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The House That Jake Built - Parshat Vayeishev

Source Sheet by David Kasher
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Created December 10, 2020 · 53 Views נוצר 10 December, 2020 · 53 צפיות

  1. (א) וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב יַעֲקֹ֔ב בְּאֶ֖רֶץ מְגוּרֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו בְּאֶ֖רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן׃ (ב) אֵ֣לֶּה ׀ תֹּלְד֣וֹת יַעֲקֹ֗ב יוֹסֵ֞ף בֶּן־שְׁבַֽע־עֶשְׂרֵ֤ה שָׁנָה֙ הָיָ֨ה רֹעֶ֤ה אֶת־אֶחָיו֙ בַּצֹּ֔אן וְה֣וּא נַ֗עַר אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י בִלְהָ֛ה וְאֶת־בְּנֵ֥י זִלְפָּ֖ה נְשֵׁ֣י אָבִ֑יו וַיָּבֵ֥א יוֹסֵ֛ף אֶת־דִּבָּתָ֥ם רָעָ֖ה אֶל־אֲבִיהֶֽם׃ (ג) וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָהַ֤ב אֶת־יוֹסֵף֙ מִכָּל־בָּנָ֔יו כִּֽי־בֶן־זְקֻנִ֥ים ה֖וּא ל֑וֹ וְעָ֥שָׂה ל֖וֹ כְּתֹ֥נֶת פַּסִּֽים׃ (ד) וַיִּרְא֣וּ אֶחָ֗יו כִּֽי־אֹת֞וֹ אָהַ֤ב אֲבִיהֶם֙ מִכָּל־אֶחָ֔יו וַֽיִּשְׂנְא֖וּ אֹת֑וֹ וְלֹ֥א יָכְל֖וּ דַּבְּר֥וֹ לְשָׁלֹֽם׃

    (1) Now Jacob was settled in the land where his father had sojourned, the land of Canaan. (2) This, then, is the line of Jacob: At seventeen years of age, Joseph tended the flocks with his brothers, as a helper to the sons of his father’s wives Bilhah and Zilpah. And Joseph brought bad reports of them to their father. (3) Now Israel loved Joseph best of all his sons, for he was the child of his old age; and he had made him an ornamented tunic. (4) And when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than any of his brothers, they hated him so that they could not speak a friendly word to him.

  2. (א) בן זקנים. שֶׁנּוֹלַד לוֹ לְעֵת זִקְנָתוֹ. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם בַּר חַכִּים הוּא לֵהּ – כָּל מַה שֶּׁלָּמַד מִשֵּׁם וָעֵבֶר מָסַר לוֹ. דָּ"אַ, שֶׁהָיָה זִיו אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלוֹ דּוֹמֶה לוֹ:
    (1) בן זקנים THE SON OF HIS OLD AGE — because he was a wise son to him” — all that he had learnt from Shem and Eber he taught him (Genesis Rabbah 84:8). Another explanation of בן זקנים— his facial features were similar to his (Jacob’s) (Genesis Rabbah 84:8).
  3. (א) וישב יעקב וגו'. אַחַר שֶׁכָּתַב לְךָ יִשּׁוּבֵי עֵשָׂו וְתוֹלְדוֹתָיו בְּדֶרֶךְ קְצָרָה, שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ סְפוּנִים וַחֲשׁוּבִים לְפָרֵשׁ הֵיאַךְ נִתְיַשְּׁבוּ וְסֵדֶר מִלְחֲמוֹתֵיהֶם אֵיךְ הוֹרִישׁוּ אֶת הַחֹרִי, פֵּרֵשׁ לָךְ יִשּׁוּבֵי יַעֲקֹב וְתוֹלְדוֹתָיו בְּדֶרֶךְ אֲרֻכָּה כָּל גִּלְגּוּלֵי סִבָּתָם, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם חֲשׁוּבִים לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם לְהַאֲרִיךְ בָּהֶם, וְכֵן אַתָּה מוֹצֵא בְּי' דוֹרוֹת שֶׁמֵּאָדָם וְעַד נֹחַ פְּלוֹנִי הוֹלִיד פְּלוֹנִי, וּכְשֶׁבָּא לְנֹחַ הֶאֱרִיךְ בּוֹ, וְכֵן בְּי' דוֹרוֹת שֶׁמִּנֹּחַ וְעַד אַבְרָהָם קִצֵּר בָּהֶם, וּמִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ אֵצֶל אַבְרָהָם הֶאֱרִיךְ בּוֹ. מָשָׁל לְמַרְגָּלִית שֶׁנָּפְלָה בֵּין הַחוֹל, אָדָם מְמַשְׁמֵּשׁ בַּחוֹל וְכוֹבְרוֹ בִּכְבָרָה עַד שֶׁמּוֹצֵא אֶת הַמַּרְגָּלִית, וּמִשֶּׁמְּצָאָהּ הוּא מַשְׁלִיךְ אֶת הַצְּרוֹרוֹת מִיָּדוֹ וְנוֹטֵל הַמַּרְגָּלִית. דָּ"אַ וישב יעקב, הַפִּשְׁתָּנִי הַזֶּה נִכְנְסוּ גְמַלָּיו טְעוּנִים פִּשְׁתָּן, הַפֶּחָמִי תָמַהּ אָנָה יִכָּנֵס כָּל הַפִּשְׁתָּן הַזֶּה? הָיָה פִּקֵּחַ אֶחָד מֵשִׁיב לוֹ נִצּוֹץ אֶחָד יוֹצֵא מִמַּפּוּחַ שֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁשּׂוֹרֵף אֶת כֻּלּוֹ, כָּךְ יַעֲקֹב רָאָה אֶת כָּל הָאַלּוּפִים הַכְּתוּבִים לְמַעְלָה, תָּמַהּ וְאָמַר מִי יָכוֹל לִכְבֹּשׁ אֶת כֻּלָּן? מַה כְּתִיב לְמַטָּה, אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדוֹת יַעֲקֹב יוֹסֵף, דִּכְתִיב וְהָיָה בֵית יַעֲקֹב אֵשׁ וּבֵית יוֹסֵף לֶהָבָה וּבֵית עֵשָׂו לְקַשׁ (עובדיה א') – נִצּוֹץ יוֹצֵא מִיּוֹסֵף שֶׁמְּכַלֶּה וְשׂוֹרֵף אֶת כֻּלָּם:

