their proper time or whether you have declared them not at their proper time, I have only these Festivals as established by the representatives of the Jewish people.

Secrecy

the absence in the Bible of any direct allusion to the methods of intercalation should cause no surprise. The cuneiform texts recovered from Mesopotamia include some that were intended solely for the narrow circle of the priesthood. 4) But the Bible as we have it was intended for the use of the public. It holds no secrets that the public should not know. And the secrets of the calendar, like the secrets of priestly divination, must have been guarded by the priests with jealous care. Such continued to be the practice in Palestine in later times also. Not only did the priests themselves examine witnesses to the appearance of the new moon in the Mishnaic period, 5) but the Nasi' reserved to himself the sole authority in calendrical matters. We read that "a year cannot be declared embolismic unless the Nasi' sanctions it". 6) The secrets of 1) intercalation were handed down by the Nesi' im from father to son. 1) They were not known outside the group of three or five or seven '"wise men", 2) and others were forbidden in Mishnaic times to presume knowledge of them; and we may recall the incident, about the end of the 1st century A.D., when the celebrated Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah was forced publicly to proclaim his error in fixing the calendar not according to the ruling of the Nasi' Rabban Gamaliel.

J. B. Segal, Intercalation and the Hebrew Calendar, Author(s): Source: Vetus Testamentum , Jul., 1957, Vol. 7, Fasc. 3 (Jul., 1957), pp. 250-307

Was the first Pesach Sheni a model for an intercalated (leap) year?

1) while Hezekiah deferred Passover first to the second month. The later Jews, on the other hand, intercalated Nisan, the month of the spring festival; intercalation was in the previous month, Adar. In one respect, however, find a significant similarity between the early practice of the and the later practice of the Jews. In early times the ritual of the or autumn month was, my theory maintains, postponed to the ing month, and such, we have seen, was the action of Jeroboam Hezekiah. In the same way the Jews considered the first intercalary; the immediately following month ( 2 Adar) was as the true Adar and in it were performed the religious ceremonies peculiar to that month

J. B. Segal ibid

Heavenly Calendar and an Earthly Calendar

In the minds of the authors, the Enochic calendar and the 4Q317 lunisolar calendar represent a heavenly-based system that operates independently of the earthly sphere (cf. the Astronomical Book where the two legitimate systems merely need to be synchronized). Time in heaven is precise and unchanging while time on earth is warped and inexact. Time in heaven is base-60,280 with which time on earth does not agree. In heaven, the calendar makes sense. It hasn't changed and the perceived incongruences with any earthly calendar are merely coincidental due to earth's imperfections (caused by the sins of the watchers, mankind and the giants).

A Reassessment of Qumran’s Calendars, Stephen Pfann, University of the Holy Land

אֱלקֵינוּ וֵאלקֵי אֲבותֵינוּ. חַדֵּשׁ עָלֵינוּ אֶת הַחדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לְטובָה וְלִבְרָכָה. לְששון וּלְשמְחָה. לִישׁוּעָה וּלְנֶחָמָה. לְפַרְנָסָה וּלְכַלְכָּלָה. לְחַיִּים וּלְשָׁלום. לִמְחִילַת חֵטְא וְלִסְלִיחַת עָון. בשנת העיבור עד חודש ניסן וּלְכַפָּרַת פָּשַׁע. כִּי בְעַמְּךָ יִשרָאֵל בָּחַרְתָּ מִכָּל הָאֻמּות. וְחֻקֵּי רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים לָהֶם קָבָעְתָּ:

The first commandment given to the Jewish people was to construct their own calendar. What resulted was one of the most precise calendars ever produced. What makes the Hebrew calendar one the most precise calendars ever produced by any civilization? The Hebrew calendar (along with the Chinese, Tibetan and Hindu calendars) is a lunisolar calendar; it functions in harmony with both the solar and lunar cycles, whereas, our current (Christian) Gregorian calendar is purely a solar calendar. A solar calendar is very effective in keeping holidays in prescribed seasons; Easter in the spring and Christmas in the winter. However, the Gregorian calendar makes no attempt to harmonize with the lunar cycle. As a result, New Year's Day or any month of the year can and does appear during any phase of the moon. On the other hand, the Islamic calendar is purely a lunar calendar and is very effective at beginning each and every month with a new moon. However, the Islamic calendar makes no attempt to harmonize with the solar cycle. As a result, Islamic holidays can and do appear in all different seasons from year to year. The Hebrew calendar (along with the Tibetan, Hindu and Chinese calendars), in comparison, is far more complicated and maintains harmony with both the solar and lunar cycles. The Hebrew months always begin with the new moon and the holidays always occur in a prescribed season. Passover is always in the spring, Rosh Hashana always in the fall, and Hanukkah is always in the winter. Therefore, from this calendric perspective, Judaism and Christianity share the love of holidays occurring in prescribed seasons. In the winter, while Christians celebrate Christmas, Jews celebrate Hanukkah. In the spring when Christians celebrate Easter, Jews celebrate Passover. Likewise from this calendric perspective, Judaism and Islam share an appreciation of the moon's phases. For Jews and Muslims, looking at the moon is like looking at a calendar. If it's a full moon, it's always the 15th of the month. If it's a quarter moon, it is either the seventh or the 21st of the month, depending on whether the moon is waning or waxing. I believe these calendric aspects reflect a unique philosophy and general disposition of Judaism and the Jewish people. Jewish life perspectives train Jews to be open-minded, eclectic and always willing to regard and learn from others. The Bible calls Jews "the children of Israel." Jews are encouraged to maintain a fresh, childlike curiosity and thirst for knowledge. Moreover, the ability to establish harmony with the celestial bodies above and harmony with the civilizations below is a life skill Jews acquire from their unique heritage. Whether one is a Christian existing in harmony with the sun, or a Muslim existing in harmony with the moon, the essence of all worthy religions is existing in harmony with one another. May we all live in harmony and be worthy before God. Amen!

Hebrew calendar is one of the most accurate on earth News-Times, The (Danbury, CT), Rabbi Shaul Marshall Praver May 7, 2005Updated: Nov. 15, 2009 2:55 p.m.

“If God had consulted me before embarking on the Creation, I would have suggested something simpler.”

Alfonso X of Castile

The theories of my predecessors were like a human figure in which the arms, legs, and head were put together in the form of a disorderly monster..

Nicolous Copernicus, In the preface to De revolutionibus