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Haftorah Nitzavim VaYeilech 5780

Isaiah 61:10 - 63:9

Source Sheet by Michael Stein
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Created September 7, 2020 · 21 Views נוצר 7 September, 2020 · 21 צפיות

    This week's haftorah is the last of the Shivah D'Nechemta, the seven hafarot of consolation from 9 Av to Rosh Hashana, all from the last half of Isaiah. 


    This haftorah opens with passages in which it is difficult to identify the speaker. We have various traditions in this regard, and there is no definitive correct answer. When you read a verse spoken in the first person, ask yourself, "Who is talking to whom?"


    It seems like the imagery of this haftorah, more that those of prior weeks, presents God's redemption of the people and of the land as imminent. Perhaps it is following up on the closing words of last week's haftorah, "I will hurry it along in the right time." In this sense, it is a fitting way to conclude the Shiva D'Nechemta.



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    (י) שׂ֧וֹשׂ אָשִׂ֣ישׂ בַּֽיהוָ֗ה תָּגֵ֤ל נַפְשִׁי֙ בֵּֽאלֹהַ֔י כִּ֤י הִלְבִּישַׁ֙נִי֙ בִּגְדֵי־יֶ֔שַׁע מְעִ֥יל צְדָקָ֖ה יְעָטָ֑נִי כֶּֽחָתָן֙ יְכַהֵ֣ן פְּאֵ֔ר וְכַכַּלָּ֖ה תַּעְדֶּ֥ה כֵלֶֽיהָ׃ (יא) כִּ֤י כָאָ֙רֶץ֙ תּוֹצִ֣יא צִמְחָ֔הּ וּכְגַנָּ֖ה זֵרוּעֶ֣יהָ תַצְמִ֑יחַ כֵּ֣ן ׀ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה יַצְמִ֤יחַ צְדָקָה֙ וּתְהִלָּ֔ה נֶ֖גֶד כָּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם׃ (א) לְמַ֤עַן צִיּוֹן֙ לֹ֣א אֶחֱשֶׁ֔ה וּלְמַ֥עַן יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם לֹ֣א אֶשְׁק֑וֹט עַד־יֵצֵ֤א כַנֹּ֙גַהּ֙ צִדְקָ֔הּ וִישׁוּעָתָ֖הּ כְּלַפִּ֥יד יִבְעָֽר׃ (ב) וְרָא֤וּ גוֹיִם֙ צִדְקֵ֔ךְ וְכָל־מְלָכִ֖ים כְּבוֹדֵ֑ךְ וְקֹ֤רָא לָךְ֙ שֵׁ֣ם חָדָ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר פִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה יִקֳּבֶֽנּוּ׃ (ג) וְהָיִ֛יתְ עֲטֶ֥רֶת תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת בְּיַד־יְהוָ֑ה וצנוף [וּצְנִ֥יף] מְלוּכָ֖ה בְּכַף־אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    (ד) לֹֽא־יֵאָמֵר֩ לָ֨ךְ ע֜וֹד עֲזוּבָ֗ה וּלְאַרְצֵךְ֙ לֹא־יֵאָמֵ֥ר עוֹד֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה כִּ֣י לָ֗ךְ יִקָּרֵא֙ חֶפְצִי־בָ֔הּ וּלְאַרְצֵ֖ךְ בְּעוּלָ֑ה כִּֽי־חָפֵ֤ץ יְהוָה֙ בָּ֔ךְ וְאַרְצֵ֖ךְ תִּבָּעֵֽל׃ (ה) כִּֽי־יִבְעַ֤ל בָּחוּר֙ בְּתוּלָ֔ה יִבְעָל֖וּךְ בָּנָ֑יִךְ וּמְשׂ֤וֹשׂ חָתָן֙ עַל־כַּלָּ֔ה יָשִׂ֥ישׂ עָלַ֖יִךְ אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃

     

     

     

     

     

    (ו) עַל־חוֹמֹתַ֣יִךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם הִפְקַ֙דְתִּי֙ שֹֽׁמְרִ֔ים כָּל־הַיּ֧וֹם וְכָל־הַלַּ֛יְלָה תָּמִ֖יד לֹ֣א יֶחֱשׁ֑וּ הַמַּזְכִּרִים֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה אַל־דֳּמִ֖י לָכֶֽם׃ (ז) וְאַֽל־תִּתְּנ֥וּ דֳמִ֖י ל֑וֹ עַד־יְכוֹנֵ֞ן וְעַד־יָשִׂ֧ים אֶת־יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֛ם תְּהִלָּ֖ה בָּאָֽרֶץ׃

     

     

     

     