    (1) וישב יעקב AND JACOB SETTLED — After it (Scripture) has described to you the settlements of Esau and his descendants in a brief manner — since they were not distinguished and important enough that it should be related in detail how they settled down and that there should be given an account of their wars and how they drove out the Horites (see Deuteronomy 2:12) — it explains clearly and at length the settlements made by Jacob and his descendants and all the events which brought these about, because these are regarded by the Omnipresent as of sufficient importance to speak of them at length. Thus, too, you will find that in the case of the ten generations from Adam to Noah it states “So-and-so begat so-and-so”, but when it reaches Noah it deals with him at length. Similarly, of the ten generations from Noah to Abraham it gives but a brief account, but when it comes to Abraham it speaks of him more fully. It may be compared to the case of a jewel that falls into the sand: a man searches in the sand, sifts it in a sieve until he finds the jewel. When he has found it he throws away the pebbles and keeps the jewel (Midrash Tanchuma, Vayeshev 1). Another explanation of וישב יעקב AND JACOB SETTLED: The camels of a flax dealer once came into a city laden with flax. A blacksmith asked in wonder where all that flax could be stored, and a clever fellow answered him, “A single spark caused by your bellows can burn up all of it.” “So, too, when Jacob saw (heard of) all these chiefs whose names are written above he said wonderingly, “Who can conquer all these?” What is written after the names of these chieftains? — and in this may be found the reply to Jacob’s question: These are the generations of Jacob — Joseph. For it is written (Obadiah 1:18) “And the house of Jacob shall be a fire and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau, for straw: one spark issuing from Joseph will burn up all of these (descendants of Esau) (Genesis Rabbah 84:5). The passage beginning “Another explanation” is found in an old Rashi text.

