PRAYER BOOTCAMP: MAHZOR EDITION

Three Types of High Holiday Liturgy

1. Standard Prayers

2. Piyyutim (Sacred Poems)

3. Prayers Unique to the Holiday

a. Insertions/Substitutions

b. Additional Services

Pro-Tip: The Main Action is usually in Musaf

(ח) נִמְצְאוּ הַתְּפִלּוֹת בְּכָל יוֹם שָׁלֹשׁ. עַרְבִית וְשַׁחֲרִית וּמִנְחָה. וּבַשַּׁבָּתוֹת וּבְמוֹעֲדִים וּבְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים אַרְבַּע. שָׁלֹשׁ שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם וּתְפִלַּת הַמּוּסָפִין. וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים חָמֵשׁ. אַרְבַּע אֵלּוּ וּתְפִלַּת נְעִילָה:

Thus there are three daily prayers; namely, the Evening Service (Aravit), the Morning Service (Shacharit) and the Afternoon Service (Mincha). On Sabbaths, Festivals and New Moons, they are four—the three daily services and the Additional Service (Musaf). On the Day of Atonement, they are five services, the four just mentioned and Neilah, the closing service.

Number of Prayers in a Day

1. Weekday: 3

2. Shabbat and Holidays: 4

3. Yom Kippur: 5

(ב) בְּכָל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁבְּכָל יוֹם מִתְפַּלֵּל אָדָם תְּשַׁע עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ עַל הַסֵּדֶר.

(2) In each of the three daily services, a person recites these nineteen blessings in their appointed order.

(ה) וּבְשַׁבָּתוֹת וּבְיָמִים טוֹבִים מִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁבַע בְּרָכוֹת בְּכָל תְּפִלָּה וּתְפִלָּה מֵאַרְבַּע תְּפִלּוֹת שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם. שָׁלֹשׁ רִאשׁוֹנוֹת וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַחֲרוֹנוֹת וּבְרָכָה אֶמְצָעִית מֵעֵין אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם. בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת חוֹתְמִין בִּבְרָכָה אֶמְצָעִית מְקַדֵּשׁ הַשַּׁבָּת. וּבָרְגָלִים חוֹתֵם בָּהּ מְקַדֵּשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַזְּמַנִּים. וְאִם הָיָה שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב חוֹתְמִים בָּהּ מְקַדֵּשׁ הַשַּׁבָּת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַזְּמַנִּים. בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה חוֹתְמִין בָּהּ מֶלֶךְ עַל כָּל הָאָרֶץ מְקַדֵּשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיוֹם הַזִּכָּרוֹן. וְאִם הָיָה שַׁבָּת חוֹתֵם בָּהּ מֶלֶךְ עַל כָּל הָאָרֶץ מְקַדֵּשׁ הַשַּׁבָּת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְיוֹם הַזִּכָּרוֹן:

(5) On Sabbaths and Festivals, seven blessings are recited in each of the four Services for the day; namely, the usual first three blessings, and last three blessings, and an intermediate blessing appropriate to the particular day. On Sabbaths, the intermediate blessing concludes with the formula, "Who sanctifies the Sabbath." On the Festivals it concludes, "Who sanctifies Israel and the Seasons." And on a Sabbath which is at the same time a festival, the concluding formula is, "Who sanctifies the Sabbath, Israel and the Seasons." On New Year, the conclusion is, "King over all the earth, who sanctifies Israel and the Day of Remembrance." When the New Year falls on a Sabbath, the concluding formula is, "King over all the earth, who sanctifies the Sabbath, Israel and the Day of Remembrance."

(ו) בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּתְפִלַּת עַרְבִית וְשַׁחֲרִית וּמִנְחָה. אֲבָל תְּפִלַּת הַמּוּסָפִין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה מִתְפַּלֵּל תֵּשַׁע בְּרָכוֹת שָׁלֹשׁ רִאשׁוֹנוֹת וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַחֲרוֹנוֹת שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם וְשָׁלֹשׁ אֶמְצָעִיּוֹת. רִאשׁוֹנָה מִן הָאֶמְצָעִיּוֹת עִנְיָנָהּ מַלְכֻיּוֹת. שְׁנִיָּה זִכְרוֹנוֹת. שְׁלִישִׁית שׁוֹפָרוֹת. וְחוֹתֵם בְּכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן מֵעִנְיָנָהּ:

(6) The foregoing statement applies to the evening, morning and afternoon services of the New Year. But the additional service on the New Year consists of nine blessings; the first three and the last three recited daily, and three Intermediate. Of these intermediate benedictions, the theme of the first is Kingship; of the second Remembrance; while the third is the Shofar. Each of these blessings concludes with a formula appropriate to its theme.