    (ח) נִשְׁבַּ֧ע יְהוָ֛ה בִּֽימִינ֖וֹ וּבִזְר֣וֹעַ עֻזּ֑וֹ אִם־אֶתֵּן֩ אֶת־דְּגָנֵ֨ךְ ע֤וֹד מַֽאֲכָל֙ לְאֹ֣יְבַ֔יִךְ וְאִם־יִשְׁתּ֤וּ בְנֵֽי־נֵכָר֙ תִּֽירוֹשֵׁ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָגַ֖עַתְּ בּֽוֹ׃ (ט) כִּ֤י מְאַסְפָיו֙ יֹאכְלֻ֔הוּ וְהִֽלְל֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֑ה וּֽמְקַבְּצָ֥יו יִשְׁתֻּ֖הוּ בְּחַצְר֥וֹת קָדְשִֽׁי׃ (ס)

     

     

     

     

     

    (י) עִבְר֤וּ עִבְרוּ֙ בַּשְּׁעָרִ֔ים פַּנּ֖וּ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הָעָ֑ם סֹ֣לּוּ סֹ֤לּוּ הַֽמְסִלָּה֙ סַקְּל֣וּ מֵאֶ֔בֶן הָרִ֥ימוּ נֵ֖ס עַל־הָעַמִּֽים׃ (יא) הִנֵּ֣ה יְהוָ֗ה הִשְׁמִ֙יעַ֙ אֶל־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ אִמְרוּ֙ לְבַת־צִיּ֔וֹן הִנֵּ֥ה יִשְׁעֵ֖ךְ בָּ֑א הִנֵּ֤ה שְׂכָרוֹ֙ אִתּ֔וֹ וּפְעֻלָּת֖וֹ לְפָנָֽיו׃ (יב) וְקָרְא֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם עַם־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ גְּאוּלֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וְלָךְ֙ יִקָּרֵ֣א דְרוּשָׁ֔ה עִ֖יר לֹ֥א נֶעֱזָֽבָה׃ (ס)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    (א) מִי־זֶ֣ה ׀ בָּ֣א מֵאֱד֗וֹם חֲמ֤וּץ בְּגָדִים֙ מִבָּצְרָ֔ה זֶ֚ה הָד֣וּר בִּלְבוּשׁ֔וֹ צֹעֶ֖ה בְּרֹ֣ב כֹּח֑וֹ אֲנִ֛י מְדַבֵּ֥ר בִּצְדָקָ֖ה רַ֥ב לְהוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃ (ב) מַדּ֥וּעַ אָדֹ֖ם לִלְבוּשֶׁ֑ךָ וּבְגָדֶ֖יךָ כְּדֹרֵ֥ךְ בְּגַֽת׃ (ג) פּוּרָ֣ה ׀ דָּרַ֣כְתִּי לְבַדִּ֗י וּמֵֽעַמִּים֙ אֵֽין־אִ֣ישׁ אִתִּ֔י וְאֶדְרְכֵ֣ם בְּאַפִּ֔י וְאֶרְמְסֵ֖ם בַּחֲמָתִ֑י וְיֵ֤ז נִצְחָם֙ עַל־בְּגָדַ֔י וְכָל־מַלְבּוּשַׁ֖י אֶגְאָֽלְתִּי׃ (ד) כִּ֛י י֥וֹם נָקָ֖ם בְּלִבִּ֑י וּשְׁנַ֥ת גְּאוּלַ֖י בָּֽאָה׃ (ה) וְאַבִּיט֙ וְאֵ֣ין עֹזֵ֔ר וְאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵ֖ם וְאֵ֣ין סוֹמֵ֑ךְ וַתּ֤וֹשַֽׁע לִי֙ זְרֹעִ֔י וַחֲמָתִ֖י הִ֥יא סְמָכָֽתְנִי׃ (ו) וְאָב֤וּס עַמִּים֙ בְּאַפִּ֔י וַאֲשַׁכְּרֵ֖ם בַּחֲמָתִ֑י וְאוֹרִ֥יד לָאָ֖רֶץ נִצְחָֽם׃ (ס)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    (ז) חַֽסְדֵ֨י יְהוָ֤ה ׀ אַזְכִּיר֙ תְּהִלֹּ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה כְּעַ֕ל כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־גְּמָלָ֖נוּ יְהוָ֑ה וְרַב־טוּב֙ לְבֵ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־גְּמָלָ֥ם כְּֽרַחֲמָ֖יו וּכְרֹ֥ב חֲסָדָֽיו׃ (ח) וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַךְ־עַמִּ֣י הֵ֔מָּה בָּנִ֖ים לֹ֣א יְשַׁקֵּ֑רוּ וַיְהִ֥י לָהֶ֖ם לְמוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃ (ט) בְּֽכָל־צָרָתָ֣ם ׀ לא [ל֣וֹ] צָ֗ר וּמַלְאַ֤ךְ פָּנָיו֙ הֽוֹשִׁיעָ֔ם בְּאַהֲבָת֥וֹ וּבְחֶמְלָת֖וֹ ה֣וּא גְאָלָ֑ם וַֽיְנַטְּלֵ֥ם וַֽיְנַשְּׂאֵ֖ם כָּל־יְמֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם׃

    THE FIRST VERSE SEEMS TO BE JERUSALEM OR THE LAND OF ZION SPEAKING, CLEARLY IMAGINING THE PROMISE OF REDEMPTION FROM ALL OF OUR RECENT HAFTAROT AS IMMINENTLY COMING TO PASS. AFTER THAT, IT SEEMS TO BE THE PROPHET SPEAKING. THERE ARE SEVERAL POINTS IN THIS HAFTORAH WHERE THE SUBJECT SEEMS TO MOVE BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN (VARIOUSLY) THE PROPHET, GOD, ZION, JERUSALEM AND THE PEOPLE. 