  4. (יח) וְהָיָה֩ בֵית־יַעֲקֹ֨ב אֵ֜שׁ וּבֵ֧ית יוֹסֵ֣ף לֶהָבָ֗ה וּבֵ֤ית עֵשָׂו֙ לְקַ֔שׁ וְדָלְק֥וּ בָהֶ֖ם וַאֲכָל֑וּם וְלֹֽא־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה שָׂרִיד֙ לְבֵ֣ית עֵשָׂ֔ו כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃
    (18) The House of Jacob shall be fire, And the House of Joseph flame, And the House of Esau shall be straw; They shall burn it and devour it, And no survivor shall be left of the House of Esau —for the LORD has spoken.
  5. (כב) וַיִּזְכֹּ֥ר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־רָחֵ֑ל וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ אֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיִּפְתַּ֖ח אֶת־רַחְמָֽהּ׃ (כג) וַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַתֹּ֕אמֶר אָסַ֥ף אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־חֶרְפָּתִֽי׃ (כד) וַתִּקְרָ֧א אֶת־שְׁמ֛וֹ יוֹסֵ֖ף לֵאמֹ֑ר יֹסֵ֧ף יְהוָ֛ה לִ֖י בֵּ֥ן אַחֵֽר׃ (כה) וַיְהִ֕י כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר יָלְדָ֥ה רָחֵ֖ל אֶת־יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יַעֲקֹב֙ אֶל־לָבָ֔ן שַׁלְּחֵ֙נִי֙ וְאֵ֣לְכָ֔ה אֶל־מְקוֹמִ֖י וּלְאַרְצִֽי׃
    (22) Now God remembered Rachel; God heeded her and opened her womb. (23) She conceived and bore a son, and said, “God has taken away my disgrace.” (24) So she named him Joseph, which is to say, “May the LORD add another son for me.” (25) After Rachel had borne Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, “Give me leave to go back to my own homeland.
  6. (א) כאשר ילדה רחל את יוסף. מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד שְׂטָנוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהָיָה בֵית יַעֲקֹב אֵשׁ וּבֵית יוֹסֵף לֶהָבָה וּבֵית עֵשָׂו לְקַשׁ (עובדיה א'), אֵשׁ בְּלֹא לֶהָבָה אֵינוֹ שׁוֹלֵט לְמֵרָחוֹק, מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יוֹסֵף בָּטַח יַעֲקֹב בְּהַקָּבָּ"ה וְרָצָה לָשׁוּב:

    (1) כאשר ילדה רחל את יוסף WHEN RACHEL HAD BORN JOSEPH — after the birth of him who was to become Esau’s adversary (Genesis Rabbah 73:7) — as it is said (Obadiah 1:18) “And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame and the house of Esau for straw“. Fire (Jacob) that has no flame (Joseph) has no effect at a distance. Therefore, when Joseph was born Jacob put his trust in the Holy Blessed One and wished to return home (Obadiah 1:18).

  7. (ז) וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה רָחֵל אֶת יוֹסֵף (בראשית ל, כה),

    כֵּיוָן שֶׁנּוֹלַד יוֹסֵף נוֹלַד שִׂטְנוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ל, כה): וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֶל לָבָן שַׁלְּחֵנִי וְאֵלְכָה אֶל מְקוֹמִי וּלְאַרְצִי,

     

    דְּאָמַר רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן מָסוֹרֶת הִיא שֶׁאֵין עֵשָׂו נוֹפֵל אֶלָּא בְּיַד בָּנֶיהָ שֶׁל רָחֵל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ירמיה מט, כ): אִם לוֹא יִסְחָבוּם צְעִירֵי הַצֹּאן, וְלָמָּה הוּא קוֹרֵא אוֹתָן צְעִירֵי הַצֹּאן, שֶׁהֵם צְעִירִים שֶׁבַּשְּׁבָטִים.

    "And it was when Rachel had given birth to Joseph..." (Gen 30:25)

     

    When Joseph was born, an adversary to Esau was born. As it says (in Gen 30:25), "And Jacob said to Lavan, 'Send me away, and I will go back to my own homeland.'"

     

    As Rabbi Pinchas said in the name of Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman, we have a tradition that Esau will only fall at the hands of the sons of Rachel. As it says (in Jeremiah 42:20), "Surely the shepherd boys will drag them away.." Why are they called 'shepherd boys'? Because they will be the youngest of the tribes. 

  8. (כ) לָכֵ֞ן שִׁמְע֣וּ עֲצַת־יְהוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר יָעַץ֙ אֶל־אֱד֔וֹם וּמַ֨חְשְׁבוֹתָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָשַׁ֖ב אֶל־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י תֵימָ֑ן אִם־לֹ֤א יִסְחָבוּם֙ צְעִירֵ֣י הַצֹּ֔אן אִם־לֹ֥א יַשִּׁ֛ים עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם נְוֵהֶֽם׃
    (20) Hear, then, the plan which the LORD has devised against Edom, and what He has purposed against the inhabitants of Teman: Surely the shepherd boys Shall drag them away; Surely the pasture shall be Aghast because of them.
  9. (א) כי ה' דבר. והיכן דבר (במדבר כ״ד:י״ט) וירד מיעקב והאביד שריד וגו':

    When did "the Lord speak"? In Numbers 24:19: "A victor emerges from Jacob..."