Number of Blessings in an Amidah:

1. Weekday: 19 (18+1)

2. Shabbat and Holidays: 7

3. Rosh Hashanah Mussaf: 9

(first three and last three are always the same)

(ה) סֵדֶר בְּרָכוֹת, אוֹמֵר אָבוֹת וּגְבוּרוֹת וּקְדֻשַּׁת הַשֵּׁם, וְכוֹלֵל מַלְכוּיוֹת עִמָּהֶן, וְאֵינוֹ תוֹקֵעַ. קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם, וְתוֹקֵעַ. זִכְרוֹנוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. שׁוֹפָרוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. וְאוֹמֵר עֲבוֹדָה וְהוֹדָאָה וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אִם אֵינוֹ תוֹקֵעַ לַמַּלְכוּיוֹת, לָמָּה הוּא מַזְכִּיר. אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר אָבוֹת וּגְבוּרוֹת וּקְדֻשַּׁת הַשֵּׁם, וְכוֹלֵל מַלְכוּיוֹת עִם קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם, וְתוֹקֵעַ. זִכְרוֹנוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. שׁוֹפָרוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. וְאוֹמֵר עֲבוֹדָה וְהוֹדָאָה וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים:

(5) The order of blessings [in the Musaf Amidah of Rosh Hashanah]: One says [the first blessing] “Ancestors”, [the second blessing] “God's Might,” and [the third blessing] “Holiness of God's Name” and includes the Kingship verses with them and does not blow [the shofar]. Then [the fourth blessing] "The Holiness of the Day" and blows [the shofar], [the fifth blessing with] "Remembrance" and blows [the shofar], and [sixth blessing] "Shofar" and blows [the shofar]. Then one says the [seventh] blessing, "Temple service and [the eighth blessing,] “Thanksgiving” and the Blessing of the Priests - these are the words of Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri. Rabbi Akiva said to him: if one does not blow the shofar for Kingship, why would one even say it? Rather one says: “Ancestors”, “God's Might” and the “Holiness of God's Name” and includes Kingship with the Holiness of the Day and blows the Shofar, then one says Rememberance and blows, and then Shofar and blows. Then he says the Temple service and “Thanksgiving” and the Blessing of the Priests.

(ו) אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מֵעֲשָׂרָה מַלְכוּיוֹת, מֵעֲשָׂרָה זִכְרוֹנוֹת, מֵעֲשָׂרָה שׁוֹפָרוֹת. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, אִם אָמַר שָׁלשׁ שָׁלשׁ מִכֻּלָּן, יָצָא. אֵין מַזְכִּירִין זִכָּרוֹן מַלְכוּת וְשׁוֹפָר שֶׁל פֻּרְעָנוּת. מַתְחִיל בַּתּוֹרָה וּמַשְׁלִים בַּנָּבִיא. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִם הִשְׁלִים בַּתּוֹרָה, יָצָא:

(6) They do not recite less than ten kingship [verses], ten remembrance [verses], and ten shofar [verses]. Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri says: if he said three from each set he has fulfilled his obligation. They do not mention kingship, remembrance and shofar verses of punishment. One begins with [verses] from the Torah and concludes with [verses] from the prophets. Rabbi Yose says: if he concludes with [a verse] from the Torah he has fulfilled his obligation.

Structure of Rosh Hashanah Mussaf

First three Blessings:

1. Avot (the Ancestors), 2. Gevurot (God's Might), 3. Kedushat HaShem (The Holiness of God's Name)

Middle Three Blessings:

4. Malchuyot (Kingship, in Kedushat HaYom, The Holiness of the Day)

3 מלך verses from Torah, 3 מלך Verses from Writings, 3 מלך ה erses from Prophets, 1 more מלך verse from Torah

5. Zichronot

3 זכר verses from Torah, 3 זכר Verses from Writings, 3 זכר Verses from Prophets, 1 more זכר verse from Torah

6. Shofarot

3 שפר verses from Torah, 3 שפר Verses from Writings, 3 שפר Verses from Prophets, 1 more שפר verse from Torah

Last Three Blessings:

7. Avodah (Temple Service)

8. Modim (Thanksgiving)

9. Shalom (Peace)