    NOTE THE FOCUS ON CLOTHING, PARTICULARLY HEADWEAR, PERHAPS CELEBRATING A WEDDING. THE OPENING LINE HAS BECOME ONE OF OUR SHEVA BRACHOT AT A WEDDING. AND NOTE THE FOCUS ON RIGHTEOUSNESS.


    (10) I greatly rejoice in the LORD, My whole being exults in my God. For He has clothed me with garments of triumph, Wrapped me in a robe of victory, Like a bridegroom adorned with a turban, Like a bride bedecked with her finery. (11) For as the earth brings forth her growth And a garden makes the seed shoot up, So the Lord GOD will make Victory and renown shoot up In the presence of all the nations. (1) For the sake of Zion I will not be silent, For the sake of Jerusalem I will not be still, Till her victory emerge resplendent And her triumph like a flaming torch. (2) Nations shall see your victory, And every king your majesty; And you shall be called by a new name Which the LORD Himself shall bestow. (3) You shall be a glorious crown In the hand of the LORD, And a royal diadem In the palm of your God.


    WE TURN TO AN IMAGE OF THE NEWLY RETURNED PEOPLE CULTIVATING THE LAND AGAIN, AS IN AN ACT OF MARRIAGE. THOUGH THE IMAGE IS COMPLEX, WHERE BOTH WE AND GOD ARE PRESENTED AS THE GROOM WHILE THE LAND IS THE BRIDE.


    (4) Nevermore shall you be called “Forsaken,” Nor shall your land be called “Desolate”; But you shall be called “I delight in her,” And your land “Espoused.” For the LORD takes delight in you, And your land shall be espoused. (5) As a youth espouses a maiden, Your sons shall espouse you; And as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride, So will your God rejoice over you.


    AN IMAGE OF THE HERALDS CALLING OUT THE COMING REDEMPTION.


    (6) Upon your walls, O Jerusalem, I have set watchmen, Who shall never be silent By day or by night. O you, the LORD’s remembrancers, Take no rest (7) And give no rest to Him, Until He establish Jerusalem And make her renowned on earth.


    GOD'S OATH TO DELIVER US FROM OUR ENEMIES.


    (8) The LORD has sworn by His right hand, By His mighty arm: Nevermore will I give your new grain To your enemies for food, Nor shall foreigners drink the new wine For which you have labored. (9) But those who harvest it shall eat it And give praise to the LORD; And those who gather it shall drink it In My sacred courts.


    BACK TO THE HERALDS ANNOUNCING GOD'S ARRIVAL


    (10) Pass through, pass through the gates! Clear the road for the people; Build up, build up the highway, Remove the rocks! Raise an ensign over the peoples! (11) See, the LORD has proclaimed To the end of the earth: Announce to Fair Zion, Your Deliverer is coming! See, his reward is with Him, His recompense before Him. (12) And they shall be called, “The Holy People, The Redeemed of the LORD,” And you shall be called, “Sought Out, A City Not Forsaken.”


    GOD IS COMING AS A VICTORIOUS WARRIOR WHO FOUGHT ALONE, COVERED IN THE BLOOD OF OUR ENEMIES.


    (1) Who is this coming from Edom, In crimsoned garments from Bozrah— Who is this, majestic in attire, Pressing forward in His great might? “It is I, who contend victoriously, Powerful to give triumph.” (2) Why is your clothing so red, Your garments like his who treads grapes? (3) “I trod out a vintage alone; Of the peoples no man was with Me. I trod them down in My anger, Trampled them in My rage; Their life-blood bespattered My garments, And all My clothing was stained. (4) For I had planned a day of vengeance, And My year of redemption arrived. (5) Then I looked, but there was none to help; I stared, but there was none to aid— So My own arm wrought the triumph, And My own rage was My aid. (6) I trampled peoples in My anger, I made them drunk with My rage, And I hurled their glory to the ground.”


    THE PROPHET EXPRESSES HIS HOPE TO BE ANNOUNCING THE REDEMPTION, PERHAPS AS IF HE WERE ONE OF THE AFOREMENTIONED HERALDS.


    (7) I will recount the kind acts of the LORD, The praises of the LORD— For all that the LORD has wrought for us, The vast bounty to the House of Israel That He bestowed upon them According to His mercy and His great kindness. (8) He thought: Surely they are My people, Children who will not play false. So He was their Deliverer. (9) In all their troubles He was troubled, And the angel of His Presence delivered them. In His love and pity He Himself redeemed them, Raised them, and exalted them All the days of old.

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