  10. (טו) וַיִּשָּׂ֥א מְשָׁל֖וֹ וַיֹּאמַ֑ר נְאֻ֤ם בִּלְעָם֙ בְּנ֣וֹ בְעֹ֔ר וּנְאֻ֥ם הַגֶּ֖בֶר שְׁתֻ֥ם הָעָֽיִן׃ (טז) נְאֻ֗ם שֹׁמֵ֙עַ֙ אִמְרֵי־אֵ֔ל וְיֹדֵ֖עַ דַּ֣עַת עֶלְי֑וֹן מַחֲזֵ֤ה שַׁדַּי֙ יֶֽחֱזֶ֔ה נֹפֵ֖ל וּגְל֥וּי עֵינָֽיִם׃ (יז) אֶרְאֶ֙נּוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א עַתָּ֔ה אֲשׁוּרֶ֖נּוּ וְלֹ֣א קָר֑וֹב דָּרַ֨ךְ כּוֹכָ֜ב מִֽיַּעֲקֹ֗ב וְקָ֥ם שֵׁ֙בֶט֙ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמָחַץ֙ פַּאֲתֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב וְקַרְקַ֖ר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵֽׁת׃ (יח) וְהָיָ֨ה אֱד֜וֹם יְרֵשָׁ֗ה וְהָיָ֧ה יְרֵשָׁ֛ה שֵׂעִ֖יר אֹיְבָ֑יו וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עֹ֥שֶׂה חָֽיִל׃ (יט) וְיֵ֖רְדְּ מִֽיַּעֲקֹ֑ב וְהֶֽאֱבִ֥יד שָׂרִ֖יד מֵעִֽיר׃

    (15) He took up his theme, and said: Word of Balaam son of Beor, Word of the man whose eye is true, (16) Word of him who hears God’s speech, Who obtains knowledge from the Most High, And beholds visions from the Almighty, Prostrate, but with eyes unveiled: (17) What I see for them is not yet, What I behold will not be soon: A star rises from Jacob, A scepter comes forth from Israel; It smashes the brow of Moab, The foundation of all children of Seth. (18) Edom becomes a possession, Yea, Seir a possession of its enemies; But Israel is triumphant. (19) A victor issues from Jacob To wipe out what is left of the city.

  11. (ב) והאביד שריד מעיר. הַחֲשׁוּבָה שֶׁל אֱדוֹם, הִיא רוֹמִי, וְעַל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ אוֹמֵר כֵּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ "וְיֵרְדְּ מִיָּם עַד יָם" (תהלים ע"ב) "וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שָׂרִיד לְבֵית עֵשָׂו" (עוב' י"ח):
    (2) והאביד שריד מעיר AND HE WILL DESTROY THE REMNANT OF THE CITY — the most important city of Edom, and that is Rome. It is of King Messiah that he is thus speaking, of whom it is said, (Psalms 72:8) “And he shall have dominion (וירד) from sea to sea”; (Obadiah v. 18) “And there shall be no remnant (שריד) of the house of Esau".
  12. סנהדרין ל״ט ב:י״ד-ט״ו

    (עובדיה א, א) חזון עובדיהו כה אמר ה' אלהים לאדום וגו' מאי שנא עובדיה לאדום

     

     

     

     

     

    אמר אפרים מקשאה תלמידו של רבי מאיר משום רבי מאיר עובדיה גר אדומי היה והיינו דאמרי אינשי מיניה וביה אבא ניזיל ביה נרגא

    The verse states: “The vision of Obadiah. So says the Lord God concerning Edom: We have heard a message from the Lord, and an ambassador is sent among the nations: Arise, and let us rise up against her in battle” (Obadiah 1:1). The Gemara asks: What is different, i.e., what is the reason, that specifically Obadiah prophesied concerning Edom? ...

     

    Efrayim Miksha’a, a student of Rabbi Meir, said in the name of Rabbi Meir: Obadiah was an Edomite convert.

     

    As the saying goes: From the forest comes the ax.

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